Grammar and usage
定语从句
成分 主语
所指 指人 指物
关系词
that/who that/which (that/who/whom) (that/which) whose/of whom whose/of which
宾语
指人 指物
定语
指人 指物
只用that 不用which的情况
在不定代词,如:anything, nothing, all, none, much, few, any, little等作先行词时 先行词有the only, the very修饰时 先行词为序数词、 形容词最高级时 先行词既有人,又有物时 当主句是以which开头的特殊疑问句时
Fill in the blanks with the proper relative words

  1.The most important thing we should that pay attention to is the first thing I have that said.
  2.This is the very dictionary I am that looking for.
  3. There is nothing can prevent him that from doing that.
  4. Who is the person is standing at the that gate?
只用which不用that的情况
引导非限定性定语从句时 介词后不能用
which
  6. I am looking for a box in I can put all my things. which
  7. Football, is a very interesting game, is played all over the world.
Are these two sentences right?
The man to who/whom you spoke is our headmaster. The city in that/which she lives is far away. 注意: 注意 介词+which(指物 不可省 介词 (指物),不可省 介词+whom (指人 不可省 指人),不可省 介词 介词后不用who、that 介词后不用 、
to The man whom you spoke is our headmaster.
in The city which she lives is far away.
on A. The farm which we worked ten years ago is beautiful.
B. This is the tree which we used under to play games.
preposition+which(指物) ( preposition+whom (指人) 指人)
How to choose the right prepositions

  1. 介词的确定方法 ①根据先行词来确定
?The money which you were to with buy dog food is gone. ?He will never forget the day on which he failed in the exam.
②根据定语从句中的谓语动词或形容词确定 We thought you were a person from whom we could expect good decisions. for The West Lake, which Hangzhou is famous, is a beautiful place.
③根据定语从句所表达的意义来确定 Air, which man can’t live, is really without important.
with The pen which he is writing now was bought yesterday.

  2. 介词的位置
①一般情况下,介词一般放在关系代词which和 一般情况下,介词一般放在关系代词 和 whom之前,也可放在动词后。 之前, 之前 也可放在动词后。 (who/whom/that) This is the man I learned the news from. from whom This is the man I learned the news.
(that/which) This is the room we lived in last year. in which This is the room we lived last year.
下面两句中的介词能提前吗? 下面两句中的介词能提前吗
Is this the watch that you are looking for? The old man whom I am looking after is better .
在固定短语中介词不能提前
②固定搭配的动词短语中的介词一般不能 提前. 提前 常见的这类动词短语有: 常见的这类动词短语有 look for/after/forward to, care for(照顾,喜欢) 照顾, 照顾 喜欢) hear of/about/from, take care of等. 等 This is the right place I’m looking for. The girl whom he is looking after is his sister.
介词+关系代词的使用 介词 关系代词的使用
on which
  1. Do you like the book she spent $10? for which
  2. Do you like the book she paid $10? from which
  3. Do you like the book she learned a lot? about which
  4. Do you like the book she often talks?

  5. The man I spoke on the to whom phone last night is very good at writing.
  6. Glasses, I can’t see without which clearly, are really important for me.
  7. China is a beautiful country, of which we are proud. on which
  8. Do you remember the day you joined our club?

  1.名词 介词 关系代词 名词+介词 名词 介词+关系代词 This is the teacher whose daughter is a famous doctor. the daughter of whom =This is the teacher is a famous doctor.
Recently I bought an ancient Chinese vase(花瓶), was very reasonable(合理的). A. which price B. the price of which C. its price D. the price of whose
?
  2.数词 介词 关系代词(含基数词,序数词,分数 数词+介词 含基数词, 数词 介词+关系代词 含基数词 序数词,
和百分数) 和百分数)
We have three foreign teachers, two of whom are from Canada. (其中的两个)
The factory produces half a million pairs of shoes every year, 80% are sold abroad. A. of which B. which of C. of them D. of that

  3. 代词 介词 关系代词(代词有 both, 代词+介词 介词+关系代词 代词有all,
none, neither, either, some, any等) 等
The old woman has two sons, both of whom are teachers.(两个都是) (两个都是)
Last week, two persons came to see the house, wanted to buy it. A. both of they B. neither of whom C. both of them D. all of whom

  4. 形容词最高级 介词 关系代词 形容词最高级+介词 介词+关系代词
China has thousands of islands, the largest of which is Taiwan Island. 其中最大的) (其中最大的)
There are two buildings, stands nearly a hundred feet high. A. the larger B. the larger of them C. the larger one that D. the larger of which

  5.介词 关系代词 名词 介词+关系代词 介词 关系代词+名词
He spent four years in college, during which time he studied medicine. (在那段时间内)
In the office, I never seem to have time until after 5:30 p.m., time many people have gone home. A. whose B. that C. on which D. by which
Whether to use a relative pronoun or a relative adverb?
要确定使用关系代词还是关系副词完全取决 从句中的谓语动词: 于从句中的谓语动词: (
  1)及物动词后面无宾语,用关系代词. (
  1)及物动词后面无宾语,用关系代词. 及物动词后面无宾语 常见的及物动词有visit, 常见的及物动词有visit, spend, expect, etc,; explain, etc,; (
  2)不及物动词后无介词时,用关系副词. (
  2)不及物动词后无介词时,用关系副词.常见 不及物动词后无介词时 的不及物动词有work, 的不及物动词有work, live, come, go,etc.
This is the factorywhere/in which I worked before. This is the factory I visited before. (which/that) This is the factory (which/that) I worked in. This is the factory in I worked. which
I will never forget the days when/during which we worked together. (that/which) I will never forget the days we spent together. which I will never forget the days during we worked together.
This is the reason I was late. why/for which (that/which) The reason he gave us was reasonable(合理的 reasonable(合理的). 合理的).
所指 时间
先行词
引导词
地点 原因
the when time/day/week/moment/ =at/in/on/during period/occasion which the place/room/situation where /case/point/activity =in/at/on which the reason why =for which
Look at the following sentences
Shakespeare is a famous writer, as we all know. She is very patient, as is known in her work. Einstein, as is well known, is a famous scientist. As can be seen, oceans cover more than 70% of the earth. I bought the same dictionary as you borrowed. They had such a fierce dog as I had never seen. They had such a fierce dog no one dare to that go near their house. as He is such a clever boy everyone likes. everyone likes him. that
Look at the following sentences
The child had a fever every night, which worried his parents very much. You pretended not to know me, which I didn’t understand. He admires everyone in the class, which I find quite strange.
常见的形式
As is known to all; as we all know; as is well-known; as anybody can see As we had expected; as often happens As is often the case As has been said before; as is mentioned above ; as (it ) appears; as is expected As is reported; as is announced
Practice makes perfect!
May you succeed in your studies!
Test yourself
  1. American women usually identify (表明)their best friend as someone 表明) 表明 they can talk frequently. A. who B. as C. about which ★ with whom D.
  2. The English play my students acted at the New Year’s Party was a great success. A. for which B. at which ★ in which D. on which9 C.

  3. In the office I never seem to have time until after 5:30 p.m., many people have gone home. A. whose B. that C. on which D. ★ by which time
  4. Tell me your reason you are against my program. A. which B. for that C. what ★ why D.
  5. I will give the gift to the student I think is honest in our class. A. whom B. which C. that ★ who D.

  6. She is the one of the girls who passed the examination. A. was B. were ★ has D. have C.
  7. It is the third time late this month. A. that you arrived B. when you arrived ★ C. that you’ve arrived D. when you’ve arrived

  8.The journey around the world took the old sailor 9 months, the sailing time was 226 days. A. of which B. during which
C. from which D. for which

  9. There are 62 students in our class, 26 are girls. D A. more than C. less than B. in which D. of whom

  10.Next month, you’ll spend in B your hometown, is coming. A. when B. which C. where D. that
  11. Water boils at 100℃, ℃ B temperature it changes to gas. A. on which C. which B. at which D. when

  12. Do you know the street Mr. A Wang once lived? A. on which B. that C. which D. in that
  13.The reason he got a bad cold is A that he was caught in a heavy rain. A. why B. when C. which D. in which
  14.I received C nice a gift my boyfriend promised. A. the same , as B. such, as C. as, as D. the same, that

  15. He is the only one of the students want to follow the teacher’s advice. C A. that don’t B. that do C. who doesn’t D. who don’t
  16.It is an island A name I’ve forgotten. It is an island the name I’ve… B A. whose B. of which C. which D. whom
  17.I can still remember the sitting room my mother and I used to sit in the B evening. A. what B. where C. which D. that

  18. I’ll never forget the days I spent my B holiday in Guangzhou. I’ll never forget the days I spent with A you in Guangzhou. A. which B. when C. on which D. for which
  19.There was a time there were slaves in D the USA. A. that B. which C. what D. when
  20.Word came of his success abroad, D filled the parents’ heart with pride. A. that B. whom C. who D. which

  21.How do you like the book? C It’s quite different from I read last month. A. that B. which C. the one D. the one what A
  22. I will hire the man they say is a good English speaker. A. who B. that C. which D. whom
  23. What surprised me was not what he said but A he said it. A. the way B. in the way that C. in the way D. the way which C
  24. He hated the way the whites treated the blacks. A. which B. in that C. that D. by which
D
  25. The book , the cover is broken, is not mine. A. of it B. for which C. whose D. of which
  26. is known to the world, Mark Twain is a C great American writer. A. That B. Which C. As D. It
  27.I don’t know about Zhang Yimou, I saw a C week ago. A. one of his films B. one film of his C. one of whose films D. one of which films
  28. There are altogether eleven books on the shelf, C five are mine. A. on which B. in which C. of which D. from which
  29. John said he had been working in the office, C was true. A. he B. this C. which D. as

  30.Great changes have taken place in that school. It is no A longer it was 20 years ago, it was so poorly equipped. A. what, when B. that, which C. what, which D. which, that
  31. Last month, part of Southeast Asia was struck by B floods, from effects the people are still suffering. A. that B. whose C. those D. what
  32.Mark was a student at this university from 1999 to 2003, A he studied very hard and was made Chairman of the Students’ Union. A. during which time B. for which time C. during whose time D. by that time
 

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