高中英语语法讲解--倒装
倒装语序分为"全部倒装"和"部分倒装".在全部倒装的句子中,整个谓语都放在 主语的前面;在部分倒装的句子中,只是谓语中的一部分(如助动词,情态动词或系 动词 be 等)放在主语前面,其余部分仍放在主语后面.下面将常见的倒装情况分述 如下: 1,倒装句之全部倒装 全部倒装是只将句子中的谓语动词全部置于主语之前. 此结构通常只用与一般现在时 和一般过去时.常见的结构有:
  1) here, there, now, then, thus 等副词置于句首, 谓语动词常用 be, come, go, lie, run 等, 例如: There goes the bell. Here is your letter.
  2) 表示运动方向的副词或地点状语置于句首,谓语表示运动的动词,例如: Out rushed a group of students from the classroom. Ahead sat an old woman. 注意: 上述全部倒装的句型结构的主语必须是名词, 如果主语是人称代词则不能完全 倒装.例如: Here he comes. / Away they went. / Then came the chairman.
2,倒装句之部分倒装 部分倒装是指将谓语的一部分如助动词或情态倒装至主语之前. 如果句中的谓语没有 助动词或情态动词,则需添加助动词 do, does 或 did,并将其置于主语之前.
  1) 句首为否定或半否定的词语, no, not, never, seldom, little, hardly, at no time, in no 如 way, not until … 等. Never have I seen such a performance. Nowhere will you find the answer to this question. Not until the child fell asleep did the mother leave the room. 当 Not until 引出主从复合句,主句倒装,从句不倒装. 注意: 如否定词不在句首不倒装,例如:
I have never seen such a performance. The mother didn't leave the room until the child fell asleep. 典型例题
  1.? Why can't I smoke here? ? At no time in the meeting-room. A. is smoking permitted C. smoking is it permitted B. smoking is permitted D. does smoking permit
答案 A. 这是一个倒装问题.当否定词语置于句首以表示强调时,其句中的主谓须用 倒装结构.这些否定词包括 no, little, hardly, seldom, never, not only, not until 等.本题 的正常语序是 Smoking is permitted in the meeting-room at no time.
  2. Not until the early years of the 19th century what heat is. A. man did know C. didn't man know B. man know D. did man know
答案 D. 看到 Not until…的句型,我们知道为一倒装句,答案在 C,D 中选一个.改 写为正常语序为,Man did not know what heat is until the early years of the 19th. 现在将 not 提前,后面就不能再用否定了,否则意思就变了. 3,以否定词开头作部分倒装 如: Not only…but also, Hardly/Scarcely…when, No sooner… than Not only did he refuse the gift, he also severely criticized the sender. Hardly had she gone out when a student came to visit her. No sooner had she gone out than a student came to visit her. 典型例题 No sooner than it began to rain heavily. A. the game began C. did the game begin B. has the game begun D. had the game begun
答案 D. 以具有否定意义的副词放在句首时,一般采用倒装句(谓语前置).这类表示 否定意义的词有 never, seldom, scarcely, little, few, not, hardly, 以及 not only…but (also), no sooner…than, hardly… when scarcely… when 等等. 注意:只有当 Not only… but also 连接两个分句时,才在第一个分句用倒装结构.如
果置于句首的 Not only… but also 仅连接两个并列词语,不可用倒装结构. Not only you but also I am fond of music. 4,so, neither, nor 作部分倒装 表示"也","也不" 的句子要部分倒装,例如: Tom can speak French. So can Jack. If you won't go, neither will I. 典型例题 -- Do you know Jim quarrelled with his brother? -- I don't know, . A. nor don't I care C. I don't care neither B. nor do I care D. I don't care also
答案 B.nor 为增补意思"也不关心",因此句子应倒装.A.错在用 don't 再次否定, C. neither 用法不对且缺乏连词.D. 缺乏连词. 注意:当 so 引出的句子用以对上文内容加以证实或肯定时,不可用倒装结构.意为" 的确如此". Tom asked me to go to play football and so I did. "It's raining hard." 5,as, though 引导的倒装句 as / though 引导的让步从句必须将表语或状语提前(形容词, 副词, 分词, 实 义动词提前) ,例如: Old as my father is, he keeps up with his English study. Child as he is, he knows something of electricity. Tired as he was, he continued to work. Young as she was, she was already director of a factory. Try hard as he will, he never seems able to do the work satisfactorily. 注意:
  1) 句首名词不能带任何冠词.句首是实义动词, 其他助动词放在主语后.如 果实义动词有宾语和状语, 随实义动词一起放在主语之前. "So it is."

  2) 让步状语从句中,有 though,although 时,后面的主句不能有 but,但是
though 和 yet 可连用. 6,only 在句首要倒装的情况 Only in this way, can you learn English well. Only after being asked three times did he come to the meeting. 如果句子为主从复合句,则主句倒装,从句不倒装,例如: Only when he is seriously ill, does he ever stay in bed. 7,其他部分倒装
  1) so… that 句型中的 so 位于句首时,需倒装. So frightened was he that he did not dare to move an inch.
  2) 在某些表示祝愿的句型中: May you all be happy. 可将 if 省略, were, 把
  3) 在虚拟语气条件句中从句谓语动词有 were, had, should 等词, had, should 移到主语之前,采取部分倒装. Were I you, I would try it again. 典型例题:
  1. Not until the early years of the 19th century what heat is. A. man did know C. didn't man know B. man knew D. did man know

  2. Not until I began to work how much time I had wasted. A. didn't I realize C. I didn't realize B. did I realize D. I realize

  3. ? Do you know Tom bought a new car? ? I don't know, . A. nor don't I care C. I don't care neither B. nor do I care D. I don't care also
答案为 D. Not until 引导的词组位于句首,后面的句子要倒装. 答案为 B. Not until 引导从句位于句首,后面的主句要倒装. 答案为 B.句中的 nor 引出部分倒装结构,表示"也不".由 so, neither, nor 引导的倒 装句, 表示前一情况的重复出现. 其中, so 用于肯定句, 而 neither, nor 用在否定句中.
倒装句考查热点归纳 一,与 only 有关的倒装句
  1. (2004 重庆)I failed in the final examination last term and only then __D the importance of studies. A. I realized C. had I realized B. I had realized D. did I realize

  2. (2001 北京) C can you expect to get a pay rise. A. With hard work C. Only with hard work B. Although work hard D. Now that he works hard

  3. (2005 福建)Only after my friend came C. A. did the computer repair C. was the computer repaired B. he repaired the computer D. the computer was repaired

  4. (2001 上海春季)Only when the war was over __A to his hometown. A. did the young soldier return B. the young soldier returned C. returned the young soldier D. the young soldier did return

  5. (2003 上海)Only when your identity has been checked . A. you are allowed in C. will you allow in B. you will be allowed in D. will you be allowed in
解题要领:only 引导的倒装句的结构是:only+副词/介词短语/状语从句+助动词+ 句子剩余部分. 技巧点拨: ①only 修饰主语时,不需要倒装; ②倒装是把助动词提前,而不是把谓语动词提前.同时还需考虑题目的时态及语态; ③倒装是指主句的语序倒装,only 修饰的状语从句或句子中的其它附属从句语序不 变. 二,与 not only…but also 有关的倒装句

  1. (1991 上海卷)Not only C polluted, but crowded. A. was the city; were the streets C. was the city; the streets were B. the city was; the streets were D. the city was; were the streets

  2. (2002 上海春季卷)Not only D interested in football but beginning to show an interest. A. the teacher himself is; all his B. the teacher himself is; are all C. is the teacher himself; are all D. is the teacher himself; all his
  3. (2004 上海卷) _B snacks and drinks, but they also brought cards for entertainment when they had a picnic in the forest. A. Not only they bought C. Not only brought they B. Not only did they bring D. Not only they did bring
解题要领:not only 引导的倒装句结构为:not only+助动词+句子剩余部分. not only…but also…在连接两个句子时,前面的句子要倒装,后面的句子不倒装. 技巧点拨:识别此类题目干扰项的特点: ①两个句子都倒装;或者两个句子都不倒装; ②前面的句子不倒装,后面的句子倒装; ③缺少助动词. 三,与 neither 有关的倒装句
  1. (2004 广东卷)Of the making of good books there is no end; neither C any end to their influence on man's lives. A. there is B. there are C. is there D. are there

  2. (2004 全国卷Ⅲ)?I would never come to this restaurant again. The food is terrible. ?B. A. Nor am I B. Neither would I C. Same with me D. So do I
解题要领:neither/nor 放在句首,表示前面的否定内容也适用于另一个人或物. 技巧点拨:neither/nor 引导的倒装结构为:neither/nor+助动词+主语(there be 句型 应为 there). 反意疑问句
  1) 陈述部分的主语是 I'm ,疑问部分要用 aren't I. I'm as tall as your sister,aren't I?

  2) 陈述部分的谓语是 wish,疑问部分要用 may +主语. I wish to have a word with you, may I?
  3) 陈述部分用 no, nothing, nobody, never, few, seldom, hardly, rarely, little 等否定含义的词时,疑问部分用肯定含义.
Some plants never blown (开花), do they ?
  4)) 含有 ought to 的反意疑问句,陈述部分是肯定的,疑问部分用 shouldn't / oughtn't +主语.
He ought to know what to do, oughtn't he? / shouldn't he?
  5)陈述部分有 have to +v. (had to + v.),疑问部分常用 don't +主语 (didn't +主语) . We have to get there at eight tomorrow, don't we?
  6)陈述部分的谓语是 used to 时,疑问部分用 didn't +主语或 usedn't + 主语. He used to take pictures there, didn't he? / usedn't he?
  7) 陈述部分有 had better + v. 疑问句部分用 hadn't you? You'd better read it by yourself, hadn't you?
  8) 陈述部分有 would rather +v.,疑问部分多用 wouldn't +主语. He would rather read it ten times than recite it, wouldn't he?
  9) 陈述部分有 You'd like to +v. 疑问部分用 wouldn't +主语. You'd like to go with me, wouldn't you?
  10) 陈述部分有 must 的疑问句,疑问部分根据实际情况而定. He must be a doctor, isn't he? You must have studied English for three years, haven't you? / didn't you? He must have finished it yesterday, didn't he?
  11) 感叹句中,疑问部分用 be +主语. What colors, aren't they?
  12) 陈述部分由 neither… nor, either… or 连接的并列主语时, 疑问部分 根据其实际逻辑意义而定.
Neither you nor I am engineer, are we?
  13) 陈述部分主语是指示代词或不定代词 everything, that, nothing,
this,
  14)
疑问部分主语用 it.
Everything is ready, isn't it?
陈述部分为主语从句或并列复合句,疑问部分有三种情况:
a. 并列复合句疑问部分,谓语动词根据邻近从句的谓语而定. Mr. Smith had been to Beijing for several times; he should have been in China then , shouldn't he? b. 带有定语从句,宾语从句的主从复合句,疑问部分谓语根据主 句的谓 语而定: He is not the man who gave us a talk, is he? He said he wanted to visit Japan, didn't he? c. 上述部分主句谓语是 think, believe, expect, suppose, imagine 等引导 的宾语从句(尤其当主句主语是第一人称时),疑问部分与宾语从句 相对应构成反意疑问句. I don't think he is bright, is he? We believe she can do it better, can't she?
  15) 陈述部分主语是不定代词 everybody, anyone, somebody, nobody, no one 等,疑问部分常用复数 they,有时也用单数 he. Everyone knows the answer, don't they? (does he?)
Nobody knows about it, do they? (does he?)
  16)带情态动词 dare 或 need 的反意疑问句,疑问部分常用 need (dare ) + 主语. We need not do it again, need we ? He dare not say so, dare you? 当 dare, need 为实义动词时,疑问部分用助动词 do + 主语. She doesn't dare to go home alone, does she?
  17) 省去主语的祈使句的反意疑问句,疑问部分用 will you. Don't do that again, will you? Go with me, will you / won't you ? 注意: Let's 开头的祈使句,后用 shall we? Let us 开头的祈使句,后用 will you? Let's go and listen to the music, shall we?
Let us wait for you in the reading-room, will you ?
  18) 陈述部分是"there be"结构的,疑问部分用 there 省略主语代词. There is something wrong with your watch, isn't there? There will not be any trouble, will there?
  19) 否定前缀不能视为否定词,其反意疑问句仍用否定形式. It is impossible, isn't it? He is not unkind to his classmates, is he?
  20) must 在表"推测"时,根据其推测的情况来确定反意疑问句. He must be there now, isn't he? It must be going to rain tomorrow, won't it?
 

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