Grammar

非谓语动
非谓语动词功能比较 to do的复合结构 do的复合结构 form的复合结构 -ing form的复合结构 非谓语动词的否定式 -ing form 与 pp 的区别 by liu xiaoyu
动词不定式的基本形式
主动语态 一般式 进行式 完成式
to do to be doing
被动语态
to be done
to have done to have been done
不定式与谓语同时发生 不定式比谓语先发生
进行式 完成式

  1.He is too young to have seen the old society.
  2.The book is said to have been translated into Russian. 更多资源xiti1
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  3.Come, I am supposed to be calling you to lunch.
  4.You are too young to be meeting young man.
ing-form 的基本形式
主动语态 一般式 doing
被动语态 being done having been done
完成式 having done
ing-form与/比谓语的动作同时、先发生、后发生 与 比谓语的动作同时 先发生、 比谓语的动作同时、 一般式 ing-form比谓语的动作先发生 完成式(强调先后关系) 比谓语的动作先发生 完成式(强调先后关系)

  1.Going down town I met a friend. 同时
  2.Martin insisted on going to work in spite of his illness. 后
  3.I shall never forget seeing the Great Wall for the first time. 先

  4.Allan repented having shot the bird. 先
  5.Having noted down her name,the man went away. 先
非谓语动词功能比较
主 语 to do -ing form pp
表 语
宾 语
定 语
补 语
状 语
主语、表语、 主语、表语、宾语

  1. to do 表示具体的动作,-ing form表示泛指的动作。
eg.I like skating,but I don’t like to skate today. Playing with fire is dangerous. Look out!To play with fire is dangerous.
  2.“there is no +主语”句型中,多用-ing form. eg.There is no joking about such matters.
定语

  1.从时态上看,-ing form表示正在进行的动作 pp表示已经完成的动作,to do表示将来的动作。
eg.He attends the meeting being held in the room now. He attended the meeting held yesterday. He will attend the meeting to be held tomorrow.

  2.表示被修饰词的内容时, 用to do. eg.She has a strong wish to go to college.
补语
-ing form与宾语为主动关系,强调动作正在进行; pp与宾语为被动关系,强调动作已经完成; to do只单纯表示一个事实,强调动作的全过程。
eg. I found him cooking supper. I found supper cooked when I got home. It is true ? I saw Henry cook supper.
作状语时的区别: 作状语时的区别:
-ing form,pp表示时间、原因、条件、方式、伴随情况等等 表示时间、 表示时间 原因、条件、方式、伴随情况等等, to do表示 目的 表示
  1.目的 表示 目的;
  2.结果 表示出人预料的情况或结果。常用only强调。 结果?表示出人预料的情况或结果。常用 强调。 结果 表示出人预料的情况或结果 强调
  3.原因 表示造成情感变化的原因。 原因?表示造成情感变化的原因 原因 表示造成情感变化的原因。
eg.they worked hard to pay for the necklace. 目的 I went to see him only to find him out. 结果 I am glad to see you.
原因
非谓语动词的否定形式
Not + to do / -ing form
He decided not to do it. She wished never to see him again. I fancy it has done you a lot of good not going. Not seeing John,I asked where he was. Not having done it right, I tried again.
-ing form 与 pp 的区别
form表示主动 正在进行,pp表示被动, 表示主动, ,pp表示被动 -ing form表示主动,正在进行,pp表示被动,已经完成 作表语时或定语时, 表示“ 作表语时或定语时,-ing form表示“令人” ,pp表 表示 令人” 表 感到” 常见的有下列感官动词: 示“感到”,常见的有下列感官动词: move ,surprise,astonish,delight,comfort,disappoint, puzzle,frighten 作宾补时, 作宾补时,比较对象为宾语 作定语时, 作定语时,比较对象为被修饰词 作状语时, 作状语时,比较对象为句中主语

  1.The story was ,we were all . A.moving,moving B.moved,moved C.moving,moved D.moved,moving

  2.There is a expression on his face.Maybe the problem is too difficult for him. A.puzzled B.puzzling C.puzzle D.to puzzle
  3.With his son too, the father was sad. A.disappointed B.disappointing
  4.She let out a voice and we ran to her hurriedly. A.frightened B.frightening

  1.I could feel the wind on my face from an open window. A.to blow B.blowing C.blown D.to be blowing
  2.We’ll meet Mr.Black, as a famous scientist. A.knowing B.to be known C.known D.being known
  3. more time, we could do it better. A.Giving B.To give C.Given D.To be given
  4.A young man __ novels came to us yesterday. A.to write B.writing C.written D.wrote
  5.All the things,his proposal is of greater value than yours. A.considered B.considering C.consider D.to consider
  6.__Sunday, the students are at home. A.Being B.To be C.It is D.It being
to do的复合结构 do的复合结构

  1.for sb. to do sth.
  2.of sb. to do sth.
→sb.is/are adj.to do sth. 常见的形容词有:good=nice/bad, kind/cruel=rude, clever=wise/stupid=silly, right /wrong,sensible
form的复合结构 ing form的复合结构
?主语
  1.形容词性物主代词/名词所有格+ing form →表语
  2.代词宾格/名词+ing form →宾语 ?宾语
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Nov.2004
说出To do动作的执行者时,须用复合结构

  1.To do the job is impossible. =It is impossible to do the job. ?For a child to do the job is…
  2.It is necessary to study a foreign language. ?It is necessary for students to study a…
  3.To do such a thing is stupid. =It is stupid to do such a thing. ?It is stupid of you to do such a thing. ?You are stupid to do such a thing.
  4.It is wrong to tell a lie. ?It is wrong of him to tell a lie. ?He is wrong to tell a lie.
说出- form动作的执行者时 动作的执行者时, 说出-ing form动作的执行者时,须用复合结构
  1.Do you mind opening the door? →Do you mind me/my opening …
  2.Going there saved us a good deal of trouble. →Tom’s going there saved us a good …
  3.Being late again made the teacher angry. →His being late again made…

  1.Crossing the street,he was knocked down by a bus. 时间
  2.Being sick I stayed at home. 原因
  3.Seen in the light, it is not as serious as people suppose.条件
  4.Knowing all this, they made me pay for the damage. 让步
  5.He sat in the armchair,reading the newspaper. 伴随

  6.The train spent too much time stopped, waiting for the other trains. 伴随
 

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