高中英语语法: 高中英语语法 名词性从句精讲精析 名词性从句精讲精析(
  1) ??主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句 名词性从句是由 if, whether, that 和各种疑问词充当连接词所引导的从句,其功能同名词 一样。 一.主语从句 主语从句是在复合句中充当主语的从句,通常放在主句谓语动词之前或由形式主语 it 代 替,而本身放在句子末尾。
  1. It 作形式主语和 it 引导强调句的比较 It 作形式主语代替主语从句,主要是为了平衡句子结构,主语从句的连接词没有变化。而 it 引导的强调句则是对句子某一部分进行强调,无论强调的是什么成分,都可用连词 that。 被强调部分指人是也可用 who/whom。例如: It is a pity that you didn’t go to see the film. It doesn’t interest me whether you succeed or not. It is in the morning that the murder took place. It is John that broke the window.
  2. 用 it 作形式主语的结构 (
  1) It is +名词+从句 It is a fact that … 事实是… It is an honor that …非常荣幸 It is common knowledge that …是常识 (
  2) it is +形容词+从句 It is natural that… 很自然… It is strange that… 奇怪的是… (
  3) it is +不及物动词+从句 It seems that… 似乎… It happened that… 碰巧… (
  4) it +过去分词+从句 It is reported that… 据报道… It has been proved that… 已证实…
  3. 主语从句不可位于句首的五种情况 (
  1) if 引导的主语从句不可居于复合句句首。 (
  2) It is said , (reported) …结构中的主语从句不可提前。例如:
It is said that President Jingo will visit our school next week. (right) That President Jiang will visit our school next week is said. (wrong) (
  3) It happens…, It occurs… 结构中的主语从句不可提前。例如: It occurred to him that he failed in the examination. (right) That he failed in the examination occurred to him. (wrong) (
  4) It doesn’t matter how/whether …结构中的主语从句不可提前。例如: It doesn’t matter whether he is wrong or not. (right) Whether he is wrong or not doesn’t matter. (wrong) (
  5) 含主语从句的复合句是疑问句时,主语从句不可提前。例如: Is it likely that it will rain in the evening? (right) Is that will rain in the evening likely? (wrong)
  4. What 与 that 在引导主语从句时的区别 What 引导主语从句时在句时在从句中充当句子成分,如主语、宾语、表语,而 that 则不 然。例如:
  1) What you said yesterday is right.
  2) That she is still alive is a consolation. 二.宾语从句 宾语从句就是在复合句中作宾语的名词性从句,通常放在主句谓语动词(及物动词)或 介词之后。
  1. 作动词的宾语 (
  1) 由 that 引导的宾语从句(that 通常可以省略),例如: I heard that he joined the army. (
  2) 由 what, whether (if) 引导的宾语从句,例如:
  1) She did not know what had happened.
  2) I wonder whether you can change this note for me. (
  3) 动词+间接宾语+宾语从句。例如: She told me that she would accept my invitation.
  2. 作介词的宾语 例如:Our success depends upon how well we can cooperate with one another.
  3. 作形容词的宾语 例如:I am afraid (that) I’ve made a mistake. That 引导的从句常跟在下列形容词后作宾语: anxious, aware, certain, confident, convinced, determined, glad, proud, surprised, worrie d, sorry, thankful, ashamed, disappointed, annoyed, pleased, hurt, satisfied, content 等。
也可以将此类词后的 that 从句的看作原因状语从句。
  4. It 可以作为形式宾语 It 不仅可以作为形式主语,还可以作为形式宾语,而真正的宾语 that 从句则放在句尾, 特别是在带复合宾语的句子中。 例如: We heard it that she would get married next month.
  5. 后边不能直接跟 that 从句的动词 这类动词有 allow, refuse, let, like, cause, force, admire, condemn, celebrate, dislike, love, help, take, forgive 等。这类词后可以用不定式或动名词作宾语,但不可以用 that 引导的宾语从句。例 如: I admire their winning the match. (right) I admire that they won the match. (wrong)
  6. 不可用 that 从句作直接宾语的动词 有些动词不可用于“动词+间接宾语+that 从句”结构中,常见的有 envy, order, accuse, refuse, impress, forgive, blame, denounce, advise, congratulate 等。 例如: He impressed the manager as an honest man. (right) He impressed the manager that he was an honest man. (wrong)
  7. 否定的转移 若主句谓语动词为 think, consider, suppose, believe, expect, fancy, guess, imagine 等, 其后的宾语从句若含有否定意义,一般要把否定词转移到主句谓语上,从句谓语用肯定式。 例如: I don’t think this dress fits you well.(我认为这件衣服不适合你穿。) 三.表语从句 表语从句在复合句中作表语的名词性从句,放在系动词之后,一般结构是“主语+连系动 词+表语从句”。可以接表语从句的连系动词有 be, look, remain, seem 等。引导表语从句的 that 常可省略。另外,常用的还有 the reason is that… 和 It is because 等结构。例如:
  1) The question is whether we can make good preparation in such a short time.
  2) This is why we can’t get the support of the people.
  3) But the fact remains that we are behind the other classes.
  4) The reason he is late for school is that he missed the early bus. 四.同位语从句 同位语从句就是在复合句中作名词的同位语的名词性从句。
  1. 同位语从句的功能
同位语从句对于名词进一步解释,说明名词的具体内容,一般由 that 引导,例如:
  1) The king’s decision that the prisoner would be set free surprised all the people.
  2) The order that all the soldiers should stay still is given by the general.
  2. 同位语在句子中的位置 同位语从句有时可以不紧跟在它所说明的名词后面,而是被别的词隔开。例如: He got the news from Mary that the sports meeting was put off.
  3. 同位语从句与定语从句的区别 (
  1) 定语从句中的 that 既代替先行词,同时可以在从句中作某个成分(主语或宾语),而同 位语从句中的 that 是连词,只起连接主句与从句的作用,不充当句中任何成分。 (
  2) 定语从句是形容词性的,其功能是修饰先行词,对先行词加以限定,描述定的性质或特 征;同位语从句是名词性的,其功能是对名词进行补充说明。例如:
  1) The news that he told me is that Tom would go abroad next year. (他告诉我的消息是汤 姆明年将出国。)(第一个 that 引导的从句是定语从句,that 在从句中作宾语)
  2)The news that Tom would go abroad is told by him. 汤姆将出国的消息是他讲的。 (同 ( ) 位语从句,that 在句中不作任何成分)
 

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