引导定语从句的关系代词 who,which 有时可与 that 互换使用。 但在下面情况, 一般只用 that。 一、当先行词为不定代词 anything, everything, nothing, any, little, one, few, much, all, none 等时。如: a.There isn't much that I can do. b.He is one of the few that can work it out in five minutes. 二、当先行词是形容词最高级或被形容词最高级修饰时。如: a.The book is the best that I have read. b.This is the biggest laboratory that we have ever built in our university. 三、当先行词是序数词或其被序数词修饰时。如: a. It is the third one that I've bought. b.This is the first place that I've ever visited. 四、当先行词被 the very, the only 等词修饰时。如: a.Is this the very museum that you visited the other day? b.This is the only book that I need at present. 五、 当先行词包含了人和事物两方面的含义时。 如: They talked of things and persons that they remembered in the school. 六、当先行词被 same 修饰,且指“同一物品”时。如: She is wearing the same dress that she wore yesterday. 七、关系代词在定语从句中作表语时。如: a.This is no longer the place that it used to be. b.He is not the man that he was. 八、当主句是以 who,which 开头的特殊疑问句或先行词是 who 时。如: a.Which is the book that he bought yesterday? b.Who that you have ever seen can beat him in 定语从句是由关系代词和关系副词引导的从句, 其作用是作定语修饰主句的某个名次性成分, 定语从句分为限定性和非限定性从句两种。 一、 限定性定语从句
  1. that 即可代表事物也可代表人,which 代表事物;它们在从句中作主语或宾语,that 在 从句中作宾语时常可省略关系词,which 在从句中作宾语则不能省略。而且,如果 which 在 从句中作“不及物动词+介词”的介词的宾语,注意介词不要丢掉,而且介词总是放在关系 代词 which 的前边,但有的则放在它原来的位置
  2. which 作宾语时,根据先行词与定语从句之间的语义关系,先行词与 which 之间的介词不 能丢
  3. 代表物时多用 which,但在带有下列词的句子中用 that 而不用 which,这些词包括 all, anything, much 等,这时的 that 常被省略
  4. who 和 whom 引导的从句用来修饰人,分别作从句中的主语和宾语,whom 作宾语时,要注 意它可以作动词的宾语也可以作介词的宾语
  5. where 是关系副词,用来表示地点的定语从句
  6. when 引导定语从句表示时间 〔注〕值得一提的是,表示时间“time"一词的定语从句只用 when 引导,有时不用任何关系 代词,当然也不用 that 引导
By the time you arrive in London, we will have stayed there for two weeks. I still remember the first time I met her. Each time he goes to besiness trip, he brings a lot of living necessities, such as towers, soap, toothbrush etc.
  7. whose 是关系代词,修饰名词作定语,相当于所修饰成分的前置所有格
  8. 当从句的逻辑主语是 some, any, no, somebody, anybody, nobody, something, anything, everything 或 nothing 时,常用 there is 来引导 二、非限定性定语从句:非限定性定语从句的作用是对所修饰的成分作进一步说明,通常和 主句间用逗号隔开,将从句拿掉后其他部分仍可成立
  1. which 引导的非限定性定语从句来说明前面整个句子的情况或主句的某一部分
  2. 在引导限定性定语从句时,that 有时相当于 in which, at which, for which 或 at which Attitudes towards daydreaming are changing in much the same way that(in which) attitudes towards night dreaming have changed. 人们对白日做梦的态度正在改变,这与 人们对夜间做梦的看法的变化有非常相似之处。 I like the music for the very reason that(for which) he dislike it. 我出于某种原 因喜欢这种音乐,而他恰恰与我相反。 We arrived the day that(on which) they left. 刚好我们到的那天他们走了。
  3. 有时 as 也可用作关系代词
  4. 在非限定性定语从句中,不能用 that,而用 who, whom 代表人,用 which 代表事物. 一.定语从句及相关术语
  1.定语从句: 修饰一个名词或代词的从句称为定语从句, 一般紧跟在它所修饰的先行词后面。
  2.关系词:引导定语从句的关联词成为关系词 关系词有关系代词和关系副词。关系代词有 that, which, who, whom, whose, as 等;关系 副词有 where, when, why 等。 关系词常有 3 个作用:
  1,引导定语从句。
  2,代替先行词。
  3,在定语从句中担当一个成分。
二.关系代词引导的定语从句
  1.who 指人,在从句中做主语 (
  1) (
  2) The boys who are playing football are from Class One. Yesterday I helped an old man who lost his way.

  2. whom 指人,在定语从句中充当宾语,常可省略。 (
  1) Mr. Liu is the person (whom) you talked about on the bus. (
  2) Mr. Ling is just the boy whom I want to see. 注意:关系代词 whom 在口语和非正式语体中常用 who 代替,可省略。 (
  3) The man who/whom you met just now is my friend.
  3. which 指物,在定语从句中做主语或者宾语,做宾语时可省略 (
  1) Football is a game which is liked by most boys. (
  2) This is the pen (which) he bought yesterday.
  4. that 指人时,相当于 who 或者 whom;指物时,相当于 which。在宾语从句中做主语或者 宾语,做宾语时可省略。 (
  5) The number of the people that/who come to visit the city each year rises one million. (
  6) Where is the man that/whom I saw this morning?
  5. whose 通常指人,也可指物,在定语从句中做定语 (
  1) He has a friend whose father is a doctor. (
  2) I once lived in a house whose roof has fallen in. whose 指物时,常用以下结构来代替 (
  3) (
  4) The classroom whose door is broken will soon be repaired. The classroom the door of which is broken will soon be repaired.
(
  5) (
  6)
Do you like the book whose cover is yellow? Do you like the book the color of which is yellow?
三.介词+关系代词引导的定语从句 关系代词在定语从句中做介词宾语时,从句常由介词+关系代词引导 (
  1) (
  2) (
  3) (
  4) (
  5) (
  6) The school (that/which) he once studied in is very famous. The school in which he once studied is very famous. Tomorrow I will bring here a magazine (that/which) you asked for. Tomorrow I will bring here a magazine for which you asked. We’ll go to hear the famous singer (whom/that/who) we have often talked about. We’ll go to hear the famous singer about whom we have often talked.
注意:
  1. 含有介词的动词短语一般不拆开使用,如:look for, look after, take care of 等 (
  1) (
  2) This is the watch which/that I am looking for. This is the watch for which I am looking. (T) (F)

  2. 若介词放在关系代词前, 关系代词指人时用 whom, 不可用 who 或者 that; 指物时用 which, 不能用 that;关系代词是所有格时用 whose (
  1) The man with whom you talked is my friend. (T) (F) (T)
(
  2) The man who/that you talked with is my friend.
(
  3) The plane in which we flew to Canada is very comfortable.
(
  4) The plane in that we flew in to Canada is very comfortable. (F)
  3. “介词+关系代词”前可有 some, any, none, both, all, neither, most, each, few 等代词或者数词 (
  1) He loved his parents deeply, both of whom are very kind to him. (
  2) In the basket there are quite many apples, some of which have gone bad.
(
  3) There are forty students in our class in all, most of whom are from big cities. 四.关系副词引导的定语从句
  1. when 指时间,在定语从句中做时间状语 (
  1) I still remember the day when I first came to the school. (
  2) The time when we got together finally came.
  2. where 指地点,在定语从句中做地点状语 (
  1) Shanghai is the city where I was born. (
  2) The house where I lived ten years ago has been pulled down.
  3. why 指原因,在定语从句中做原因状语 (
  1) Please tell me the reason why you missed the plane. (
  2) I don’t know the reason why he looks unhappy today. 注意:关系副词引导的从句可以由“介词+关系代词”引导的从句替换 (
  1) The reason why/ for which he refused the invitation is not clear,
(
  2) From the year when/in which he was going to school he began to know what he wanted when he grew up. (
  3) Great changes have taken place in the city in which./where I was born.
五.限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句 限制性定语从句 形式上 非限制性定语从句 用逗号和主句隔开 是对先行词的补充说明,删除
不用逗号和主句隔开
意义上 是先行词不可缺少的定语,不能删除 后意思仍完整 译法上 翻译成先行词的定语, “…的…”
通常翻译成主句的并列句
关系词的使用上
A.做宾语时可省略 B。可用 that
C.可用 who 代替 whom C。不用 who 代替 whom 限制性定语从句举例: (
  1) (
  2)
A.不可省
B。不用 that
The teacher told me that Tom was the only person that I could depend on. China is a country which has a long history.
非限制性定语从句举例: (
  1) (
  2) His mother, who loves him very much, is strict with him. China, which was founded in 1949, is becoming more and more powerful.
要注意区分以下几个句子的不同 (
  1) His brother who is now a doctor always encourages him to go to college.
他那当医生的哥哥常鼓励他要考上大学。 (他还有其他的哥哥) (
  2) His brother, who is now a doctor, always encourages him to go to college.
他的哥哥是当医生的,常鼓励他要考上大学。 (他只有一个哥哥) 难点分析 (一)限制性定语从句只能用 that 的几种情况
  1. 当先行词是 anything, everything, nothing (something 除外), few, all, none, little, some 等代词时,或者是由 every, any, all, some, no, little, few, much 等修饰时 (
  1) Have you taken down everything that Mr. Li has said? (
  2) There seems to be nothing that seems impossible for him in the world. (
  3) All that can be done has been done. (
  4) There is little that I can do for you. 注意:当先行词指人时,偶尔也可以用 who
(
  4)
Any man that/.who has a sense of duty won’t do such a thing.

  2. 当先行词被序数词修饰 (
  1) The first place that they visited in London was the Big Ben.
  3. 当先行词被形容词最高级修饰时 (
  1) This is the best film that I have seen.
  4. 当形容词被 the very, the only 修饰时 (
  1) This is the very dictionary that I want to buy, (
  2) After the fire in his house, the old car is the only thing that he owned. 当先行词指人时,偶尔也可以用 who (
  3) Wang Hua is the only person in our school who will attend the meeting/
  5. 当先行词前面有 who, which 等疑问代词时 (
  1) Who is the man that is standing there? (
  2) Which is the T-shirt that fits me most?
  6. 当先行词既有人,也有动物或者物体时 (
  1) Can you remember the scientist and his theory that we have learned? (二)关系代词 as 和 which 引导的定语从句 as 和 which 引导非限制性定语从句,有相同之处也有不同之处。具体情况是:
  1.As 和 which 都可以在定语从句中做主语或者宾语,代表前面整个句子。 (
  1) He married her, as/which was natural. (
  2) He was honest, as/which we can see.
  2. as 引导非限制性定语从句,可放在主句之前,或者主句之后,甚至可以切割一个主句; which 引导的非限制性定语从句只能放在主句之后。另外,as 有“正如……,正像……”的 意思
(
  1) As is known to all, China is a developing country. (
  2) He is from the south, as we can see from his accent. (
  3) John, as you know, is a famous writer. (
  4) He has been to Paris more than several times, which I don’t believe. 注意:当主句和从句存在逻辑上的因果关系时,常用 which (
  5) Tom was always late for school, which made his teacher angry.
  3. 当先行次受 such, the same 修饰时,常用 as (
  1) I have never heard such a story as he tells. (
  2) He is not such a fool as he looks. (
  3) This is the same book as I lost last week. 注意:当先行次由 the same 修饰时,偶尔也用 that 引导定语从句,但是和由 as 所引导的定 语从句意思不同 (
  4) She wore the same dress that she wore at Mary’s wedding. 她穿着她在 MARY 婚礼 上穿过的一条裙子。 (
  5) She wore the same dress as her young sister wore. 她穿着和她妹妹所穿的一样的 裙子。 (三)以 the way 为先行词的定语从句通常由 in which, that 引导,而且通常可以省略。 (
  1) The way in which/ that/./ he answered the question was surprising. (四) but 有时也可以做关系词引导定语从句 (
  1) There are very few but understand his idea. ( but= who don’t ) (五) 区分定语从句和同位语从句
  1.定语从句修饰先行词,它和先行词是修饰关系;同位语从句说明先行词的具体内容,是补 充说明的关系 (
  1) The plane that has just taken off is for London. 定语从句
(
  2) The fact that he has been dead is clear.
同位于从句

  2.定语从句由关系代词或者关系副词引导,关系词在句中充当成分,有时可以省略;同位语 从句主要由 that 引导, 在句中一般不做成分; 句子也可以由 w
 

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