非谓语动词 一:基本形态及表达作用
  1.一般式不定式 (to)+ do
  1.1 说明行为在谓语动词所表示的行为之后,多数是那些表愿望的词:want; hope; expect; wish 等。 I want to go home. I hope to see you.
  1.2 说明行为与谓语动词表示的行为同时发生,多数是那些省略不定式符号的词,一般是复 合宾语。 I saw him come in. He helped him (to) carry things.
  2.一般式动名词 V-ing
  2.1 表示动作与谓语动词表示的动作同时发出。 We enjoyed seeing the film. I am thinking of taking over the job.
  2.2 在动词 insist on; rely on; count on(相信)等后表示动作在谓语动词表示的动作之后发生。 He insisted on doing that work
  2.3 在有些明确表示时间先后的动词和介词 on; upon after 代替完成动名词表示的动作在谓 语动词表示的动作先发生。 I remember seeing him before. On arriving Beijing, he went to see his friend.
  3.1 现在分词 v+ing
  1.1 持续性动词 说明分词表示的动作和句中谓语动词表示的动作同时发生。 He stood there speaking. Holding a book under his arm, he entered the room.
  1.2 终止性动词 说明分词表示的动作发生之后,句中谓语动词表示的动作立刻发生。 Entering the room, I found nobody in. Turning to the right, you will find the post office.
  3.2 过去分词
  2.1 通常说明分词表示的动作,此句中谓语动词表示的动作先发生。 Written in simple English, the book is easy to read. I can't find my lost pen.
  2.2 说明分词表示的动作和句中谓语动词表示的动作并无先后。 He is a person well-known in this country.
  2.3 代替完成式现在分词的被动语态。 Educated by the party, he became a brave fighter.
  4.完成式不定式 to+have done
  4.1 说明行为动词在谓语动词表示的行为动词之前发生。 I'm sorry to have troubled you. He is said to have come here. He is thought to have done it. He is believed to have done it. He seemed to have known it.
  4.2 在 wish, hope, expect, intend, mean, suppose 等动词过去时后,说明行为动词没有实 现。 We wished to have done this. I expected to have left by then.
(=I had expected to heave by then.)
  5.完成式动名词 having+done 说明动名词表示的动作,此句中动词表示的动作先发生。 We regret having told you the news. After having finished his work, he went home. He denied having broke the glasses.
  6.完成式分词 having+done 说明分词表示的动作,此句中谓语动词表示的动作先发生。多数表示一些瞬时间动词。如果 是 hear; see 或表示位置转移的动词 arrive; leave; turn; open.不用完成时 Having finished his work, he went home. Sitting down with him, we begun to discuss it. Hearing this, he rose and went to the door.
二:非谓语动词用法对比 (一)不定式与动名词做主语:
  1、动名词做主语往往表示普通的、一般的行为,不定式做主语常表示某次具体的行为。例 如: Collecting information about children’s health is his job. 收集有关儿童健康的信息是他的 工作。 It’s necessary to discuss the problem with an experienced teacher. 与一位有经验的老师 讨论这个问题是有必要的。
  2.1 It’s difficult (important, necessary) for sb. to do
  2.2 It’s kind (good, friendly, polite, careless, rude, cruel, clever, foolish, brave) of sb. to do.
  3、常用动名词做主语的句型有: It’s no good (use, fun) doing. It’s (a) waste of time one’s doing. It’s worth while doing.
  1、不定式做表语常表示谓语动词所表示动作之后发生的动作。 His teaching aim of this class is to train the students’ speaking ability. 他这节课的教学目 的是要训练学生说的能力。
  2、动名词做表语是对主语内容的解释,这时主语与表语位置可以互换,动名词常用于口语 中。 Its full-time job is laying eggs. 它的(指蚁后)的专职工作是产卵。
  3、现在分词做表语表示主语的性质与特征;进行时表示正在进行的动作。 The task of this class is practising the idioms. (现在分词做表语) With the help of the teacher, the students are practising the idioms. (现在进行时)
  4、常用作表语的现在分词有:interesting, amusing, disappointing, missing, puzzling, exciting, inspiring, following 等。现在分词表示进行与主动。 The joke is amusing .这笑话很逗人。 The problem is puzzling. 这个问题令人不解。
  5、过去分词作表语表示主语所处的被动状态或完成某动作的状态。而被动语态表示主语所 承受的动作。 The village is surrounded by high mountains.(过去分词做表语) The enemy was surrounded by the Red Army.(被动语态) He is well educated.(过去分词做表语) He has been educated in this college for three years.(被动语态) 常用在句中做表语的过去分词有:
used, closed, covered, interested, followed, satisfied, surrounded, done, lost, decided, prepared, saved, shut, won, completed, crowded, dressed, wasted, broken, married, unexpected 等。
  6、注意如下动词的现在分词与过去分词用法不同: interest(使…感兴趣),surprise(使…吃惊),frighten(使…害怕),excite(使…兴奋), tire(使…疲劳),please(使…满意),puzzle(使…迷惑不解),satisfy(使…满意), amuse(使…娱乐),disappoint(使…失望),inspire(使…欢欣鼓舞),worry(使…忧 虑) 它们的现在分词常修饰物(有时修饰人),表示主动,过去分词常修饰人,表示被动(包括 某人的 look、voice 等)。例如: Climbing is tiring. 爬山很累人。 They are very tired. 他们很疲劳 After hearing the exciting news, he gave a speech in an excited voice.
(三) 不定式与动名词做宾语:
  1、下列动词跟不定式做宾语: want, wish, hope, expect, ask, pretend, care, decide, happen, long, offer, refuse, fail, plan, prepare, order, cause, afford, beg, manage, agree, promise 等。
  2、在下列动词或动词短语后用动名词做宾语: enjoy, finish, suggest, avoid, excuse, delay, imagine, keep, miss, appreciate, be busy, be worth, feel like, can’t stand, can’t help, think of, dream of, be fond of, prevent…(from), keep…from, stop…(from), protect…from, set about, be engaged in, spend…(in), succeed in, be used to, look forward to, object to, pay attention to, insist on 等。
  3、在 forget, remember, stop, regret, try, mean 等动词后跟不定式与动名词意义不同,不 定式表示谓语动词之后的动作,而动名词表示的动作发生在谓语动词之前,常用一般式 doing 代替完成式 having done. He forgot to tell me to post the letter.(他忘了叫我发信。)
I shall never forget finding that rare stamp on an ordinary envelope. 我永远也忘不了在一 个普通信封上发现了那枚珍贵的邮票。 Remember to write to us when you get there. 到那里,记得给我们写信。 I don’t remember meeting him. 我不记得见过他。 I regret to tell you that I can’t go to your birth-day party. 我很遗憾告诉你我不能去参加你的 生日晚会了。 They regretted agreeing to the plan. 他们后悔同意这个计划。 He tried to pretend to share in the pleasure with his friend. 他尽力假装与朋友分享欢乐。 She tried reading a novel, but that couldn’t make her forget her sorrow. 她试着看看小说, 但也不能使她忘记伤心事。 I didn’t mean to hurt you. 我没有企图伤害你。 A friend indeed means helping others for nothing in return. 真正的朋友意指不图回报地帮 助别人。
  4、动名词作 need, want, require, be worth 的宾语时,用主动式代替被动式。 The washing-machine needs repairing.(或用:needs to be repaired)这台洗衣机需要修 理。 The point wants referring to. 这一点要提到。 This English novel is worth reading. 这本英文小说值得一读。 The situation in Russian required studying. 俄国形式需要研究。
(四) 不定式与分词在句中做宾语补足语:
  1、以下动词后跟不定式做宾语补足语: ask, tell, beg, allow, want, like, hate, force, invite, persuade, advise, order, cause, encourage, wait for, call on, permit, forbid
The doctor advised him to stay in bed for another few days. 医生嘱咐他再卧床休息几天。 We wish him to remain and accept the post. 我们希望他留下来接受这个职位。 (注意 hope 后不跟不定式做宾补。)
  2、有些动词后的复合宾语用不带“to“的不定式,这些动词有:see, watch, notice, hear, feel, make, let, have 等。例如: We noticed him enter the house. 我们留意到他进了那所房子。 The boss made them work twelve hours a day. 老板让他们一天干 12 小时工作。 注意当 make、have 不做“迫使、让”讲,而做“制造、有”解时,跟带有 to 的不定式做状语。 Mother made a cake to celebrate his birthday. 妈妈做了一个蛋糕给他庆贺生日。 He had a meeting to attend. 他有个会要开。
  3、 下列动词后的复合宾语用分词做宾补: see, watch, notice, observe, hear, feel, make, set, have, leave, keep, find 等。用现在分词还是用过去分词做宾补,要看分词与宾语的关系。 例: We heard him singing the song when we came in. 当我们进来的时候, 听见他正唱那首歌。 We have heard the song sung twice. 我们听过这首歌唱过两遍了。
(五) 非谓语动词做定语:
  1、不定式做定语放在所修饰的名词后,表示在谓语动词之后发生的动作或过去的某一特定 动作。例如: He had no house to live in but a lot of work to do. 他没有房子住却有好多活要干。 Our monitor is the first to arrive. 我们班长是第一个到的。
  2、动名词与现在分词做定语的区别: 动名词做定语说明所修饰名词的用途;现在分词做定语,表示所修饰名词进行的动作。 a walking stick 拐杖(动名词做定语,意为 a stick for walking)
a sleeping car 卧铺车厢(动名词做定语,意为 a car for sleeping) the rising sun 正在升起的太阳(现在分词做定语,意为 the sun which was rising) the changing world 变化中的世界(现在分词做定语,意为 the world which is changing)
  3、现在分词与过去分词做定语的区别:过去分词做定语表示完成或被动的动作,现在分词 做定语表示主动或进行的动作。如: a piece of disappointing news 使人失望的消息(意同 a piece of news which disappointed us) in the following years 在后来的几年中(意同 in the years that followed) a well dressed woman 衣着讲究的女士(意同 a woman who is dressed well) a car parked at the gate 停在门口的小汽车(意同 a car which was parked at the gate)
(六) 不定式与分词做状语:
  1、不定式做状语,只表示目的、结果或原因: He hurried home only to find his money stolen. 他匆忙赶到家中,发现钱被盗了。(结果 状语) To make himself heard, he raised his voice. 为了被听清楚,他提高了嗓门。(目的状语) All of us are surprised to see his rapid progress. 看到他的进步, 我们都很吃惊。 (原因状语)
  2、分词做状语可表示时间、条件、原因、伴随、让步、方式: Seen from the top of the hill, the town is beautiful. 从山上看,这座城市很美。(条件状语) Coming into the room, he found his father angry. 当走进房间时,他发现父亲生气了。(时 间状语) Being tired, they went on working. 虽然累了,但他们继续工作。(让步状语)
Having been hit by the big boy on the nose, the little boy began to cry. 由于被大孩子打了 鼻子,那个小男孩哭了。(原因状语) He put a finger in his mouth, tasted it and smiled, looking rather pleased. 他把一个手指放 进嘴里,尝了尝,笑了,看起来挺高兴。(伴随状语)



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