阅读理解指导课 阅读理解指导课的教学设计 指导
授课老师:胡 悠 教学年级:高三年级 教学课型:猜测词义指导课 教学时长:40 分钟
(一)综合分析
  1.学生分析 . 学生已经完成广东省高考要求的八个模块的学习,我校学生还学习了模块九,从语言知 识的积累方面来看,绝大部分学生完全可以应对高考的阅读任务。但是,部分学生还没有完 全养成良好的英语阅读习惯和掌握做阅读理解题的方法, 比如在阅读文章时边阅读边查词典, 碰到生词心理恐惧,不知所措,这些因素都制约着他们对文章的理解以及答题的速度。鉴于 此,教师有必要在课堂上帮助他们掌握常用猜测词义的解题方法,以提高他们的阅读能力。
  2.题型分析 .题型分析 根据《2007 年普通高等学校招生全国统一考试(广东卷)英语科考试大纲》对考生阅读 能力的要求,考生能读懂书、报、杂志中关于一般性话题的简短文段以及公告、说明、广告 等,并能从中获取相关信息。考生应能: (
  1)理解主旨和要义; (
  2)理解文中具体信息; (
  3)根据上下文推断生词的词义; (
  4)作出判断和推理; (
  5)理解文章的基本结构; (
  6)理解作者的意图、观点和态度。 授课老师将在本节课主要指导学生如何在阅读过程中进行词义猜测。
  3.材料分析 . 本节指导题课采用的猜测词义训练材料均选自 2007 年全国各地高考英语试题中的阅读 理解部分。难度适中,针对性强,具有很高的训练价值,有助于鼓励学生学以致用,增强学 生的信心,从而达到提高学生的猜测词义能力的效果。
1
(二)教学目标
  1.情感态度目标 . 阅读理解是高考英语的重头戏,分值较重,此题做得好坏将直接影响高考的成败,因此, 教师要培养学生遇难不惊、遇易不松的心态以及顽强的意志。 积极向上的情感、强烈的学习动机有利于学生提高学习效率;坚强的意志和较强的自信 心有助于学生克服外语学习中遇到的困难。消极的情感如焦虑、害怕、紧张、愤怒、沮丧、 怀疑、厌恶等,会影响学习潜力的发挥。如果学习者的消极情感影响太大,再好的教师、教 材、教学方法也无济于事。 在阅读理解指导课中,教师要多鼓励学生,激发学生学习热情,将学生的注意力引导到 解题技巧上来。本节课旨在利用高考真题帮助学生快速感知技巧,提高其信心和求知欲。
  2.学习策略目标 . 从平时训练可以看出,学生在做阅读理解题时存在一些问题,如根据上下文推断生词的 (
  2) 词义、概括文章大意等。因此,本节课的学习策略目标是: (
  1)指导学生的解题思路; 让学生在实际运用中掌握猜测词义的八种方法。 难点:
  1.利用 Similarity 相似法猜测词义; .
  2.利用 Context 上下文语境猜测词义。 . (三)教学过程 步 骤 课前准备 课堂实施 制作课件; 筛选 2007 年高考全国各地英语试题 中阅读理解中的猜测词义题目,并分为堂上训 练用和课后作业两部分。 词义猜测题常用的提问方式有:
  1) The word “…” refers to / probably means / could best be replaced by .
  2) The word “…” is most likely to mean .
  3) What do you think the expression “…” stands for?
  4) The underlined word “…” means .
  1. Definition 定义法
  2. Contrast 对比法
  3. Similarity 相似法
  4. Cause & Effect 因果法
  5. Example 例举法
  6. Word Formation 构词法
  7. Context 上下文
  8. Common Sense 普通常识
2
设计说明
Step
  1. Lead-in 引入主题
用这些问题引入本节主题,让学 生对阅读理解题中的猜测词义题 的提问方式有所了解,从而引发 其对猜测题的解题方法的思考。
Step
  2. Methods 列举方法
先引导学生列举熟悉的方法,教 师再作点评、归纳,并列出常用 的解题方法,让学生了解,为下 一步详细介绍作铺垫。

  1. Definition 定义法 一般通过定义、 (从 定义法: 定语 句)或同位语(从句)来确定词义。 Eg: It will be very hard but very brittle?that is , it will break easily. The herdsman, who looks after sheep, earns about 650 yuan a year.
  2. Contrast 对比法:利用文中的反义词以及表 对比法: 对比关系的词(组)猜测词义。 表示对比的词有 but、while、however、 otherwise 等。 Eg: Most of us agreed, however, Bill dissented. She is usually prompt for all her class, but today she arrived in the middle of her first class.
  3. Similarity 相似法 相似法:利用同义词、近义词或 词组猜测词义。 Eg: Cleaning up waterways is an enormous task. The job is so large, in fact, that the government may not be able to save some of the rivers and lakes which have been polluted. Step
  3. Introduction 方法介绍 向学生具体介绍常用的八种做猜
  4. Cause & Effect 因果法:从原因推测结果, 测词义的解题方法,让他们熟悉 因果法: 从结果推测原因。 这些方法,并且能够现学现用。 Eg: One who is destitute has a great need for food and clothing. That museum is so immense that it will be impossible to see all the exhibits in one day.
  5. Example 例举法 : 利用文中的举例猜测词 例举法: 义。常见的举例的提示词有 for instance, for example, such as 等 。 Eg: Today young couples often spend lots of their money on appliances, for instance, washing machines, refrigerators and color televisions.
  6. Word Formation 构词法:英语单词大多是 构词法: 由词根、词头(前缀)和词尾(后缀)所组成。 词根是单词最基本的部分,表达单词的基本含 义。在词根前或后加上前缀或后缀,可以用来 引申或转变原词的意义。只要我们掌握了各种 词根、词头和词尾的基本含义,那么就可以很 容易猜测出由其构成的新词的含义了。 中学英语中常见的前缀和后缀有: super- (超) mini(极小的, 微小的)
3
micro-(极微小的) re-(再,反复) mis-(误,恶) im-(不) in-(不,非) un-(不,非) non-(不,非) -able(能…的) -less(不,无) -wards (向) Eg: superman, nonnatural, homeless, rebuild, microwave, mispronounce, nonsmoker, eastwards I’m going to buy a microbus.
  7. Context 上下文:利用语境及前后的提示来 上下文: 猜测词义。 Eg: He sounded quite nervous and he had been talking for a minute or so before I understand anything. Even then all I could make out was that someone called Mary had had a very bad accident. Tom saw an owl last night but it flew away when he got near. The children are looking at a large, hairy ape at the zoo.
  8. Common sense 普通常识 普通常识:根据普通常识和 生活经验来猜测词义。 在阅读的过程中,如遇到生词,有时可以 根据自身的直接或间接的经验,或运用自己已 有的常识将其推测出来。比如了解一些英美国 家的天文地理、风俗习惯、宗教信仰、政治结 构、社会制度等,可以帮助加深对文章的理解, 遇到生词时,猜测词义的能力自然就会增强。 Eg: When a doctor performs an operation on a patient,he usually gives an anesthetic to make him unconscious,because he does not want his patient to feel pain or to know what is happening to him. Guess the correct meanings of the underlined words.
  1. There are some glaciers moving down the Step
  4. mountain valleys. A glacier is a river of ice. 学生通过探究活动一(在句子中 Inquiry-based
  2. He is a resolute man. Once he made up his 猜测词义) 基本掌握所学的猜测 , activities (I) mind to do something, he won’t give it up 词义题的解题方法。 探究活动(
  1) halfway.
  3. Mr. Brown is now working at Princeton University far away from home. For this reason he has to rent a room near the office
4
where he works.
  4. The official asked the man what his occupation was. The man told him that he worked as an engineer.
  5. The old woman has a strange habit to keep over 100 cats in her house. Her neighbor all call her an eccentric lady.
  6. In many countries there are two financial extremes, from penury to great wealth.
  7. Mrs. Smith is loquacious while her husband is the silent type.
  8. Those new comers were not used to the life in the suburbs which was so different from that inside the city.
  9. This boy is not stupid, on the contrary, no one could be more intelligent.
  10.Children are always boasting. They say things like “My Dad's car is bigger than your ”“My Mom is smarter than yours.” and Dad's, “My family has more money than yours.”
  1. Tens of thousands of baby penguins face starvation after two giant icebergs broke off the Antarctic ice sheet and blocked their parents’ road to the feeding areas. Adeline and emperor penguins nesting on the Ross island rookeries are now forced to walk long distances over the icebergs to obtain food for their chicks, born during the November-December breeding season.
  2. A man’s position among the black-tent people depends on his ancestors, relatives, and fellow Step
  5. tribesmen. If they are honored, he is also Inquiry-based honored. If they are disgraced, he too is activities (II) disgraced. Therefore one carefully guards the 探究活动(
  2) honor of his family, his lineage(宗系), and his tribe.
  3. The ruler had been so cruel and dishonest that after the revolution he was banished. A few members of the Senate(参议院) opposed this decision, but the majority voted that the ruler should leave the country for ever.
  4. My first job was to drive the oxen that ploughed the cane fields. I would walk behind an ox, guiding him with a broomstick. For $ 1 a day, I worked eight hours straight, with no
5
学生通过探究活动二(在文段中 猜测词义) 进一步巩固猜测词义 , 题的解题方法,提高灵活运用的 能力。
food breaks. It was very tedious work, but it prepared me for life and taught me many lasting lessons. Because the plantation owners were always watching us, I had to be on time every day and work as hard as I could.
  5. Although he often had the chance, Mr. Brown was never able to steal money from a customer. This would endangered his position at the bank, and he did not want to jeopardize his future.
  6. After a four-year relationship with a major fortune 100 company beginning as a sales trainee and ending as a regional sales manager, I left the company at the height of my career. Many people were astounded that I would leave after earning a six-figure income. And they asked why I would risk everything for a dream. 同学们在做词义猜测题时注意不要脱离语 境。有些常用词在特定的上下文中,或专业性 文章中,具有特殊的或专门的词义。在解这类 题时,必须仔细地研读划线部分的上下文,有 时阅读的视线还要扩大一些。如果离开特定的 语言环境来理解生词意义,必然会理解错误。
  1. Definition 定义法
  2. Contrast 对比法
  3. Similarity 相似法
  4. Cause & Effect 因果法
  5. Example 例举法
  6. Word Formation 构词法
  7. Context 上下文
  8. Common Sense 普通常识 运用今天所学的解题方法,完成印发的练习。 教师通过归纳点评,提醒学生在 做词义猜测题时,要分析语境, 不要孤立思考,以便学生能够融 会贯通,熟能生巧。
Step
  6. Guidance 教师点评
Step
  7. Summary 归纳总结
再现方法,加深印象。
Step
  8. Homework 课后作业
学以致用。
附:
Homework
Passage one: Tens of thousands of baby penguins face starvation(饥饿) after two giant icebergs broke off the Antarctic ice sheet and blocked their parents’ road to the feeding areas. Adeline and emperor
6
penguins nesting on the Ross island rookeries are now forced to walk long distances over the icebergs to obtain food for their chicks, born during the November- December breeding season..
  1. What does the underlined word “obtain” probably mean? A eat B get C sell D buy Passage two: A man’s position among the black-tent people depends on his ancestors, relatives , and fellow tribesmen. If they are honored, he is also honored. If they are disgraced, he too is disgraced . Therefore one carefully guards the honor of his family, his lineage(宗系), and his tribe.
  2. The word “disgrace” means in this text. A honor B endanger C proud D shame Passage three; The ruler had been so cruel and dishonest that after the revolution he was banished. A few members of the Senate (参议院)opposed this decision , but the majority voted that the ruler should leave the country for ever.
  3.The underlined word “banished” mean. A killed by stoning B sent away C imprisoned D punished by whipping Passage four: What makes one person more intelligent than another? What makes one person a genius, like the brilliant Albert Einstein, and another person a fool? Are people born intelligent or stupid, or is intelligence the result of where and how you live? These are very old question and the answers to them are still not clear. We know, however, that just b
 

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