1. 主语从句(subject clause)
  2. 宾语从句(object clause)
  3. 表语从句(predicative clause)
  4. 同位语从句(appositive clause) What kind of clauses are they?
  1.When we will start is not clear.
  2.Mrs Black won’t believe that her son has become a thief.
  3. My idea is that we should do it right now.
  4.I had no idea that you were her friend. 二、语序问题
  1.The photographs will show you . (MET
  89) A. what does our village look like B. what our village looks like C. how does our village look like D. how our village looks like
  2.You can hardly imagine when he heard the news . A. how he was excited B. how was he excited C. how excited he was D. he was how excited 请你归纳 在名词性从句中,除了关联词在从句之首外,其它部分应用 陈述句 的语序。 三、名词性从句的连接词 (一)主语从句
  1. 连词 that(无词义, 不作成分, 不能省略);whether(是否),不用 if. That he will come and help us is certain. Whether we will succeed is still a question. 注意: 已确定的事由 that 引导; 没决定的事由 whether 引导.
  2. 连接代词 what, whatever, who, whoever, whose, which, whichever 等. What he is has nothing to do with you. Whose ticket this is has not been found out
  3.连接副词 when(ever), where(ever), why, how(ever), how long, how often, how soon, how far, how many / much 等. When the test will be given is not yet decided. How much we can spend must be agreed on. 特殊句子:
  1.I hate when people talk with their mouths full. (MET
  98) A. it B. that C. these D. them
  2. I feel strange that he should be so careless. A. / B. it C. that D. how
  3. It worried her a bit her hair was turning grey.(MET
  92) A.while B. that C.if D.for 归纳:为了使句子保持平衡,常用 it 来代替主语从句或宾语从句,而把主语从句或宾语从 句放到后面, 尤其是连词 that 引导的主语从句常用于此种句式中, what, 但 whatever, whoever, whichever 引导的主语从句一般不后置。 It 的用法: (形式主语) It’ possible/important/necessary/clear… that……很可能/重要的是…/必要的是…/很清 楚…
It’ said/ reported… that..据说/据报道… It’s been announced/declared that..已经通知/宣布… It seems/appears/happens.. that…显然、明显、 碰巧.. It’s no wonder that…并不奇怪/无疑… It’s a pity/a fact /a common knowledge (众所周知) / a common saying….(俗话说) 用 it 作形式主语的 that- 从句有以下四种不同的搭配关系: a. It + be +形容词+ that-从句 It is necessary that… 有必要…… It is important that… 重要的是…… It is obvious that… 很明显…… b. It + be + -ed 分词+ that-从句 It is believed that… 人们相信…… It is known to all that… 从所周知…… It has been decided that… 已决定…… c. It + be +名词+ that-从句 It is common knowledge that… ……是常识 It is a surprise that… 令人惊奇的是…… It is a fact that… 事实是…… d. It +不及物动词+ that-分句 It appears that… 似乎…… It happens that… 碰巧…… It occurred to me that… 我突然想起…… 主语从句的主谓一致:
  1.主语从句通常被看作一个整体,主句的谓语动词用单数形式. That they will come is certain.
  2.由 who, whoever 引导的主语从句的单复数要视从句中的单复数而定. Whoever say that are to be punished. Who are going there have been decided
  3.What 引导主语从句时,主句谓语动词的单复数由表语的单复数决定. What he wants are these books. What he wants is some water. (二) 宾语从句
  1. 由连词 that 引导: that 常可省略。 We believe (that) he is honest. I told him (that) I would come back soon. 注:并列第二个以上的宾语从句,或有插入语时不能省略 that.) He said (that) he had finished reading this novel and that he would borrow another one. 当 that 引导的从句作复合宾语的第一个成分时,需用先行词 it 作形式宾语,把从句放到句 末,that 不能省略。 We consider it possible that he is ill. I feel it a pity that she can’t come. I heard it said that he had gone to Australia. He made it clear that he objected to the plan.

  2. 由 wh-疑问词引导。 We fully understood what he meant. Go and ask why he was late yesterday. Please tell me which is mine. I asked how he was getting on. Do you know whether/if she is coming? He asked me whether or not I was I was busy. Whatever he does he does well. We will choose whoever is fit. They should enjoy complete freedom to marry whomever they desire. whether 与 if 有时可以换用,但下列情况只能用 whether.
  1. 介词后的宾从. Everything depends on whether it is fine tomorrow.
  2. Whether or not 的结构. I don’t know whether or not she’ll like it.
  3. 复合不定式只能用 whether. Tell us whether to go or stay here.
  4. 习惯上作 discuss 的宾从只能用 weather。但: 宾语从句否定时常用 if 引导. He asked if you would not go and see him. 宾语从句要注意的几个问题:
  1. 时态呼应 (
  1)当主句的谓语动词是一般现在时或一般将来时,宾语从句的谓语动词可以用所需要 的任何一种时态。 (
  2)当主句的谓语动词是一般过去时,宾语从句的谓语 动词要用相应的过去时态,但当宾语从句叙述的内容 为客观真理时,仍然用一般现在时。
  1. The radio says it cloudy tomorrow. (be)(will be)
  2. The headmaster hopes everything well. (go)(goes)
  3. Tom says that they (play) basketball at six o’clock yesterday evening. (were playing)
  4. I hear they (return) it already. (have returned)
  5. He said that they members of the Party since 19
  48. (be)(had been)
  6. The teacher told his class that light faster than sound.
  2. 否 定 转 移
  1) 将 think, believe, suppose, expect, fancy, imagine 等动词后面宾语从句的否定词转移到 主句中,即主句的谓语动词用否定式,而从句的谓语动词用肯定式。 I don't think I know you. 我想我并不认识你。 I don' t believe he will come. 我相信他不回来。 注意:若谓语动词为 hope, 宾语从句中的否定词不能转移。 I hope you weren't ill. 我想你没有生病吧。
  2) 将 seem, appear 等后的从句的否定转移到前面。 It doesn't seem that they know where to go. It doesn't appear that we'll have a sunny day tomorrow.
  3) 有时将动名词,介词短语或整个从句的否定转变为对谓语动词的否定。
I don't remember having ever seen such a man. 我记得从未见过这样一个人。 (not 否定动名词短语 having…)
  4) 有时状语或状语从句中否定可以转移到谓语动词前。 The ant is not gathering this for itself alone. (否定状语)
  3. 后面不能直接跟 that 从句的动词: allow, refuse, let, like, cause, force, admire, celebrate, dislike, hate, love, help, take, forgive 等. 这类次后可用其它形式作宾语. I admire their winning the match. (正确) I admire that they won the match. ( 错误 ) (三) 表语从句 表语从句的引导词与主语从句和宾语从句相同. 但:
  1. that 引导表语从句时不能省.
  2. if 不能引导表语从句.
  3. seem, appear 后可接 that 引导的从句, 而 look 则不可. 这三个词后都可用 as if / as though 引导从句. It seems / appears that he was late for the train yesterday. It seems / appears / looks as if we have to go home on foot. (四) 同位语从句 同位语从句一般跟在名词 fact, news, promise, truth, belief, thought, idea, answer, information, knowledge, doubt, hope, law, opinion, plan, suggestion 后面, 用以说明或解释前面的名词. The news that our team has won the match is true. His delay is due to the fact that the car broke down halfway. 注:
  1. 同位语从句和定语从句的区别: 1 同位语从句??that 只起连接作用,不作任何成分 定语从句?? that 是关系代词,起连接作用和充当宾语和主语 2 同位语从句??同位语从句和前面的名词是同位关系,对名词进行补充说明 定语从句??定从和前面的名词是所属关系,对名词进行修饰,加以限定 3 同位语从句??that 不能省 定语从句??that 在从句中作宾语时,可以省 He told me the news that our team won the match. He told me the news that was very exciting. We are interested in the news that some foreigners would visit our school. We are interested in the news that he told us.
  2. 在 have no idea 之后常用 wh-引导同位语从句. I have no idea where he has gone. I have no idea when he did it. I have no idea what he did. 四、关联词的区分
  1. that 与 what
  2. if 与 whether
  3. who 与 whoever / what 与 whatever (
  1)用 that 或 what 填空
  1. I wonder if this is you are looking for.
  2. Our school is quite different from it was before.
  3. Father made a promise if I passed the examination he would buy me a computer.

  4. I can’t understand is why he has changed his mind.
  5. the earth is round is known to us all. 归纳:连词在从句中不作成分,不含有疑问意义,而在从句中作成分,常含有 疑问意义。
  1) you don’t like him is none of my business. (S
  92) A. What B. Who C. That D. Whether
  2) he said at the meeting astonished everybody present. (
  93) A.What B. That C. The fact D. The matter
  3) There’s a feeling in me we’ll never know what a UFO is. ( 20
  02) A. that B. which C. of which D. what
  2.用 if 或 whether 填空 ?
  1. I don’t know I’ll be free tomorrow. ?
  2. I don’t know or not I’ll be free tomorrow. ?
  3. The question is this book is worth writing. ?
  4. It depends on we will have enough money. ?
  5. they can do it matters little to us. ?
  6. you are not free tomorrow , I’ll go without you. 句、介词后面的宾语从句只能用 whether,不 归纳: a.主语从句、表语从句、同位语从 能用 if ;b.后面紧跟 or not 时, 用 whether ?
  1. the 2000 Olympic Games will be held in Beijing is not known yet.(
  92) ? A. Whenever B. If C.Whether D.That ?
  2. we’ll go camping tomorrow depends on the weather. A. If B.Whether C. That D.Where
  3.选择填空 (what,whatever,who,whoever) ?
  1. was said here must be kept secret. ?
  2. we need is more time. ?
  3. made the long distance call to him is not important. ?
  4. breaks the law will be punished. 请你归纳:who,whoever/what,whatever ? 等引导的名词性从句不含有疑问意义,相当于名词后加一个定语 从句,而等引导的名词性从句都含有疑问意义。
  1. has helped to save the drowning girl is worth praising.(
  99) A.Who B. The one C. Anyone D. Whoever
  2. Sarah hopes to become a friend of shares her interests. A.anyone B. whomever C.whoever D.no matter who
  3.These wild flowers are so special, I would do I can to save them. A. whatever B. that C. which D. whichever
  4. It is generally considered unwise to give a child he or she wants.(NMET
  97) A. however B. whatever C. whichever D. whenever
  5. leaves the room last ought to turn off the lights.(MET
  88) A. Anyone B. The person C. Whoever D. Who ? ?
五、 拓展 whoever 与 no matter who 引导名词性从句与让步状语从句的比较
  1.Sarah hopes to become a friend of no matter who shares her interests.
  2. No matter how much advice I gave him, he did exactly what he wanted to do.
  3.He will believe whatever others say.
  4.Whatever others say, he will believe it. 归纳 whatever or no matter what ? whatever 等同类词既可以引导名词性从句,也可以引导让步状语从句,而 no matter + 疑问词只能引导让步状语从句。 另外,在名词性从句的复习过程中,我们还须特别注意以下问题: 填空: The reason we didn't trust him is he has often lied. reason 后面的表语从句只能用 that 引导, 不能用 why 引导, 但 reason 后面的定语从句 可以用 why 或者 that 引导。 六、巩固练习
  1.The question is the film is worth seeing. A.if B.what C.whether D.how
  2.One of the men held the view the book said was right. A.that what B.What that C.that D.whether
  3.Dr. Black comes from either Oxford or Cambridge, I can't remember . A.where B.there C.which D.that
  4.Energy is makes things work. A.What B.everything C.something D.anything
  5.The reason I have to go is my mother is ill in bed. A. why ; why B. why ; because C. why ; that D. that ; because
  6.He doesn't think the question of they are men or women is important. A. whether B. if C. which D. why
  7. It was ordered that all the soldiers to the front. A. should send B. must be sent C. should be sent D. must go
  8. Air is to us water is to fish. A. is that B. what C. which D. that
  9. Someone is ringing the doorbell. Go and see . D. who it is A. who is he B. who he is C. who is it
  10. Can you make sure the gold rings? A. where she had put B. where had she put C. where she has put D. where has she put



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