虚拟语气在非真实条件句中 从句 与现在事实相 反的假设 If + 主语+助动词的过 去式(were, did, had) 主句 主语+ should/would/could/might+ 动词原形 例句 If I had time, I would attend the meeting. If I were you, I should seize the opportunity to go abroad. If you had taken my advice, you would not have failed in the exam. If you came tomorrow, we would have the meeting. If it were to rain tomorrow, we would put off the sports meeting. If he should not come tomorrow, we should put off the meeting till next Monday.
与过去事实相 反的假设 与将来事实相 反的假设
If +主语+had+过去分词
主 语 +should/would/could/might +have+过去分词 主语+ should/would/could/might+ 动词原形
① If+ 主 语 + 动 词 过 去 式 ② If+主语+were to+动 词原形 ③ If+ 主 语 +should+ 动 词原形(注意不能是 注意不能是 would)
①错综时间条件句 错综时间条件句: 错综时间条件句 当条件状语从句表示的行为和主句表示的行为所发生的时间不一致时,被称为错综时间条件句,动 词的形式要根据它表示的时间作出相应的调整。如: If you had followed my advice just now, you would be better now. If you had studied hard before, you would be a college student now.
②if 省略句 在条件句中可以省略 if, 把 were, had, should 提到句首,变成倒装句式。如: If I were at school again, I would study harder. →Were I at school again, I would study harder. 如果我还有上学的机会,我会更加努力学习。 If you had come earlier, you would catch the bus. →Had you come earlier, you would catch the bus. 如果你来得早点,你就能赶上公共汽车。 If it should rain tomorrow, we would not go climbing. →Should it rain tomorrow, we would not go climbing. 如果明天下雨的话,我们就不能登山去了。
③用介词代替条件状语从句 用介词代替条件状语从句 用介词代替条件 常用的介词有 with, without, but for。如: What would you do with a million dollars? (=if you had a million dollars) 如果你有 100 万元,你会做什么?
We couldn’t have finished the work ahead of time without your help. (=if we hadn’t got your help) 没有你的帮助,我们不可能提前完成这项工作。 Without your help, we couldn’t have finished the work ahead of time. = But for your help, … = If it had not been for your help, … = Had it not been for you help, … 没有你的帮助,我们不可能提前完成这项工作。
④含蓄条件句 含蓄条件句 有时在虚拟语气中并不总是出现 if 引导的条件句,而是通过其他手段来代替条件句。如: I was ill that day. Otherwise, I would have taken part in the sports meeting. (副词) He telephoned to inform me of your birthday, or I would have known nothing about it. (连词) A man who stopped drinking water would be dead in about seven days. (定语从句) I might have given you more help, but I was too busy. (连词) Everything taken into consideration, they would have raised their output quickly. (独立主格结构)
⑤even if, even though 也可用于虚拟语气,其形式与 if 从句在虚拟语气中的形式相同。
习题
  1. If my lawyer___here last Saturday, he___me from going. A. had been, would have prevented B. had been, would prevent C. were, would prevent D. were, would have prevented
  2. If it___for the snow, we___the mountain yesterday. A. were not, could have climbed B. were not, could climb C. had not been, could have climbed D. had not been, could climb
  3. Without electricity(电) human life___quite difficult today. A. is B. will be C. would have been D. would be
  4. I didn’t see your sister at the meeting, if she___, she would have met my brother. A. has come B. did come C. came D. had come
  5. When the pencil is partly in a glass of water, it looks as if it___.
A. breaks
B. has broken
C. were broken
D. had been broken

  6. He hesitated(犹豫) for a moment before kicking(踢) the ball. Otherwise he___a goal. A. had scored B. scored C. would score D. would have scored
  7. ___right now, she would get there on Sunday. A. Would she leave B. If she leaves C. Were she to leave D. If she had left
  8. Had he worked harder, he___the exam. A. must have got through B. would have got through C. would get through D. could get through
  9. He must have had an accident, or he___then. A. would have been here B. had to be here C. should be here D. would be here
  10. A. B. C. D. ___for my illness I would have lent him a helping hand. Not being Had it not been Without being Not having been

  11. We didn’t know his telephone number, otherwise we___him. A. would have called B. must have telephoned C. would telephone D. had telephoned
 

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