高考资源网(ks5u.com) 命题点 3 推理判断 本类考题解答锦囊
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每篇文章都有一定的写作目的,作者往往期待读者读了文章后知道应当怎样去做某些事情或按某种方式 思考问题。这层意思通常并不是在文章申明确表达出来,而是隐含在文章之中。这就要求读者在阅读过程中 去沟通外现的和内含的,已述的和未述的含义。这就需要仔细的阅读和认真的思考,在通盘理解文章的基础 上去领会作者的言外之意,去掌握语言的微妙之处,真正欣赏和理解阅读的东西;阅读中的推论是很常见的, 我们所读的一切几乎都可以做出程度不同的推论。 凡推断出的内容在文章中都没有明确叙述,但却暗含在文字之中。因此在进行推断时,必须以有关的文 字部分作为推理的前提和依据。所谓推断,指根据推测而加以判断;而推测总是根据已知的信息推断出未知 的信息。即把有关的文字作为已知部分,从中推断出未知部分。据以推理的有关文字部分可能是词或句子, 也可能是若干句,甚至全文,要想做出精确的推断,必须注意以下四点。
  1.细心地了解文章中所提供的全部信息和信息的各个方面。
  2.分析已知的信息,用正确的观点,借助于一些常识,最大限度地捕捉到信息的本质。
  3.注意词、句子的本义和与之有关的其他意义。
  4.根据己知信息,即短文或有关的文字部分,做出的推断必须与作者的原意相符,切忌以自己的观点取 代作者的原意。 推理判断往往包括数据事实推断,常识推断,逻辑结论以及推断作者的写作目的、态度、倾;向等几种 类型。
  1.数据事实推断:这种推断常常针对某一个或几个具体细节。是比较简单的推断。首先在原文中找到 据以推理的有关文字部分,对与数字有关的推断,只需简单推算,即可得出结果。对与事实有关的,要加以 分析,尤其要悟出字里行间的意思。 例题: House prices in England increased sharply between 1971 and 19
  72. The following records how much a house in Chelsea London, had risen in price since 1955: Take No. 29 Smith Terrace for example. In 1955,Jane Grey sold for £2,0
  00. Mrs Bowena Black bought it for £4,900 and sold it nine years later to Bill and Dreen White for £22,9
  50. Now four years later.
  1)The price of the house was A. about ten times B. twice A. £2,900 most? A. The Whites. A. 19
  71. A. for four years C. between 1971 and 1972 A.£
  28,000 B. Jane Grey. C. Mrs Black. B. 1972 C. 19
  68. D. Mr White. D. 1959
  4)When did Mrs Black buy the house?
  5)Jane Grey lived at No. 29 Smith Terrace B. for nine years D. before 1955 D.£
  25,100 as high in 1972 as in the yearJane Grey sold it. D. fifteen times C. 150 percent

  2)Mrs Bowena Black made a prof it (利润)of. B. £8,典型例题 £7,典型例题 D. £18,典型例题 Of all the tenants,who earned

  6)If MrS B1aCk had waited four years to setl the house She would have earned as much as. B.£
  18,000 C.£
  30,000 以上各题的推理前提均可在原文中找到。第 1 题的正确答案须从“In 19
  55,JaneGrey s 典型例题£
  2, 0
  00,“…inl9
  72,the house is valued at£
  30,0
  00; ” ”这两句话推知,D 项对。第 2 题的正确答案应从“Mrs Bowena Black bought it for£
  4,900and sold it nine years later to Billand Dreen White for£
  22, 9500'得知 D 项对。第 3 题的正确答案应从“…Jane Grey sold for£
  2,0
  00. Mrs Bowena Black bought it for£
  4,900 and so1d it nine years later to Bill andDreenWhitefOr£
  22,9
  50. ”推知,MrsBlack 获
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利最多。第 4 题须从“Mrs Bosena Black…and sold it nine years…NOW four years later,inl972…. ” 得知 Mrs Black 是在 1959 年买的房子,故 D 项为正确答案。第 5 题可从“Inl9
  55,Jane Grey so1d it for £
  2,0
  00. ”推知 D 项正确。第 6 题须从“Mrs Bowena Black..£
  4,900” . . “..the house is valued at £
  30,000”两句话推知 D 项为正确答案。
  2.常识推断:有些时候,文章里并没有提供任何可据以推断的材料,或虽有提供,但却不足以推出正确 的未知事实。这时便须根据平常积累的有关知识来进行推断。 例: Annealing is a way of making metal softer by heating it and then letting it cool very slowly. If metal is heated and then cooled very quicky, for example by dipping it in water, it will be very hard but also very brittle(脆)--that is, it will break easily. Metal that has been annealed is soft but does not break as easily. It is possible to make metal as hard or as soft as is wished, by annealing it. The metal is heated, and allowed to cool slowly for a certain length of time. The longer the heated metal takes to cool slowly, the softer it becomes. Annealing can also be used on other mate rials, such as glass. Why do people put hot metal in water? A. To make it hard. To make it soft. C. To make it cool. B. To make it brittl B.
从文中“by dipping it in water,it will be very hard but also very brittle.”这一信息还不足以 推出正确答案。然后根据物理常识,在制造各种工具时,往往采取淬火这一工艺,其目的是使金属变硬以便 制成锋利的工具。即可推出选项 A 为正确答案。
  3.逻辑结论:这类推断比前两种困难得多。在阅读过程中,读者必须对文章的全部事实或细节作通盘考 虑,从而得出合乎逻辑的结论。结论是根据事实作出的惟一决定。要想从一个句子,一个段落或一篇文章中 得出正确的结论,读者必须学会善于思考,不断提高自己的逻辑思维能力。 例 Have you ever heard of a sport called tubing? Hundreds of people float down a rushing river at once in old truck-tire tubes. Sometimes many hold hands. At first the ride is bumpy and frightful, for the narrow river rushes swiftly. Then the river widens and grows calm. Never try tubing alone or in rapids, however. The story suggests that tubing. A. should not be done in moving water B. is done mainly by truck drivers C. costs a lot of money D. can be dangerous 根据文中内容数百人乘坐着旧卡车,轮胎在湍急的河水中向下游漂去,颠簸而可怕,可推知这项运动是十分 危险的。D 项为正确答案。
  4.推断作者的写作目的、态度,文章的语气等:这类推断要求对论述对象持何种态度、思想倾向作出判断。 如作者对所陈述的观点是赞成,还是反对,对记叙或描写的人或事等是喜欢,或是厌恶;是同情或是冷漠。 作者的这种态度和感情色彩不一定直接表述出来,而往往隐含在字里行间,或者流露于修饰的词语之中。因 此要做好这类推断须综观全文,掌握主题思想,并以此为推理的前提,还要注意文章的措辞,把握文章论述 的基调。 例: Some people are never right. They never have good luck. They usually do the wrong thing and say the wrong thing. And even if what they say or do is OK, they as a rule say it or do it at the wrong time. So these people always have problems. They often break dishes. They sometimes miss buses and airplanes. Mr Neff is different. He is always right. He is never wrong. He usually has good luck. He seldom has problems. He never breaks dishes. He never misses buses or airplanes. Even if he does miss them? it is always'the fault of the buses or the airplanes. Mr Neff knows almost everything. He doesn't ask questions? he answers questions. He never says,
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高考资源网(ks5u.com) "I don't know."
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I don't know Mm Neff. It seems that not many people know her. I sometimes wonder about her. Is she always right? Or maybe she is always wrong? Dces she often break dishes or miss buses? Does she have problems? I wonder.
  1)Which of the following do you think gives the most important trait (特性) of Mr Neffs character? A. He is a very wise man. B. He plans everything well. C. He is moral and upright. D. He is very satisfied with himself.
  2)Which of the following do you guess is true of Mrs Neff? A. She probably obeys her husband in everything. B. She probably feels very proud to be a help of her husband. C. She probably quarrels with her husband all the time. D. She probably feels very happy to have such a successful husband.
  3)Which of the following best describes the writer's attitude towards Mr Neff? A. He finds Mr Neff hard to understand. B. He thinks Mr Neff wonderful. C. He feels pity for Mr Neff. D. He does not like Mr Neff. 以上各题的答案均没有直接表述在短文里,必须从字里行间悟出作者的言外之意。本文记叙的是一位一 贯正确的人 Mr Neff。 根据这一主题, 可推知他对自己的一切都很满意。 1 题选项 D 为正确答案。 Mr Neff 第 从 事事正确,而 Mr Neff 又鲜为人知出发,可得出结论 Neff 夫人在任何事情上都服从于她丈夫这一事实,故 第 2 题 A 为正确项。尽管短文中没有直接陈述作者对 MrNeff 这一人物的态度,但从主题思想和某些措辞中仍 可悟出作者对 Mr Neff 很讨厌这一事实。如作者在文章中一再使用“Never” ,一词,并还写到..Even if he . does miss them,it is alway Sthe fault of the buses of the airplanes. ”等来暗示他对 Mr Neff 的厌 恶之情,故第 3 题 D 为正确答案。 在阅读理解题中,有关针对段落或短文的特定细节、主题思想、常识,以及作者的写作态度、目的等的 推断题,常见题型有:
  1. We can infer from the passage (paragraph, fact, example... ) that.
  2. The writer suggests that.
  3. From the passage (paragraph, story... ), we can tell.
  4. The passage implies, but does not directly state that.
  5. We may conclude from the passage that.
  6. The writer's (author's) attitude toward is.
  7. The tone of the passage is. Ⅰ高考最新热门题
  1.(典型例题 Tristan da Cunha, a 38-square-mile isand, is the farthest inhabited island in the world, according to the Guinness Book of Records. It is 1,510 miles west of its nearest neighour, ST. Helena,and 1,950 miles west of Africa. Discov- ered by the Portuguese admiral(葡萄牙海军上将)of the same name in 15 典型例题 settled in 1810, the isand belongs to Great Britain and has a population of few hundred. Coming in a close second--and often wrongly mentioned as the most distant land--is Easter Island, which lies 1,260 miles east of its nearest neighbor, Pitcairn Island, and 2,300 miles west of South America.
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The mountainous 64-square-mile island was settled around ther 5th century, supposedly by people who were lost at sea. They had no connection with the outside world for more than a thousand years,giving them plenty of time to build more than 1,000 huge stone figures, called moai, for which the island is most famous. On Easter Sunday, 1722, however, settlers from Holland moved in and gave the island its name. today, 2,000 people live on the Chilean territory(智利领土). They share one street, a small airport, and a few hours of television per day.
  1. It can be learned from the text that the island of tristan da Cunha. A. was named after its discoverer B. got its name from Holland settlers C. was named by the British govenment D. got its name from the Guinness Book of Records
  2. Wich of the following is most famous for moai? A. Tristan da Cunha. C. Easter Island. A. Britain. C. Portugal. B. Pitcairn Island D. St. Helena. B. Hollland. D. Chile

  3. Which country does Easter Island belong to?
命题目的与解题技巧:本文的命题目的考查学生推理判断能力。做这类题的技巧在于:首先在原文中找到据 以推理的有关文字部分,借助于一些常识,然后加以分析推理,最终作出判断。 解析:本文介绍了 TristandaCunha 岛的来历,地理位置及人们的生活状况。 解析 答案:
  1.A 答案
  2.C
  3.D 这是一道推断题。从第一段第三句,这小岛名字是以岛屿发现者的名字来命名的。 这理一道细节推断题,可从第二段、第三段,尤其是第三段第二句找到,Easterlsland(复活节岛) 这是一道细节推断题,可从第四段找到。请留意该段中的 On Easter Sunday(在复活节上),暗示
是智利在南太平洋上的一个小岛。 了 Easter Island (复活节岛)。此外,该段有 on the Chilean territory(智利领土)的字样,就很容易判断 出该哪一个答案了。
  2.(典型例题
  2.(典型例题 Garmes will rock to the sound of a cancan dance this year when Moulin Rouge by the Australian director Baz Luhnnann opens the French film festival (电影节) in May. The musical stars Nicole Kidman as a singer, and John Leguizamo as the artist Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. It will be competing for the Paime d'Or, the festival's top prize. The festival runs to May
  21. The American actor Tommy
 

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   第1卷 2007 年 第3期 3月 今 日 湖 北 理 论 版 Today HU bei Theory Edition Vol.1 March No.3 2007 英语学习策略与自主学习能力研究 李冰冰 摘 要:本文解释了英语学习策略的内涵,重点分析了自主学习理论和自主学习能力的培养,认为学习策略的认知 自主学习 文献标识码:A 文章编号:1008-5807(2007)03-0135-02 自主学习是一种以人本主义的心理学和认知心理学为基 础的现代学习理念。语言学习自主这一概念起源于 20 ...

英语六级长难句翻译练习

   练习一 1. These ads were strategically placed among family-oriented TV shows and programs involving nature and America in order to most effectively reach target audiences. 2. Why does cream go bad faster than butter? Some researchers think they have t ...

新视野大学英语2 Unit9

   Unit 9 Section A Pre-reading Activities First Listening Please listen to a short passage carefully and prepare to answer some questions. Second Listening Listen to the tape again. Then answer the following questions with your own experiences. 1) Wh ...

T恤衫疯狂英语100句(50-100)

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英语考研学习必备_split_14

   考研英语语法全突破 53 如:While the teenage population in the United States has declined over the past decade, violent crimes committed by juveniles have sharply increased. A baby might show fear of an unfamiliar adult, whereas he is likely to smile and reach ...