非谓语动词(一)??动词不定式 动词不定式、过去分词及 v-ing 形式在句中均不能作谓语用,所以叫做非谓语动词。 (一)动词不定式:
语态式 主 动 被 动 一般式 to build to be build 完成式 to have built to have been build 进行式 to be building 完成进行式 to have been building

  2、动词不定式的基本用法 (
  1)作主语:To help each other is good.(动词不定式作主语时,一般可用 it 作形式主语, 而将作主语的动词不定式置于句末,如:It is good to help each other. (
  2)作表语:My job is to drive them to the power station every day. (
  3)作宾语:①作及物动词的宾语,如:She wishes to be a musician.;②作某些形容词 的宾语: 可以有动词不定式为宾语的形容词一般有 glad, sorry, afraid, pleased, determined, willing, eager, anxious, ready, sure 等,如:I am determined to give up smoking.;③动词 不定式一般不作介词的宾语,但动词不定式之前如有疑问词时,就可作介词的宾语,如: Can you give us some advice on what to do next? (
  4)作宾语补足语,如:Tell the children not to play on the street. 如果句中的谓语 动词为 see, hear, watch, notice, have, make, let 等,作宾语补足语的动词不定式须将 to 省 去,如:I saw a little girl run across the street. (
  5)动词不定式在句中作宾语,如带有宾语补足语时,须先用 it 作形式宾语,而将该动词 不定式后置,如:I don’t think it right to do it that way. (
  6) 作定语: 动词不定式作定语时, 须位于被其修饰的名词或代词之后, Is this the best 如: way to help him? 和定语用的动词不定式如果是不及物动词,不定式后面就要用必要的介 词,如:He is the man to depend on. 如果被不定式修饰的名词为 place, time, way,不定 式后面的介词,习惯上可以省去,如:The old man is looking for a quiet place to live. (
  7) 作状语: 动词不定式可以作下列的状语: ①目的状语: Every morning he gets up very early to read English. 为了强调不定式表示目的的作用, 可在不定式前加 in order to 或 so as to(以便或为了),但应注意 in order to 位于句首或句中均可,而 so as to 不能位于句首, 如:She reads China Daily every day in order to (so as to) improve her English. 将表示目 的的不定式置于句首,也可强调目的的作用,如:To master a foreign language, one must work hard at it. ②结果状语:They lived to see the liberation of their home town.他们活到 亲眼见到了他们家乡的解放。③too + 形容词或副词 + 动词不定式,表示“足能…”的结果, 如:You are old enough to take care of yourself now.
  3、复合结构不定式:由 for + 名词(或代词宾格)+ 动词不定式即构成复合结构的动词不 定式。其中 for 本身无意义。for 后面的名词或代词是不定式的逻辑主语,这种不定式在句 中可作主语、 表语、 宾语、 定语或状语, It is very important for us to get everything ready 如: for the harvest. 当作表语用的形容词表示不定式的逻辑主语的性质或特征时,就用介词 of 而不用 for 引出不定式的逻辑主语,这些形容词一般有 good, nice, kind, wise, silly, stupid, foolish, right, wrong, careless, impolite 等,如:It is very kind of you to help him every day.
  4、疑问词 + 动词不定式:疑问代词和疑问副词后可加动词不定式构成不定式短语,在句 中可作主语、 表语或宾语, How to prevent them from swimming in this river is a problem. 如:
  5、动词不定式的否定式:动词不定式的否定式是由 not + 动词不定式构成,如:It’s wrong of you not to attend the meeting.
  1)一般式:动词不定式一般式所表示的 动作是和谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生, 但在多数情况下, 是在谓语动词所表示的动作之 后发生, We decided to plant more trees this spring. 其后) They often watch us play 如: ( , table tennis.(同时);(
  2)完成式:动词不定式完成式所表示的动作发生在谓语动词所表 示的动作之前,如:I am sorryto have kept you waiting.(
表示的动作正在进行中,而且与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生,如:She happened to be writing a letter in the room when I came in.
  7、动词不定式的被动语态用法:如果动词不定式的逻辑主语为这个不定式所表示的动作的 承受者时, 不定式一般就用被动语态形式, What is to be done next hasn’t been decided 如: yet. 非谓语动词(二)??动词-ing 形式 (二) -ing 形式: 动词的-ing 形式也是一种非谓语动词。 -ing 形式仍保留有动词的特征, 可以带有其所需要的宾语或状语而构成-ing 短语。
  1、-ing 的形式:
动词 语态 形式 一般式 完成式 主动语态 making having made 及物动词 make 被动语态 being made having been made 不及物动词 go 主动语态 going having gone

  2、-ing 形式的基本用法。 (
  1)作主语:Seeing is believing.百闻不如一见。Talking is easier than doing. ?ing 作主语 时,如果其结构较长,可用 it 作形式主语,而将作主语的-ing 后置。如:It isn’t much good writing to them again. It’s no use waiting here. (
  2)作表语:Her job is washing and cooking. My hobby is collecting stamps. (
  3)作宾语:①作及物动词的宾语。She likes drawing very much.;②作某些短语动词的 宾语。 Mary is thinking of going back to New York.;③ do+限定词(my, some, any, the 等)+ -ing,表示“做…事”之意,如:We often do our cleaning on Saturday afternoon. Will you do any shopping on Saturday this afternoon? ④作介词的宾语:Her sister is good at learning physics.; ⑤作形容词 worth, busy 等的宾语: This book is well worth reading. ?ing 作宾语带有宾语补足语时,要用 it 作为形式宾语,而将作宾语的-ing 后置,如:We found it no good talking like that. Do you think it necessary trying again? (
  4) 作定语: sleeping child is only five years old. Do you know the man standing at the The gate? 注:-ing 形式作定语用时,如果-ing 只是一个单词,就位于其修饰的名词之前,如果 是-ing 短语,就位于其修饰的名词之后,-ing 作定语时,被-ing 所修饰的名词就是该-ing 的 逻辑主语。另外,-ing 作定语用时,其动作和句子谓语动词所表示的动作是同时进行的,如 果不是同时进行的,就不能用-ing 作定语,要使用定语从句,如:The girl who wrote a letter there yesterday can speak English very well. (
  5)作宾语补足语:We can see steam rising from the wet clothes. 注:当-ing 在复合宾 语中作宾语补足语用时,句中宾语就是这个-ing 的逻辑主语,可以带有这种复合宾语的动词 有 see, watch, hear, observe, feel, find, have, keep 等。 (
  6)作状语:①时间状语:Seeing Tom, I couldn’t help thinking of his brother. 分词在句 中作时间状语时,其前一般可加 when 或 while,如:When crossing street, you must be careful. ②原因状语:Being ill, he didn’t go to school yesterday. ③方式或伴随状语:Mary stood at the school gate waiting for Betty.
  3、主动语态-ing 完成式的基本用法。主动语态-ing 完成式所表示的动作发生在句中谓语动 词所表示的动作之前,一般在句中作时间或原因状语用。句中的主语是它的逻辑主语,并且 是它所表示的动作的执行者,如:Having answered the letter, she went on to read an English novel.
  4、被动语态-ing 一般式的基本用法。被动语态-ing 一般式所表示的动作是一个正在进行中 的被动动作, 而且这个被动动作也是和句中谓语所表示的动作同时发生的。 它一般在句中作 定语或状语用。如:The truck being repaired there is ours.

  5、被动语态-ing 完成式的基本用法。被动语态-ing 完成式所表示的动作发生在谓语动词所 表示的动作之前,在句中一般作状语用。如:Having been shown the lab, we were taken to see the library.
  6、-ing 形式的复合结构。在-ing 前加物主代词或名词所有格即构成-ing 的复合结构。其中 的物主代词或名词所有格为-ing 的逻辑主语。这种结构在句中可作主语、宾语或表语,如: Your smoking and drinking too much will do harm to your health. 但在口语中,这种结构如 作宾语用, 其中的物主代词常用人称代词的宾格, 名词的所有格常用名词的普通格代替, 如: She insisted on Peter’s (or Peter)going there first.
  7、-ing 形式与动词不定式在句中作主语、表语、宾语时的区别。一般说来,表示一个比较 抽象或泛指的动作时多用-ing 形式。表示一个具体某一次的动作时,多用动词不定式,如: Our job is making steel. She likes playing the piano, but she doesn't want to play it today.
  8、-ing 形式与动词不定式在句中作定语的区别。-ing 形式作定语用时,其动作一般与句中 谓语动词所表示的动词同时发生, 而动词不定式作定语时, 其动作一般发生在句中谓语动词 所表示的动作之后。如:The girl writing a letter there can speak English very well./I have three letters to write.
  9、-ing 形式与动词不定式在作宾语补足语时的区别。(
  1)不定式作宾补时,其动作一般发 生在谓语动词所表示的动作之后,如:I have told them to come again tomorrow.(
  2)在 see, watch, hear, feel 等之后,如果用-ing 形式作宾补,表示其动作正在进行中,而用不带 to 的不定式作宾补时, 不定式所表示的动作是一个动作的过程, I hear her singing in the 如: room.我听见她正在屋里唱歌。 I hear her sing in the room.我听见她在屋里唱过歌。
  10、-ing 形式与动词不定式在句中作状语的区别。-ing 形式在句作状语表示时间、原因、方 式或伴随情况,而动词不定式一般式在句中作状语时,一般是作目的或结果状语,如:Not receiving his letter, I wrote to him again./ I looked into the window to see what was going on inside. 非谓语动词(三)??过去分词 (三)过去分词:
  1)作定语:过去分词作定语时,如果这个分词是一个单 词,就位于其修饰的名词之前,如果是分词短语,就位于其修饰的名词之后。被过去分词所 修饰的名词, 就是该分词的逻辑主语, The stolen car was found by the police last week. 如: (
  2)作表语:过去分词作表语时,表示其逻辑主语所处的状态,其逻辑主语就是句中 的主语,如:The glass is broken.这个玻璃杯是破的。 注:过去分词作表语时,和动词的 被动语态结构相似, 但两者表达的意义不同, 如: The glass was broken by my little brother. 这个玻璃杯是被我小弟弟打破的。作表语用的过去分词在许多词典中已列为形容词,如: crowded, devoted, discouraged, done, dressed, drunk, experienced, frightened, gone, hurt, interested, killed, known, learned, lost, pleased, satisfied, shut, surprised, tired, undressed, worried, astonished, broken, completed, covered 等。 (
  3)作宾语补足语:过去分词作宾语补足语时,句中的宾语就是其逻辑主语,如:When I opened the door, I found the ground covered by fallen leaves. 注:动词 have 后的复合宾 语中, 宾语补足语如为过去分词, 常表示该分词所表示的动作是由别人来执行的而不是句中 主语自己来执行的,如:I had my bike repaired yesterday. 昨天我(找别人)把我的自行 车给修了。 (
  4)作状语:过去分词作状语时,相当于一个状语从句,该结构的逻辑主语一般都是主句 的主语,是过去分词所表示意义的逻辑宾语。为了使作状语的过去分词意义更加明确,常在 分词前加 when, if, while, though, as 等连词, Seen from the hill/ When seen from the hill, 如: our town looks beautiful.; Given more time/ If given more time, we could have done it better.(we 是该结构的逻辑主语,是 give 的逻辑宾语。)
  2、-ing 形式与过去分词的区别:

  1)语态不同:-ing 形式表示主动概念,及物动词的过去分词表示被动概念。an inspiring speech 鼓舞人心的演说;the inspired audience 受鼓舞的听众。 (
  2)时间关系不同:现在分词所表示的动作一般是正在进行中的动作,而过去分词所表示 的动作,往往是已经完成的动作,如:The changing world 正在发生的世界;the changed world 已经起了变化的世界。 高考非谓语动词试题
  1. As we joined the big crowd I got from my friends. A. separated B. spared C. lost D. missed
  2. such heavy pollution already, it may now be too late to clean up



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