1.英语动词有三种语气, 陈述语 气,祈使语气和虚拟语气。
  2. 定义:用来表示说的话不是事 实,或者是不可能发生的情况, 而是一种愿望,建议,假设的 语气叫虚拟语气。
一、虚拟语气在条件状语从句 中的用法(if条件句)
条件从句 If 从句的谓语形式
现在 过去 未来
did / were had done
  1. did / were
  2. should do
  3. were to do
主句的谓语形式 would/could/should/ might +V.(原) would/could/should/ might+have+p.p. would/could/should/ might + V.(原)

  1. If I had HIV, I would know because I would feel sick.
  2. If I were you, I would give AIDS patient a hug. 与现在事实相反
  3. If I had taken your advice, I wouldn’t have made a mistake.
  4. If he had been there, it wouldn’t have happened.
与过去事实相反

  5. If it should rain tomorrow, they wouldn’t go for an outing.
  6. I think we could do it, if we planed it properly and could borrow the tools.
  7. If we were to have three days off , we would enjoy a very happy life.
与未来事实相反
二、虚拟语气特殊句型: 现在: 过去时 (did/were)
  1. wish + 宾语 从句 过去: 过去完成时 (had done) 未来: would/could/might+V. should
? I wish I were a bird. (现在 现在) 现在 ? I wish I hadn’t made such a mistake. (过去 过去) 过去 ? We wish our parents wouldn’t punish us. (未来 未来) 未来

  2. would rather that --
现在: 过去时 过去: 过去完成时 未来: 过去时
? I would rather you paid me now. (现在 现在) 现在 ? I would rather you had gone, too. (过去) (过去 过去) ? Don’t come. I would rather you came tomorrow. (未来 未来) 未来

  3. as if /though + 从句
现在: 过去时
过去:过去完成时 ? She loves the baby as if it were her own son. ? It seems as if it were spring. ? I remember the whole thing as if it had happened yesterday. ? They talked as if they had been friends for years. ? He looks as if he were drunk.

  4.It’s (about/high) time +that -- 过去时 It’s high time that you went. 你该走了。 It’s high time that you were going.
我们该睡觉了。 time that we went to bed. It’s

  5. 表示要求,命令,建议的虚拟语气。
  1.宾语从句。常见动词: 一个坚持:insist 两个命令 命令:order, command 命令 三个建议 建议:advise, suggest, propose 建议 四个要求:demand , require, request, desire 要求: 要求 这些动词后面的宾语从句要使用虚拟语气 用法。即从句中的动词 使用should + 动词原 形,或者将should省略。
? 我们建议Tom去休息一下。 我们建议 去休息一下。 去休息一下 ? 他坚决要求我到场。 他坚决要求我到场。 ? 国王命令囚犯明天要实施死刑。 国王命令囚犯明天要实施死刑。 ? 他们要求我们派他们去那儿工作。 他们要求我们派他们去那儿工作。 We suggested that Tom (should) have a rest. He insisted that I (should) be present. The king ordered that the prisoners (should) be killed the next day. They requested that we (should) send them to work there.
以上动词相应的名词构成的名词性从句 (包括主语从句,表语从句和同位语)也 要使用虚拟语气。从句中的动词形式一样。
order, advice, suggestion, proposal, demand, request, desire
? It’s suggested that the plan be carried out. ? My demand is that she should come to see me once a week. ? All of us are for the advice that the chemical factory should be closed down.

  6.without和but for 构成虚拟。(but for要不是 和 构成虚拟。 要不是) 要不是 ? Without sunlight, people’s life would be different from today. ? But for your help, I wouldn’t have finished the work. ? Without your help, I would have failed. ? But for water, it would be impossible to live in the desert.

  7. If only …(要是 就好了 要是…就好了 要是 就好了) If only I knew his name! If only we had followed your advice! If only I could see him again! ? 要是我们的父母能和我们住在一起就好了。 要是我们的父母能和我们住在一起就好了。 ? 要是我没错过火车就好了! 要是我没错过火车就好了! If only our parents could live with us! If only I hadn’t missed the train!

  8. It’s necessary /strange/ natural/ important + that 从句中的动词要用虚拟,即 从句中的动词要用虚拟, (should)+动词原形 动词原形
? It is important that we ( should ) master a foreign language. ? It is strange that she refuse to come to the party. ? It’s necessary that we should study hard.

  9. 某些简单句的固定句型: 某些简单句的固定句型: Heaven help him! God bless you! May you succeed! Long live the People’s Republic of China!
虚拟语气假设条件句型注意点: 三: 虚拟语气假设条件句型注意点:
  1.假设条件从句谓语动词发生的时间与主句 假设条件从句谓语动词发生的时间与主句 所假设的谓语动词不一致, 所假设的谓语动词不一致,叫做错综条件 虚拟语气。 虚拟语气。主句和从句的谓语动词要依照 假设的时间而顶。 假设的时间而顶。 If the weather had been finer, the crops would be growing still better. If you had followed the teacher’s advice, you wouldn’t be in the hospital.

  2.假设条件虚拟倒装。 条件从句中有 假设条件虚拟倒装。 条件从句中有should, 假设条件虚拟倒装 , were, had三个助动词可以把 省略,并将 , 三个助动词可以把if省略, 三个助动词可以把 省略 这三个词提至句首。 这三个词提至句首。 If I were you, I would give it up. Were I you, I would give it up. If it were not for your advice, we couldn’t have got over the difficulties. Were it not for your advice, we couldn’t have got over the difficulties.
If I had had time, I would have run round that lake again. Had I had time, I would have run round that lake again. If there should be a flood, what should we do? Should there be a flood, what should we do?
 

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