主语从句
subject clause
宾语从句
名词性从句 noun clause
object clause
表语从句
predicative clause
同位语从句
appositive clause
请判断出下列的句子属于哪种从句 主从) What I want to do is taking a bath. (主从) The news that they won the game spread the whole school. (同位语从句) 同位语从句) I don’t think he is an honest boy. (宾从) 宾从) The fact is that he stole the car. (表从) 表从) Do you know the fact that he stole the car? 同位语从句) (同位语从句) Do you know the man who is standing over there? 定从) (定从) 主从) It is said that they won the game. (主从)
引导名词性从句的连接词: 引导名词性从句的连接词: that(无意义,不可省,不充当任何 (无意义,不可省, 成分) 成分) whether, if(均表示“是否”表明从 (均表示“是否” 句内容的不确定性) 句内容的不确定性) as if ,as though(均表示“好像”, (均表示“好像” 似乎” “似乎”) 以上在从句中均不充当任何成分
连接代词: 连接代词:what, whatever, who, whoever, whom, whomever, whose, which, whichever 连接副词:when, where, how, 连接副词: why, whenever, wherever, however 连接代词和连接副词在句中既保留自 己的疑问含义、又起连接作用, 己的疑问含义、又起连接作用,在 从句中充当从句的成分
不可省略的连词: 不可省略的连词:
  1. 介词后的连词
  2. 引导主语从句和同位语从句的连 词不可省略。 词不可省略。 That she was chosen made us very happy. We heard the news that our team had won.
主语从句
在复合句中作主语的从句.引导词有连 在复合句中作主语的从句 引导词有连 代词: , 词that,whether; 代词:who, what ,which;副词:when ,where, 副词: 副词 how, why等. 等

  1.That he is a famous singer is known to us. (It is known to us that he is a famous singer.)
  2.When he will go to America is not yet fixed. (It is not yet fixed when he will go to America.)

  1.It + be + 形容词 + that从句 从句
It is necessary / important/ obvious that…
It is believed that… 人们相信… 人们相信 It is known to us all that …. 众所周知… 众所周知 It has been decided that…… 已经决定 已经决定……

  2.It + be + -ed分词 + that从句 分词 从句

  3.It + be + 名词 + that从句 从句
It is common knowledge that… …是常识 是常识 It is a surprise that …. 令人惊奇的是… 令人惊奇的是 It is a fact that…… 事实是…… 事实是 It appears that… 似乎… 似乎 It happens that …. 碰巧… 碰巧 It occurred to me that…… 我突然想起 我突然想起……

  4.It + 不及物动词 + that从句 从句
另注意在主语从句中用来表示惊奇、 另注意在主语从句中用来表示惊奇、 惊奇 不相信、惋惜、理应如此等语气时 等语气时, 不相信、惋惜、理应如此等语气时, 谓语动词要用 虚拟语气 “(should) +do”,常用的句型有: ,常用的句型有: It is necessary (important, natural, strange, etc.) that … It is suggested (requested, proposed, desired, etc.) that…
注意
主语从句中的“主谓一致” 主语从句中的“主谓一致”:

  1.主语从句通常被看作一个整体 主句的谓语动词用单数 主语从句通常被看作一个整体,主句的谓语动词用单数 主语从句通常被看作一个整体 形式. 形式
is That they will come certain.

  2. What 引导主语从句时 主句谓语动词的单复数由 引导主语从句时,主句谓语动词的单复数由 表语的单复数决定. 表语的单复数决定
are What he wants these books. is What he wants some water.
Exercises
1 in the regulations that you should not tell other people the pass word of your e-mail account. .(2005 上海) 上海 A. What is required B .What requires C It is required D. It requires
  2. The Foreign Minister said, “ our hope that the two sides will work towards peace.” (2006 北京 北京) A. This B. There is C .That is D. It is
  3.After Yang Liwei succeeded in circling the earth, our astronauts desire to do is walk in space.(2004 上海 上海) A .where B .what C .that D. how
宾语从句
宾语从句就是在复合句中作宾语的 名词性从句, 及物动词) 名词性从句 , 通常放在主句谓语动词 (及物动词 及物动词 或介词之后。 或介词之后。

  1.She did not know what had happened.
(作动词的宾语 作动词的宾语) 作动词的宾语
  2. Our
success depends upon how well we can 作介词的宾语) 作介词的宾语 cooperate with one another. (作介词的宾语

  3. I
am afraid (that) I’ve made a mistake.
(作形容词的宾语 作形容词的宾语) 作形容词的宾语

  1. 由连接词 由连接词that引导的宾语从句 引导的宾语从句 由连接词that引导宾语从句时,that 引导宾语从句时, 由连接词 引导宾语从句时 在句中不担任任何成分, 在句中不担任任何成分,在口语或非正 式的文体中常被省去, 式的文体中常被省去,但如从句是并列 句时,第二个分句前的 第二个分句前的that不可省。例如: 不可省。 句时 第二个分句前的 不可省 例如: We must never think (that) we are good in everything while others are good in nothing.
注意: 注意:在demand,order,suggest, , , , decide,insist, desire, request, , command, doubt等表示要求、命令、 等表示要求 等表示要求、命令、 建议、决定等意义的动词后 等意义的动词后, 建议、决定等意义的动词后,宾语从 句常用“(should)+ 动词原形”。 句常用“ ) 动词原形” I insist that she (should) do her work alone. 我坚持要她自己工作。 我坚持要她自己工作。 The commander ordered that troops (should) set off at once. 司令 员命令部队马上出发。 员命令部队马上出发。

  2. 用whether或if引导的宾语从句, 引导的宾语从句, 或 引导的宾语从句 其主语和谓语的顺序也不能颠倒, 其主语和谓语的顺序也不能颠倒, 仍保持陈述句语序。此外, 仍保持陈述句语序。此外, whether与if 在作“是否”的意思 与 在作“是否” 讲时在下列情况下一般只能用 whether,不用 : ,不用if: a. 引导主语从句并在句首时;b. 引导主语从句并在句首 主语从句并在句首时 引导表语从句 表语从句时 引导表语从句时;c . 引导从句作 介词宾语时 从句后有“ 介词宾语时;d. 从句后有“or not” 后接动词不定式时 动词不定式 时;e. 后接动词不定式时。
Whether there is life on the moon is an interesting question. The question is whether she should have a low opinion of the test? Everything depends on whether we have enough money. I wonder whether he will come or not. Can you tell me whether to go or to stay?
宾语从句中的“时态呼应” 否定转移” 宾语从句中的“时态呼应”与“否定转移”
had finished his job. He told me that he (已经完成了工作 已经完成了工作)
否定转移 若主句谓语动词为think, consider, suppose, believe, 若主句谓语动词为 expect, fancy, guess, imagine等,其后的宾语从句若含 等 有否定意义,一般要把否定词转移到主句谓语上, 有否定意义,一般要把否定词转移到主句谓语上,从句 谓语用肯定式。例如: 谓语用肯定式。例如:
时态呼应
我认为他不会来这里. 我认为他不会来这里 I think he won’t come here. I don’t think he will come here.
( (
) )

  4. 注意宾语从句中的时态呼应,当主 注意宾语从句中的时态呼应, 句动词是现在时, 句动词是现在时,从句根据自身的句 子情况,而使用不同时态。例如: 子情况,而使用不同时态。例如: I know (that) he studies English every day. I know (that) he studied English last term. I know (that) he will study English next year. I know (that) he has studied English since 19
  98.
当主句动词是过去时态( 当主句动词是过去时态(could, would除外),从句则要用相应的 除外), 除外),从句则要用相应的 过去时态,如一般过去时, 过去时态,如一般过去时,过去进 行时,过去将来时等; 行时,过去将来时等;当从句表示 的是客观真理,科学原理, 的是客观真理,科学原理,自然现 则从句仍用现在时态。例如: 象,则从句仍用现在时态。例如: The teacher told us that Tom had left us for America. .
宾语从句中用it作形式宾语 宾语从句中用 作形式宾语
注意: 注意:如果主句中有形容词或名词作宾语补足 语时,一般用it来作形式宾语, it来作形式宾语 语时,一般用it来作形式宾语,把从句放在宾 补后面。 补后面。 We think it our duty that we should help others. 我发现他两天之内完成工作是不可能的. 我发现他两天之内完成工作是不可能的 I find it impossible that he can finish the work in two days.
Exercises: “it”作形式主语或形式宾语: 作形式主语或形式宾语: 作形式主语或形式宾语
A
  1.I hate when people talk with their mouths full. . A. it B. that C. these D. them B
  2. I feel strange that he should be so careless. A. / B. it C. that D. how B
  3. It worried her a bit her hair was turning grey. A.while B. that C.if D.for . . . 4 Will you see to that the luggage is brought back? C A. we B. yourself C. it D. them
表语从句 在复合句中作主句的表语.引导表语从句的关 在复合句中作主句的表语 引导表语从句的关 联词与引导主语从句的关联词大致一样

  1.问题是我们和他已失去联系 问题是我们和他已失去联系. 问题是我们和他已失去联系
The problem is that we have lost touch with him.

  2.这就是亨利怎么解决这个问题的 这就是亨利怎么解决这个问题的. 这就是亨利怎么解决这个问题的
This is. how Henry solved the problem.

  3.天看起来要下雨了 天看起来要下雨了. 天看起来要下雨了
as if it is going to rain. It looks.
需要注意的,当主语是 需要注意的,当主语是reason时,表 时 语从句要用that引导而不是 引导而不是because。 语从句要用 引导而不是 。 The reason why he was late was that he missed the train by one minute this morning . 注意】 可引导表语从句, 【注意】whether 可引导表语从句,但 与之同义的if却通常不用于引导表语从 与之同义的 却通常不用于引导表语从 句。
同位语从句
在句中起同位语的作用.一般放在名词 在句中起同位语的作用.一般放在名词fact , news , idea , promise, thought , suggestion, belief, truth 等之 用以说明或解释前面的名词. 后,用以说明或解释前面的名词.引导词有连词 that(不能省 不能省) 少数情况下也可用连接副词等. that(不能省);少数情况下也可用连接副词等.

  1.The thought that we might succeed excited us.
  2.The idea that they should try a second time is worth considering.
  3.The suggestion that the plan (should) be delayed will be discussed tomorrow.
同位语从句和定语从句的区别: 同位语从句和定语从句的区别: 定语从句的区别 that作为关系代词,可以引导定语从句,充 作为关系代词, 作为关系代词 可以引导定语从句, 当句子成分,在从句中作宾语时可以省略; 当句子成分,在从句中作宾语时可以省略; that引导同位语从句时,起连词的作用,没 引导同位语从句时, 引导同位语从句时 起连词的作用, 有实际意义,不充当句子成分, 有实际意义,不充当句子成分,一般不能省 略。 I had no idea that you were here.( .(that .( 引导同位语从句,不能省略) 引导同位语从句,不能省略) Have you got the idea(that)this book ( ) gives you of life in ancient Greece? ? 引导定语从句, (that引导定语从句,作宾语,可以省略) 引导定语从句 作宾语,可以省略)
Exercises

  1.Doris’ success lies in the fact she is cooperative and eager to learn from others.(2006 上海春季 上海春季) A. which B. that C. when D. why
  2.Do you have any idea is actually going on in the classroom? (2005辽宁 辽宁) 辽宁 A. that B. what c. as D. which
  3. There is a feeling in me we’ll never know what a UFO is? not ever.(2002上海 上海) 上海 A. that B. which c. of which D. what
  4.Information has been put forward more middle school graduates will be admitted into universities. A. while B. that C. when D. as
I.语序问题 语序问题
考点归纳
B (
  1) They want to know do to help us. A. what can they B. what they can C. how they can D. how can they (
  2) Can you make sure the gold ring? C A. where Alice had put B. where had Alice put C. where Alice has put D. where has Alice put (
  3) Someone is ringing Mary. Go and see . D A. who is he B. wh
 

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