高一英语阅读理解专讲专练十 推理 推理是在理解文章表面文字信息的基础上,作出一定的判断和推论,从而得到文章的隐 含意义的方法.有时作者并未把意图说出来,我们可根据字面意思,通过研究语篇的逻辑关 系和细节的暗示,来推敲作者的态度,进行深层理解.推理是一种创造性的思维活动. 由于推理是在已知的基础上来推断未知的,因此我们必须忠实于原文,要以文章提供的 事实和线索为依据来进行推理和判断, 不能凭空想象, 随意揣测, 把自己的臆断强加给作者. 正确推理包括这几个方面: ①弄清作者的意图, 以及写作的缘由. ②分析材料所提供的信息. ③注意字,词的原意及引申含意.④根据句子的含意推断作者的言外之意.总之,只有吃透 文章的字面意思,推理才有前提和基础. Passage A 阅读理解 Millions of years ago there were many types of dinosaurs on earth. Most dinosaurs were planteaters. The Apatosaurus, for example, had a long thin neck so that it could eat leaves from trees. Other dinosaurs were meateaters. The Tyrannosaurus Rex killed smaller dinosaurs for food. Dinosaurs were real animals that once lived on the earth, but they died out about 65 million years ago. The disappearance of the dinosaurs is in some way a great mystery (谜).① Some scientists think that the climate (气候) changed suddenly. Fossils (化石) of trees tell us that the temperature dropped a lot and that the level of the sea dropped as well. ② This means that it got suddenly much colder. Perhaps the dinosaurs were too slow to change with the climate. A new idea is that a meteor (流星) crashed into the earth. Scientists discovered a place in Mexico where they think the meteor crashed. They think that there was a lot of dust from the meteor. The dust landed on the plants. Also the dust blocked (阻挡) the sun's light for as long as five years. Many animals, including dinosaurs, were planteaters, and perhaps the dust killed them. This means there was nothing left for meateating dinosaurs to eat, and so they died out. But, as many animals from that time didn t die, we are not 100% sure what really happened. 根据文章内容,选择正确答案:
  1. What is the subject discussed in the text? A. Dinosaurs, the real animals living millions of years ago. B. The two types of dinosaurs.
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C. The probable reasons for dinosaurs disappearance. D. A meteor crashed into the earth.
  2. What are the two possible explanations to the dinosaurs disappearance? A. Temperature dropping and sea level dropping. B. Climate changing and meteor's crashing. C. The dropping of temperature and sea level. D. Climate changing and the dust blocking the sun.
  3. What is the direct cause of the disappearance of meateating dinosaurs? A. A meteor's crashing. B. The dust blocking the sun. C. The planteating dinosaurs death. D. It is still unknown. 难句注释 ①The disappearance of the dinosaurs is in some way a great mystery. 恐龙的消失在某种程度上说还是个谜. Total words:233 Reading time: Reading speed: ②Fossils of trees tell us that the temperature dropped a lot and that the level of the sea dropped as well. 树木的化石告诉我们气温大大地降低了, 海平面也降低了. Passage B 阅读理解
2
The elephant is the biggest fourlegged animal in the world. It is also, perhaps, the gentlest (温顺的), but not always! Elephants are like us in some ways. They live for a long time ― fifty or sixty years. They can remember things very well. They never forget great sadness or great happiness. If a female(雌性的)elephant dies, her daughters and her grand daughters are sad for many months. They stay with the dead body. Then they carry a bit of it away with them. They never forget a dead friend. Elephants are like us, but they are also different. They live in families of females. There will be a few young males ― a few "baby boys". But the females will soon send them away. An elephant family keeps only its daughters, mothers and its great grandmothers. The females stay together for fifty, sixty...a hundred years. The older animals look after the younger ones. The mothers teach their daughters and set a good example.① And what happens to male(雄性的)elephants? Well, the young males stay with their mothers for a time. Then they must leave the family. The females just send them away. A male elephant does not often have a friend. He lives apart away from the family,② and often away from other male elephants. Sometimes the females call a male elephant. He can visit them then, and stay for a time. But soon his "wife" and sisters send him away again. The females have a very happy family life. What do the male elephants think about it? We don't know. 根据文章内容,选择正确答案:
  1. In the elephant family, there are . A. females and, sometimes, a few young males B. parents who live together C. only bulls with their male friends D. parents and all their babies living happily
  2. An adult male elephant often . A. lives together with his "wife" B. lives by himself C. has many female friends
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D. has many male friends
  3. What would be the best title for the passage? A. The Elephant B. The Fourlegged Animal C. The Female Elephant D. The Elephant s Family 难句注释 ①set a good example 树立一个好的榜样. Total words:259 Reading time: Reading speed: ②He lives apart away from the family. 他不和家人生活在一起. Passage C 阅读理解 Animals are natural resources that people have wasted all through our history. Animals have been killed for their fur and feathers, for food, for sport, and simply because they were in the way. Thousands of kinds of animals have disappeared from the world forever. Hundreds more are on the danger list today. About 170 kinds in the United States alone are considered in danger.① Why should people care? Because we need animals. And because once they are gone, there will never be any more. Animals are more than just beautiful and interesting.② They are more than just a source of food. Every animal has its place in the balance of nature (生态 平衡). Destroying one kind of animal can create many problems.
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For example, when farmers killed large numbers of hawks (老鹰), the farmers stores of corn and grain were destroyed by rats and mice. Why? Because hawks eat rats and mice. With no hawks to keep down their numbers, the rats and mice multiplied(繁殖)quickly. Luckily, some people are working to help save the animals. Some groups raise money to let people know about the problem. And they try to get the governments to pass laws protecting animals in danger. Quite a few countries have passed laws. These laws forbid (禁止) the killing of any animals or plants on the danger list. Slowly, the number of some animals in danger is growing. 根据文章内容,选择正确答案:
  1. Animals are important to us mainly because . A. they give us a source of food B. they are beautiful and lovely C. they keep the balance of nature D. they give us a lot of pleasure
  2. What has happened to the animals on the earth? A. Hundreds of kinds of animals have disappeared forever. B. Many kinds of animals have died out. C. About 170 kinds of animals have disappeared forever. D. All kinds of animals are in danger.
  3. Which of the following is NOT true? A. People care much about animals because they need them. B. Once a certain kind of animals is gone forever, there will never be any more. C. Killing all rats and mice may cause some problems. D. People must not kill any animals.
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  4. What can we infer from the fact that quite a few countries have passed laws protecting animals in danger? A. Every person will know the importance of protecting wild animals. B. Animals in danger will not be killed any more. C. The number of some animals in danger will increase. D. Animals in danger will be kept away from people. 难句注释 ①About 170 kinds in the United States alone are considered in danger. 仅美国就有大约 170 种动物濒临灭绝. Total words:229 Reading time: Reading speed: ②Animals are more than just beautiful and interesting. 动物不仅只是漂亮有趣. more than 超过,不仅仅. Passage D 完形填空 In the past, man did not have to think about the protection of his environment. There were few people on the earth, and natural resources seemed to be 1 . Today things are 2 , the world has become too 3 .We are using up our natural resources too quickly and at the same time we are 4 our environment with dangerous chemicals (化学制品). If we continue to do this, human life on the earth 5 survive. Everyone 6 today that if too many fishes are taken from the sea, there will soon be none left.① Yet, with modern fishing 7 , more and more fishes are caught. We know that if too many trees are cut down, 8 will disappear and
6
nothing will grow on the earth. Yet we 9 to use bigger and more powerful machines to 10 more and more trees. We realize that if rivers are polluted with waste products from factories, fish will die. 11 , in most countries wastes are 12 put into rivers or into the sea, and there are 13 laws to stop this. We know, too, that if the 14 of the world continues to rise at the present rate ②, in a few years there will not be enough 15 . What can we do to solve these problems? If we eat more vegetables and less 16 ,there will be more food available(可 用的)for everyone. Land that is used to grow crops 17 five times more people than land where animals are kept. Our natural resources will 18 longer if we learn to recycle(循环再用)them. The world population will not rise so quickly if people use modern methods of birth 19 . Finally, if we educate people to think about the problems, we shall have a better and cleaner 20 in the future. 根据文章内容,选择正确答案:
  1. A. beautifulB unlimitedC unusualD valuable
  2. A. common B. the same C. changeable D. different
  3. A. crowded B. small C. dirty D. busy
  4. A. protecting B. saving C. polluting D. fighting
  5. A. may not B. will not C. shall not D. could not
  6. A. wonders B. realizes C. considers D. discovers
  7. A. poles B. boats C. methods D. ideas
  8. A. mountains B. the sea C. trees D. forests
  9. A. continue B. have C. ought D. go on
  10. A. grow B. plant C. save D. cut down
  11. A. Thus B. However C. Generally D. Therefore
7

  12. A. still B. even C. also D. certainly
  13. A. many B. none C. some D. few
  14. A. production B. pollution C. population D. development
  15. A. houses B. vegetables C. food D. places 16 .A fruit B. meat C. fish D. grain
  17. A. feeds B. increases C. supplies D. helps
  18. A. use B. stay C. keep D. last
  19. A. control B. born C. plan D. pay
  20. A. nature B. sea C. planet D. forest 难句注释 ①If too many fishes are taken from the sea, there will soon be none left. 如果从海洋里捕捉过多的鱼, 不久将不再有鱼剩下了. ②at the present rate 以目前的比率 Passage A 本文提出恐龙灭绝的两种观点:一是气候变化,二是陨石撞击地球引起的灰尘挡住阳光 导致植物死亡.
  1. C. 文章第二,三两段分别提出恐龙灭绝的两种观点.
  2. B. 导致恐龙灭绝可能的两种观点:一是气候变化,二是陨石.
  3. D. 根据文章作者的口气(perhaps, are not 100% sure)判断恐龙的死因还没有一 个准确的说法. Passage B 本文主要讲述了陆地上最大的动物??大象与人类的相同,不同之处以及大象家族的组 成情况.
  1. A. 根据文章可知,大象家族主要是由母象和幼象组成.
8

  2. B. 从上下文得知,成年公象单独生活.
  3. D. 本文主要介绍了一些大象家族的组成情况. Passage C 本文主要讲述了动物在生态平衡中的重要性,教育人们不要滥杀动物.
  1. C. 每一种动物在生态平衡中都有自己适当的位置.
  2. B. 从第二段中可看出 thousands of 动物已经灭绝.
  3. C. 选项 D 太绝对.
  4. C. 从最后一段中可看出, 一些国家由于通过了一些法律,濒危动物的数量会增加得 比较慢. Passage D 本文分析了环境污染的原因并介绍了营造干净美好世界的一些举措.
  1. B. 根据下句可知,过去自然资源似乎是取之不尽的,所以用 unlimited.
  2. D. 今昔对比,现在的情况不同了.
  3. A. 下文提到人口增长过快,世界变得拥挤了.
  4. C. 用危险的化学药品污染环境.
  5. B. 如果我们继续这么做,人类将无法生存.
  6. B. 由第四段第一句话可知,每个人都意识到……
  7. C. 捕鱼方法.
  8. D. 滥砍滥伐导致森林消失.
  9. A. 然而人们"继续"我行我素.这里 Yet 表示转折.
  10. D. cut down 意为"砍伐".
  11. B. 用 however 表示转折.
  12. A. 仍然.
  13. D. and 表示递进,"没有多少法律来制止这一点."
9

  14. C. 根据下文得知,话题已转向"人口"问题.
  15. C. 人口增长将导致无法解决的粮食问题.
  16. B. 从下一句中出现的"animals are kept"可知是 meat.
  17. A. feed 有"喂养"的意思.
  18. D. 自然资源将持续更久.
  19. A. 人口出生率的控制.
  20. C. 一个更好更干净的星球.
  1. Then they carry a bit of it away with them. 然后它们会将大象尸体上的一小部 分带走.(Line 6, Passage B) 注意 a bit 和 a little 的区别: 两者都可接形容词或副词的原级或比较级,意为"一些;一点".如: Your trousers are a bit/little
 

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