选修 6 课文 1 A SHORT HISTORY OF WESTERN PAINTING Art is influenced by the customs and faith of a people. Styles in Western art have changed many times. As there are so many different styles of Western art, it would be impossible to describe all of them in such a short text. Consequently, this text will describe only the most important ones, starting from the sixth century AD. The Middle Ages (5th to the 15th century AD) During the Middle Ages, the main aim of painters was to represent religious themes. A conventional artist of this period was not interested in showing nature and people as they really were. A typical picture at this time was full of religious symbols, which created feeling of respect and love for God. But it was evident that ideas were changing in the 13th century when painters like Giotto di Bondone began to paint religious scenes in a more realistic way. The Renaissance (15th to 16th century) During the Renaissance, new ideas and values graduallv replaced those held in the Middle Ages.People began to concentrate less on religious themes and adopt a more humanistic attitude to life. At the same time painters returned to classical Roman and Greek ideas about art. They tried to paint people and nature as they really were. Rich people wanted to possess their own paintings, so they could decorate their superb palaces and great houses. They paid famous artists to paint pictures of themselves, their houses and possessions as well as their activities and achievements. One of the most important discoveries during this period was how to draw things in perspective. This technique was first used by Masaccio in 14
  28. When people first saw his paintings, they were convinced that they were looking through a hole in a wall at a real scene. If the roles of perspective had not been discovered, no one would have been able to paint such realistic pictures. By coincidence, oil paints were also developed at this time, which made the colours used in paintings look richer and deeper. Without the new paints and the new technique, we would not be able to see the many great masterpieces for which this period is famous. Impressionism (late 19th to early 20th century) In the late 19th century, Europe changed a great deal. from a mostly agricultural society to a mostly industrial one. Many people moved from the countryside to the new cities. There were many new inventions and social changes. Naturally, these changes also led to new painting styles. Among the painters who broke away from the traditional style of painting were the Impressionists, who lived and worked in Paris. The Impressionists were the first painters to work outdoors. They were eager to show how light and shadow fell on objects at different times of day. However, because natural light changes so quickly, the Impressionists had to paint quickly. Their paintings were not as detailed as those of earlier painters. At first, many people disliked this style of painting and became very angr about it. They said that the painters were careless and their paintings were ridiculous. Modern Art (20th century to today) At the time they were created, the Impressionist paintings were controversial, but today they are accepted as the beginning of what we call "modem art". This is because the Impressionists encouraged artists to look at their environment in new ways. There are scores of modern art styles, but without the Impressionists, many of these painting styles might not exist. On the one hand, some modem art is abstract; that is, the painter does not attempt to paint objects as we see them with our eyes, but instead concentrates on certain qualities of the object, using colour, line and shape to represent them. On the other hand, some paintings of modern art are so realistic that they look like photographs. These styles are so different. Who can predict what painting styles there will be in the future?
1
Unit 3 A healthy life-Reading ADVICE FROM GRANDAD Dear James, It is a beautiful day here and I am sitting under the big tree at the end of the garden. I have just returned from a long bike ride to an old castle. It seems amazing that at my age I am still fit enough to cycle 20 kilometres in an afternoon. It's my birthday in two weeks time and I'll be 82 years old! I think my long and active life must be due to the healthy life I live. This brings me to the real reason for my letter, my dear grandson. Your mother tells me that you started smoking some time ago and now you are finding it difficult to give it up. Believe me, I know how easy it is to begin smoking and how tough it is to stop. You see, during adolescence I also smoked and became addicted to cigarettes. By the way, did you know that this is because you become addicted in three different ways? First, you can become physically addicted to nicotine, which is one of the hundreds of chemicals in cigarettes. This means that after a while your body becomes accustomed to having nicotine in it. So when the drug leaves your body, you get withdrawal symptoms. I remember feeling bad-tempered and sometimes even in pain. Secondly, you become addicted through habit. As you know, if you do the same thing over and over again, you begin to do it automatically. Lastly, you can become mentally addicted. I believed I was happier and more relaxed after having a cigarette, so I began to think that I could only feel good when I smoked. I was addicted in all three ways, so it was very difficult to quit. But I did finally manage. When I was young, I didn't know much about the harmful effects of smoking. I didn't know, for example, that it could do terrible damage to your heart and lungs or that it was more difficult for smoking couples to become pregnant. I certainly didn't know their babies may have a smaller birth weight or even be abnormal in some way. Neither did I know that my cigarette smoke could affect the health of non-smokers. However, what I did know was that my girlfriend thought I smelt terrible. She said my breath and clothes smelt, and that the ends of my fingers were turning yellow. She told me that she wouldn't go out with me again unless I stopped! I also noticed that I became breathless quickly, and that I wasn't enjoying sport as much. When I was taken off the school football team because I was unfit, I knew it was time to quit smoking. I am sending you some advice I found on the Internet. It might help you to stop and strengthen your resolve. I do hope so because I want you to live as long and healthy a life as I have. Love from Grandad
Unit 5 The power of nature-Reading AN EXCITING JOB I have the greatest job in the world. I travel to unusual places and work alongside people from all over the world. Sometimes working outdoors, sometimes in an office, sometimes using scientific equipment and sometimes meeting local people and tourists, I am never bored. Although my job is occasionally dangerous, I don't mind because danger excites me and makes me feel alive. However, the most important thing about my job is that I help protect ordinary people from one of the most powerful forces on earth - the volcano. I was appointed as a volcanologist working for the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) twenty years ago. My job is collecting information for a database about Mount Kilauea, which is one of the most active volcanoes in Hawaii. Having collected and evaluated the information, I help other scientists to predict where lava from the volcano will flow next and how fast. Our work has saved many lives because people in the path of the lava can be warned to leave their houses. Unfortunately, we cannot move their homes out of the way, and many houses have been covered with lava or burned to the ground. When boiling rock erupts from a volcano and crashes back to earth, it causes less damage than you might imagine. This is because no one lives near the top of Mount Kilauea, where the rocks fall. The lava that flows slowly like a wave down the mountain causes far more damage because it buries everything in its path under the molten rock. However, the eruption itself is really exciting to watch and I shall never forget my first sight of one. It was in the second week after I arrived in Hawaii. Having worked hard all day, I went to bed early. I was fast asleep when suddenly my bed began shaking and I heard a strange
2
sound, like a railway train passing my window. Having experienced quite a few earthquakes in Hawaii already, I didn't take much notice. I was about to go back to sleep when suddenly my bedroom became as bright as day. I ran out of the house into the back garden where I could see Mount Kilauea in the distance. There had been an eruption from the side of the mountain and red hot lava was fountaining hundreds of metres into the air. It was an absolutely fantastic sight. The day after this eruption I was lucky enough to have a much closer look at it. Two other scientists and I were driven up the mountain and dropped as close as possible to the crater that had been formed during the eruption. Having earlier collected special clothes from the observatory, we put them on before we went any closer. All three of us looked like spacemen.We had white protective suits that covered our whole body, helmets, big boots and special gloves. It was not easy to walk in these suits, but we slowly made our way to the edge of the crater and looked down into the red, boiling centre. The other two climbed down into the crater to collect some lava for later study, but this being my first experience, I stayed at the top and watched them. Today, I am just as enthusiastic about my job as the day I first started. Having studied volcanoes now for many years, I am still amazed at their beauty as well as their potential to cause great damage.
fc1 E BEST OF MANHATTAN’S ART GALLERIES The Frick Collection (5th Avenue and E.70th Street) Many art lovers would rather visit this small art gallery than any other in New York. Henry Clay Frick, a rich New Yorker, died in 1919, leaving his house, furniture and art collection to the American people. Frick had a preference for pre-twentieth century Western paintings, and these are well-represented in this excellent collection. You can also explore Frick's beautiful home and garden which are well worth a Visit. Guggenheim Museum(5th Avenue and 88th Street) This museum owns 5,000 superb modern paintings, sculptures and drawings. These art works are not all displayed at the same time. The exhibition is always changing. It will appeal to those who love Impressionist and Post-Impressionist paintings. The Guggenheim Museum building is also world-famous. When you walk into gallery, you feel as if you were inside a fragile, white seashell. The best way to see the paintings is to start from the top floor and walk down to the bottom. There are no stairs just a circular path. The museum also has an excellent restaurant. Metropolitan Museum of Art (5th Avenue and 82nd Street) The reputation of this museum lies in the variety of its art collection. This covers more than 5,000 years of civilization from many parts of the world, including America, Europe, China, Egypt, other African countries and South America. The museum displays more than just the visual delights of art. It introduces you to ancient ways of living. You can visit an Egyptian temple, a fragrant Ming garden, a typical room in an 18th century French house and many other special exhibitions. Museum of Modern Art (53rd Street, between 5th and 6th Avenues) It is amazing that so many great works of art from the late 19th century to the 21st century are housed in the same museum. The collection of Western art includes paintings by such famous artists as Monet, Van Gogh, Picasso and Matisse. A few words of warning: the admission price is not cheap and the museum is often very crowded. Whitney Museum of American Art (945 Madison Avenue, near 75th Street) The Whitney holds an excellent collection of contemporary American painting and sculpture. There are no permanent displays in this museum and exhibitions change all the time. Every two years, the Whitney holds a special exhibition of new art by living artists. The museum also shows videos and films by contemporary video artists. Suppose you were the president of a high school council and you received the letter below. It is from a group of students who would like to make their school more attractive. Read the letter and then use the outline on the next page to make notes for a report about the letter to the school council. Class 2A
3
Seaforth High School Ramsay Rd Seaforth Mrs L Kroll President, Seaforth High School Council PO Box 235, Seaforth 12 May Dear Mrs Kroll, Lately our class has become worried about the environment at the back of the school, and we would like to do something to make it more attractive. We have done some research and have come up with a plan. With the help of our parents, we can do most of the work ourselves, but we will need a small amount of money for equipment, plants-and paint. I am writing to ask the council for permission to do this work and to ask if the school council could donate $500 towards our project. We would like to turn the empty land at the back of the school into a nature garden. We would plant trees and grasses, make paths through the garden and dig a small pond. We think this would provide a peaceful place for students and teachers to walk in. It would also attract birds, insects and small
 

相关内容

英语书信全部范文 word版

   英语书信全部范文 word 版 1. A Letter of Self-introduction Dear Prof. Li, I, the undersigned, am a senior in the Computer Science Department of Tsinghua University. I am applying for an MS degree under your guidance so that I write to you today for a further ...

我并非学你-三天绝杀考研英语作文?word版

   绝杀" #我并非学你# 之 "绝杀"考研作文 我并非学你# 作者:我并非学你 一套属于你自己的绝杀万能模板 两大句型和两大原则 三日完成考研作文准备 四大绝杀核心理论全面完整的详细介绍 让这一切变成现实,让我们开始吧! 第一章 序章 何为考研作文? 何为考研作文? 考研作文在分值比例上占有相当的份量,其重要性我无需多说。但作文又是英语各题型里最好得分的一个题型。只要你考前认真用心,并肯花三天时间准备,就可以 得到很好的分数。 你也许会问"三天&quo ...

考研英语词汇分类word版

   最全、最新、完全免费的考研资料下载站 www.Free133.com 精华汇集 随心所取 考研英语词汇分类?李太儒整理! 学科 mathematics / mAWi5mAtiks/ 数学 arts / arts/ 文科 science / 5saiEns/ 理科 history / 5histEri/ 历史 geometry / dVi5Rmitri/ 几何 geography / dVi5RgrEfi/ 地理 geology / dVi5RlEdVi/ 地质学 biology / bai5 ...

求职英语学生求职信word版

   NO.1 Dear Sir, I learned from the TV that your company wanted to hire a sales manager. I like the job very much. I would like to get the work. Now let me introduce myself to you. I am 23 years .I am a happy and friendly boy. I graduated from ZheJia ...

高中英语语法大全 超详细!!word版

   中 国 远 见 教 育 咨 询 有 限 公 司 Providence Education Consultancy Ltd of China 卷首寄语 Wilkins 指出: “没有语法不能很好地表达,而没有词汇则什么也不能表达。 ” 语言的学习是一个漫长又艰难的过程,而语法与语言能力之间的关系也是紧密关联的。 语法是语言的应用规则,虽然 wilkins 更加着眼于词汇,但对于母语为非英语语言的学生 来讲, 在学习英语的过程中系统地学习一些基础语法, 是提高学生应用语言能力的一个 有效途径。 ...

2011年考研英语真题word版

   这是 2011 年考研英语真题,由万学海文提供,仅供大家参考。 完形填空 Section I Use of English Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A], [B], [C] or [D] on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points) Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle view ...

新概念英语第一册课文下载word版

   新概念英语第一册 Lesson1: Excuse me! Excuse me! Yes? Is this your handbag? Pardon? Is this your handbag? Yes, it is. Thank you very much. Lesson 3:Sorry sir. My coat and my umbrella please. Here is my ticket. Thank you sir. Number five. Here is your umbrel ...

2011朝阳一模(英语)及答案word版

   北京市朝阳区 2011 届高三年级第一次综合练习 英 语 试 题 本试卷共 150 分。考试时长 120 分钟。考生务必将答案答在答题卡上,在试卷上作答 无效。考试结束后,将本试卷和答题卡一并收回。 第一部分:听力理解(共三节,30 分) 第一节 (共 5 小题;每小题 1.5 分,满分 7.5 分) 听下面 5 段对话。每段对话后有一个小题,从题中所给的 A、B、C 三个选项中选出最 佳选项,并标在试卷的相应位置。听完每段对话后,你都有 10 秒钟的时间来回答有关小题 和阅读下一小题。每段 ...

洪恩 从零开始学英语 日常会话 word版

   第四章 日常会话 Courage is resistance to fear, mastery of fear not absence of fear. 一 Mark Twain(1835-1910) 勇敢并非没有恐惧, 而是克服恐惧,战胜恐惧。 ??马克吐温 办公室 1 I'm late 我迟到了 生词: be late for (做……)迟到 traffic n.交通 happen v.发生 excuse n.借口 important adj.重要的 bumper n.车辆前后的缓冲档。 ...

2007高考英语试题广东卷[word版]

   上百度,输入 沈阳高分英语家教"查询 输入"沈阳高分英语家教 查询! 请上 www.sypeterwu.com 或上百度 输入 沈阳高分英语家教 查询 试卷类型:A 2007 年普通高等学校招生全国统一考试(广东卷) 年普通高等学校招生全国统一考试(广东卷) 英语试卷 本试卷共 12 页,四大题,满分 150 分。考试用时 120 分钟。 注意事项: 1.答卷前,考生务必用黑色字迹的钢笔或签字笔将自己的姓名和考生号、试室号、座 位号填写在答题卡上。用 2B 铅笔将试卷类型 ...

热门内容

2000年6月英语四级

   English Weekly 英语周报大学网 2000 年 6 月大学英语四级考试试题及参考答案 Part I Listening Comprehension (20 minutes) Section A Directions: In this section, you will hear 10 short conversations. At the end of each conversation, a question will be asked about what was said. ...

最新英语演讲小短文 My Dreams

   最新英语演讲小短文 My Dreams I want to be a teacher when I listen to my teacher carefully. I think I can be a teacher when I grow up. I can help many students learn things well. I can play with my students, too. So we are good friends. I want to be a doctor ...

暑假英语学习计划1

   暑假英语学习计划 Source: Onion 2009-07-03 我要投稿 恒星英语学习论坛 Favorite 慢慢长假,你是否为自己的暑假制定了好的英语学习计划呢?在这里,恒星英语学习网为大家 提供一份恒星网友分享的自己的暑假英语学习计划,希望大家娱乐与学习相结合,过个充实 愉快的暑假. 暑假英语学习计划: 一,总则: 1,坚持每一天,充分利用一切可以利用的时间学英语.没有持之以恒的学习和大量的时将 做保障,一切都是空谈. 2,每天听写一篇文章,以此文章为中心,展开一天的学习. 3,听说 ...

学习初二英语学案

   初二英语学案 银川 011 年 3 月 26 日 Vocabulary: patterns (Middle School Advantage 2009) 学习学案 “1 对 1”英语学习学案 ”英语学习 I. Revision 1. Read the following words aloud: (尝试朗读出以下单词) 尝试朗读出以下单词) because, potion, donation, exposure, curious, applause, nutritious, ambitiou ...

2010年苏州市中考英语试题及答案(Word完美版)

   我要中考网 www.51zhongkao.com 2010 年苏州市初中毕业暨升学考试试卷 英 语 注意事项: 注意事项: 1.本试卷共 5 太题,满分 100 分(不合听力口语 30 分),考试用时 100 分钟; 2.答题前,考生务必将自己的姓名、考点名称、考场号、座位号用 0.5 毫米黑色墨水签 字笔填写在答题卡相对应的位置上,并认真核对条形码上的准考号、姓名是否与本人 相符合; 3.答选择题必须用 2B 铅笔把答题卡上对应题目的答案标号涂黑,如需救动,请用橡皮擦 干净后,再选涂其他答 ...