高中英语非谓语动词用法对比讲篇 高中英语非谓语动词用法对比讲篇
知识要点: 一、不定式与动名词做主语: 动名词做主语往往表示普通的、 一般的行为, 不定式做主语常表示某次具体的行为。 例如:
  1、 Collecting information about children’s health is his job. 收集有关儿童健康的信息是他的 工作。 It’s necessary to discuss the problem with an experienced teacher. 与一位有经验的老师 讨论这个问题是有必要的。
  2、常用不定式做主语的句型有: (
  1)It’s difficult (important, necessary) for sb. to do (
  2)It’s kind (good, friendly, polite, careless, rude, cruel, clever, foolish, brave)of sb. to do.
  3、常用动名词做主语的句型有: It’s no good (use, fun) doing. It’s (a) waste of time one’s doing. It’s worth while doing. 二、不定式、动名词、分词做表语:
  1、不定式做表语常表示谓语动词所表示动作之后发生的动作。 His teaching aim of this class is to train the students’ speaking ability. 他这节课的教学 目的是要训练学生说的能力。 动名词做表语是对主语内容的解释, 这时主语与表语位置可以互换, 动名词常用于口语中。
  2、 Its full-time job is laying eggs. 它的(指蚁后)的专职工作是产卵。
  3、现在分词做表语表示主语的性质与特征;进行时表示正在进行的动作。 The task of this class is practising the idioms. (现在分词做表语) With the help of the teacher, the students are practising the idioms. (现在进行时)
  4、常用作表语的现在分词有:interesting, amusing, disappointing, missing, puzzling, exciting, inspiring, following 等。现在分词表示进行与主动。 The joke is amusing .这笑话很逗人。 The problem is puzzling. 这个问题令人不解。
  5、过去分词作表语表示主语所处的被动状态或完成某动作的状态。而被动语态表示主语所承 受的动作。 The village is surrounded by high mountains.(过去分词做表语) The enemy was surrounded by the Red Army.(被动语态) He is well educated.(过去分词做表语) He has been educated in this college for three years.(被动语态) 常用在句中做表语的过去分词有: used, closed, covered, interested, followed, satisfied, surrounded, done, lost, decided, prepared, saved, shut, won, completed, crowded, dressed, wasted, broken, married, unexpected 等。
  6、注意如下动词的现在分词与过去分词用法不同: interest(使…感兴趣),surprise(使…吃惊),frighten(使…害怕),excite(使…兴奋), tire(使…疲劳),please(使…满意),puzzle(使…迷惑不解),satisfy(使…满意),
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amuse(使…娱乐),disappoint(使…失望),inspire(使…欢欣鼓舞),worry(使…忧虑) 它们的现在分词常修饰物(有时修饰人),表示主动,过去分词常修饰人,表示被动(包括 某人的 look、voice 等)。例如: Climbing is tiring. 爬山很累人。 They are very tired. 他们很疲劳 After hearing the exciting news, he gave a speech in an excited voice. 三、不定式与动名词做宾语:
  1、下列动词跟不定式做宾语: want, wish, hope, expect, ask, pretend, care, decide, happen, long, offer, refuse, fail, plan, prepare, order, cause, afford, beg, manage, agree, promise 等。
  2、在下列动词或动词短语后用动名词做宾语: enjoy, finish, suggest, avoid, excuse, delay, imagine, keep, miss, appreciate, be busy, be worth, feel like, can’t stand, can’t help, think of, dream of, be fond of, prevent…(from), keep…from, stop…(from), protect…from, set about, be engaged in, spend…(in), succeed in, be used to, look forward to, object to, pay attention to, insist on 等。
  3、在 forget, remember, stop, regret, try, mean 等动词后跟不定式与动名词意义不同,不定式 表示谓语动词之后的动作,而动名词表示的动作发生在谓语动词之前,常用一般式 doing 代替完成式 having done. He forgot to tell me to post the letter.(他忘了叫我发信。) I shall never forget finding that rare stamp on an ordinary envelope. 我永远也忘不了在 一个普通信封上发现了那枚珍贵的邮票。 Remember to write to us when you get there. 到那里,记得给我们写信。 I don’t remember meeting him. 我不记得见过他。 I regret to tell you that I can’t go to your birth-day party. 我很遗憾告诉你我不能去参加 你的生日晚会了。 They regretted agreeing to the plan. 他们后悔同意这个计划。 He tried to pretend to share in the pleasure with his friend. 他尽力假装与朋友分享欢乐。 She tried reading a novel, but that couldn’t make her forget her sorrow. 她试着看看小 说,但也不能使她忘记伤心事。 I didn’t mean to hurt you. 我没有企图伤害你。 A friend indeed means helping others for nothing in return. 真正的朋友意指不图回报地 帮助别人。
  4、动名词作 need, want, require, be worth 的宾语时,用主动式代替被动式。 The washing-machine needs repairing. 或用: ( needs to be repaired) 这台洗衣机需要修理。 The point wants referring to. 这一点要提到。 This English novel is worth reading. 这本英文小说值得一读。 The situation in Russian required studying. 俄国形式需要研究。 四、不定式与分词在句中做宾语补足语:
  1、以下动词后跟不定式做宾语补足语: ask, tell, beg, allow, want, like, hate, force, invite, persuade, advise, order, cause, encourage, wait for, call on, permit, forbid The doctor advised him to stay in bed for another few days. 医生嘱咐他再卧床休息几天。 We wish him to remain and accept the post. 我们希望他留下来接受这个职位。(注意 hope 后不跟不定式做宾补。)
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  2、有些动词后的复合宾语用不带“to“的不定式,这些动词有:see, watch, notice, hear, feel, make, let, have 等。例如: We noticed him enter the house. 我们留意到他进了那所房子。 The boss made them work twelve hours a day. 老板让他们一天干 12 小时工作。 注意当 make、have 不做“迫使、让”讲,而做“制造、有”解时,跟带有 to 的不定式做状语。 Mother made a cake to celebrate his birthday. 妈妈做了一个蛋糕给他庆贺生日。 He had a meeting to attend. 他有个会要开。
  3、下列动词后的复合宾语用分词做宾补:see, watch, notice, observe, hear, feel, make, set, have, leave, keep, find 等。 用现在分词还是用过去分词做宾补, 要看分词与宾语的关系。 例: We heard him singing the song when we came in. 当我们进来的时候,听见他正唱那首歌。 We have heard the song sung twice. 我们听过这首歌唱过两遍了。 五、非谓语动词做定语:
  1、不定式做定语放在所修饰的名词后,表示在谓语动词之后发生的动作或过去的某一特定动 作。例如: He had no house to live in but a lot of work to do. 他没有房子住却有好多活要干。 Our monitor is the first to arrive. 我们班长是第一个到的。
  2、动名词与现在分词做定语的区别: 动名词做定语说明所修饰名词的用途;现在分词做定语,表示所修饰名词进行的动作。 a walking stick 拐杖(动名词做定语,意为 a stick for walking) a sleeping car 卧铺车厢(动名词做定语,意为 a car for sleeping) the rising sun 正在升起的太阳(现在分词做定语,意为 the sun which was rising) the changing world 变化中的世界(现在分词做定语,意为 the world which is changing)
  3、现在分词与过去分词做定语的区别:过去分词做定语表示完成或被动的动作,现在分词做 定语表示主动或进行的动作。如: a piece of disappointing news 使人失望的消息 (意同 a piece of news which disappointed us) in the following years 在后来的几年中(意同 in the years that followed) a well dressed woman 衣着讲究的女士(意同 a woman who is dressed well) a car parked at the gate 停在门口的小汽车(意同 a car which was parked at the gate) 六、不定式与分词做状语:
  1、不定式做状语,只表示目的、结果或原因: He hurried home only to find his money stolen. 他匆忙赶到家中, 发现钱被盗了。 (结果状语) To make himself heard, he raised his voice. 为了被听清楚,他提高了嗓门。(目的状语) All of us are surprised to see his rapid progress. 看到他的进步,我们都很吃惊。(原因状语)
  2、分词做状语可表示时间、条件、原因、伴随、让步、方式: Seen from the top of the hill, the town is beautiful. 从山上看,这座城市很美。(条件状语) Coming into the room, he found his father angry. 当走进房间时,他发现父亲生气了。(时间状 语) Being tired, they went on working. 虽然累了,但他们继续工作。(让步状语) Having been hit by the big boy on the nose, the little boy began to cry. 由于被大孩子打了鼻 子,那个小男孩哭了。(原因状语) He put a finger in his mouth, tasted it and smiled, looking rather pleased. 他把一个手指放进嘴 里,尝了尝,笑了,看起来挺高兴。(伴随状语)
领胜教育赠读
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非谓语动词题型讲解
非谓语动词是高中语法的重点,也是难点,学生常常对此感到头疼。其实只要理解并掌握非 谓语动词各种形式的特点,做起题来会很轻松。我们先来看看非谓语动词的各种变化形式。 熟悉知道了非谓语动词形式后,做题时可分四步分析。 一、分析句子结构
  1. many times , but he still couldn't understand it .
  2. many times , he still couldn't understand it . A. Having been told . B. Told C. He was told D. Though he had been told
  3. to the left , you'll find the post office .
  4. If you to the left , you'll find the post office .
  5. to the left , and you'll find the post office . A. Turning B. To turn C. Turn D. Turned 分析:句
  1. 用连词 but 引导并列句子,因此,前面也是个独立句子成分,故选 C。 句
  2. 句中用逗号隔开,且无连词引导,因此,前面不是句子结构,只是句子的一个成分,故 选 A,用非谓语动词作状语。 句
  3. 同句
  2,选 A 。 句
  4. 前面用 if 引导从句,故选 C ,构成从句谓语。 句
  5. 同句
  1,选 C。 二、分析逻辑主语 确定要选非谓语动词之后,第二步要分析其逻辑主语。非谓语动词虽不能作谓语,但仍具有 动词特点,其逻辑上的动作执行者就叫做逻辑主语。非谓语动词作状语时,其逻辑主语须和 句子的真正主语一致。若不一致,则须加上自己的逻辑主语。
  1. no buses , we have to walk home . A. There being B. It were C. There were D. It being
  2. Sunday I shall have a quiet day at home . 分析:句
  1. 表示"没有公共汽车",应用"there be"结构,即逻辑主语是"there",故选 A 。 句
  2. 同理选 D。 三、分析语态 分析语态就是在确定逻辑主语之后,分析非谓语动词和逻辑主语在搭配使用时是主动还是被 动关系。
  1. from space , the earth looks blue .
  2.from space , we can see the earth is blue . A. Seen B. Seeing C. To see D.See 这两个题选项中的非谓语动词都没有加自己的逻辑主语, 因此其逻辑主语就是句子的主语。 分析:句
  1. "地球"被"看起来",表被动,故选 A,用过去分词表被动。 句
  2. 我们"主动看......"即表主动,故选 B。
  3. The dirty clothes , the girl hung them up outside .
  4. the dirty clothes ,the girl hung them up outside . A. was washed B. washed C.were washed D.having washed 分析:句
  3. 前面应用非谓语动词作句子的状语,逻辑主语是"the dirty clothes",和动词搭配 表示"衣服被洗",故选 B。 句
  4. 逻辑主语为句子的主语"the girl",表示"女孩洗衣服",为主动关系,故选 D。 四、分析时态,在选定了主动或被动后,还要考虑动作发生的时间问题,即时态。
  1. The building now will be a restaurant .
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  2. The building next year will be a restaurant .
  3. The building last year is a restaurant. A. having been built B.to be built C.being built D. built 句 1 中 now 说明大楼正在被修,故用进行式,选 C。 句 2 中 next year 说明大楼将在明年被修,故用表将来的不定式,选 B。 句 3 中 last year 说明大楼已被修,但不能选,因为现在分词的完成式不能作定语,故用过去 分词,选 D。 又如:
  1. He stood therefor his mother .
  2. for two hours , he went away . A. waiting B. to wait C. waited D.Having waited 句 1 表示"站在那等",两个动词同时发生,故选 A 作伴随状语。 句 2 表示已经等了两个小时,发生在谓语动词"went away "之前,故用完成式,选 D 。 需要注意的是,非谓语动词的否定也是常考的项目,要认清否定形式,非谓语动词的否定都 应将 not 放在前面。如: What is the reason for there ? A. not your going
 

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