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Passage One Violence Can Do Nothing to Diminish Race Prejudice In some countries where racial prejudice is acute, violence has so come to be taken for granted as a means of solving differences, that it is not even questioned. There are countries where the white man imposes his rule by brute force; there are countries where the black man protests by setting fire to cities and by looting and pillaging. Important people on both sides, who would in other respects appear to be reasonable men, get up and calmly argue in favor of violence ? as if it were a legitimate solution, like any other. What is really frightening, what really fills you with despair, is the realization that when it comes to the crunch, we have made no actual progress at all. We may wear collars and ties instead of war-paint, but our instincts remain basically unchanged. The whole of the recorded history of the human race, that tedious documentation of violence, has taught us absolutely nothing. We have still not learnt that violence never solves a problem but makes it more acute. The sheer horror, the bloodshed, the suffering mean nothing. No solution ever comes to light the morning after when we dismally contemplate the smoking ruins and wonder what hit us. The truly reasonable men who know where the solutions lie are finding it harder and herder to get a hearing. They are despised, mistrusted and even persecuted by their own kind because they advocate such apparently outrageous things as law enforcement. If half the energy that goes into violent acts were put to good use, if our efforts were directed at cleaning up the slums and ghettos, at improving living-standards and providing education and employment for all, we would have gone a long way to arriving at a solution. Our strength is sapped by having to mop up the mess that violence leaves in its wake. In a well-directed effort, it would not be impossible to fulfill the ideals of a stable social programme. The benefits that can be derived from constructive solutions are everywhere apparent in the world around us. Genuine and lasting solutions are always possible, providing we work within the framework of the law. w*w*w*k*s*5*u*c*o*m Before we can even begin to contemplate peaceful co-existence between the races, we must appreciate each other's problems. And to do this, we must learn about them: it is a simple exercise in communication, in exchanging information. 'Talk, talk, talk,' the advocates of violence say, 'all you ever do is talk, and we are none the wiser.' It's rather like the story of the famous barrister who painstakingly explained his case to the judge. After listening to a lengthy argument the judge complained that after all this talk, he was none the wiser. 'Possible, my lord,' the barrister replied, 'none the wiser, but surely far better informed.' Knowledge is the necessary prerequisite to wisdom:
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the knowledge that violence creates the evils it pretends to solve.

  1.
What is the best title for this passage?
A. Advocating Violence. B. Violence Can Do Nothing to Diminish Race Prejudice. C. Important People on Both Sides See Violence As a Legitimate Solution. D. The Instincts of Human Race Are Thirsty for Violence.
  2. Recorded history has taught us
A. violence never solves anything. B. nothing. C. the bloodshed means nothing. D. everything.
  3. It can be inferred that truly reasonable men
A. can't get a hearing. B. are looked down upon. C. are persecuted. D. Have difficulty in advocating law enforcement.
  4. "He was none the wiser" means
A. he was not at all wise in listening. B. He was not at all wiser than nothing before. C. He gains nothing after listening. D. He makes no sense of the argument.
  5. According the author the best way to solve race prejudice is
A. law enforcement. B. knowledge. C. nonviolence. D. Mopping up the violent mess.
Vocabulary
  1. acute 严重的,剧烈的,敏锐的
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  2.
  3.
  4.
  5.
  6.
  7.
  8.
  9.
lootv.抢劫,掠夺;n.赃物 pillagev.抢劫,掠夺 crunchv.吱嘎吱嘎咬或嚼某物;n.碎裂声 when it comes to the crunch = if/when the decisive moment comes. 当关键时刻来到时. war-paint 出战前涂于身上的颜料. (美印第安战士用) come to light = become known 显露,为人所知 sap 剥削,使伤元气,破坏 I was sapped by months of hospital treatment. 我住院治疗几个月,大伤元气.

  10. mop up 擦去,对付,处理
  11. wake 船迹,航迹
  12. in the wake of sth. = come after 随某事之后到来.
难句译注
  1. What is really frightening, what really fills you with despair is the realization that when it
comes to the crunch, we have made no actual progress at all. 【结构简析】when it comes to the crunch = when / if the decisive moment comes.当关键时刻 来到时. 【参考译文】真正令人可怖的,令人绝望的是,在关键时刻,人们意识到我们一点儿也 没有进步/前进.
  2. Our strength is sapped by having to mop up the mess that violence leaves in its wake.
【结构简析】in the wake of 在…之后. 【参考译文】由于我们不得不清理掉暴力之后所留下的烂摊子,我们的力量因此削弱了.
  3. After listening to a lengthy argument the judge complained that after all this talk, he was
none the wiser. w*w*w*k*s*5*u*c*o*m 【结构简析】none + the + 比较级.固定用法,义:not at all 一点儿也不.EX: After the treatment, he is none the better.治疗后,他并没有因此见好, (一点儿也不见好) . 【参考译文】听了律师的长篇解释,法官抱怨说他一无所获,并不因此变得聪明些.
  4. Knowledge is the necessary prerequisite to wisdom.
【参考译文】知识是智慧的必要的先决条件.结合上下文这里意思是:了解情况是解决 问题的先决条件.句子后面的解释:知识是指了解它欲以解决暴力制造的恶行.
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写作方法与文章大意 作者主要以对比的手法写出了暴力是有些国家用以解决种族差异的公认方法,这是人本 性没有进步的表现,真正理智的人提出了法制才是解决问题的唯一途径,而这些人遭人轻视, 迫害.作者指出如果我们把使用暴力的一半精力放在消除贫民窟,改善生活水平,提供教育 和就业,清除暴力造成的后果,也就是通过对它以法治理是能真正解决种族问题的.尽管这 些暴力者采取充耳不闻的态度.
答案详解
  1. B 暴力难以消除种族偏见.文章一开始就提出有些国家种族偏见严重,而暴力却
是公认的一种解决方法.白人采用暴力镇压,黑人以防火,掠抢为反抗.而双方的大人物平 静地论及暴力,似乎这是一种合法的解决方案.作者就此指出人类的进步只在于表面――衣 饰等,人类的本能没有改变.整个有记录历史的文件没有教会人类任何东西.这是真正令人 可怕的事件.第二段论及真正有理智的懂得解决方案所在的人鼓吹法制,人们不停.他们反 而收到轻视,迫害.作者就此提出假设,答出真正的解决方案嗜法制,以法治理.第三段进 一步说明"交流,对话"是了解双方问题的前提,即使暴力者不同意,但知道暴力制造它假装要 解决的罪恶,是智慧聪明的必要前提.A 鼓吹暴力.C.双方重要人物都把暴力作为合法的解 决方案.D. 人类的本性是嗜暴性.B 没有什么.第一段中就明确提出整个人类有记录历史又 长又臭的暴力文件记录,一点都没有教给我们任何东西.
  2.
  3. A 暴力解决不了任何事情.C.杀戮(流血)没有任何意义.D.一切. D 在鼓吹法制方面有困难.答案在第二段,真正有理智的人鼓吹法制,遭到同类们
的轻视, 不信任和迫害. 他们发现要人倾听他们的意见越来越困难. A.人们不听. B.遭人轻视. C.遭人迫害.这三项都包含在 D 项内.
  4. C 听后无所得.None the wiser 一点也不比以前聪明(这是按字面翻译) .实际就是
C 项.在倾听别人上他一点也不聪明.B.他和以前一个样.D.他听不懂论点.A 法制.第二段 最后一句,如果我们在法律的构架中进行工作,真正的持久的解决总是能实现的.第二段第 二句,他们遭到迫害是因为他们鼓吹法制这种显然令人不能容忍的事.
  5. B 知识.C.非暴力.D.处理暴力带来的混乱.
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Passage Two The Tourist Trade Contributes Absolutely Nothing to Increasing Understanding between Nations The tourist trade is booming. With all this coming and going, you'd expect greater understanding to develop between the nations of the world. Not a bit of it! Superb systems of communication by air, sea and land make it possible for us to visit each other's countries at a moderate cost. What was once the 'grand tour', reserved for only the very rich, is now within everybody's grasp? The package tour and chartered flights are not to be sneered at. Modern travelers enjoy a level of comfort which the lords and ladies on grand tours in the old days couldn't have dreamed of. But what's the sense of this mass exchange of populations if the nations of the world remain basically ignorant of each other? Many tourist organizations are directly responsible for this state of affairs. They deliberately set out to protect their clients from too much contact with the local population. The modern tourist leads a cosseted, sheltered life. He lives at international hotels, where he eats his international food and sips his international drink while he gazes at the natives from a distance. Conducted tours to places of interest are carefully censored. The tourist is allowed to see only what the organizers want him to see and no more. A strict schedule makes it impossible for the tourist to wander off on his own; and anyway, language is always a barrier, so he is only too happy to be protected in this way. At its very worst, this leads to a new and hideous kind of colonization. The summer quarters of the inhabitants of the cite universitaire: are temporarily reestablished on the island of Corfu. Blackpool is recreated at Torremolinos where the traveler goes not to eat paella, but fish and chips. The sad thing about this situation is that it leads to the persistence of national stereotypes. We don't see the people of other nations as they really are, but as we have been brought up to believe they are. You can test this for yourself. Take five nationalities, say, French, German, English, American and Italian. Now in your mind, match them with these five adjectives: musical, amorous, cold, pedantic, native. Far from providing us with any insight into the national characteristics of the peoples just mentioned, these adjectives actually act as barriers. So when you set out on your travels, the only characteristics you notice are those which confirm your preconceptions. You come away with the highly unoriginal and inaccurate impression that, say, 'Anglo-Saxons are hypocrites' of that 'Latin peoples shout a lot'. You only have to make a few foreign friends to understand how absurd and harmful national stereotypes are. But how can you make foreign friends when the tourist trade
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does its best to prevent you? Carried to an extreme, stereotypes can be positively dangerous. Wild generalizations stir up racial hatred and blind us to the basic fact?how trite it sounds! ? That all people are human. We are all similar to each other and at the same time all unique.

  1.
The best title for this passage is
A. tourism contributes nothing to increasing understanding between nations. B. Tourism is tiresome. C. Conducted tour is dull. D. tourism really does something to one's country.
  2. What is the author's attitude toward tourism?
A. apprehensive. B. negative. C. critical. D. appreciative.
  3. Which word in the following is the best to summarize Latin people shout a lot?
A. silent. B. noisy. C. lively. D. active.
  4. The purpose of the author's criticism is to point out
A. conducted tour is disappointing. B. the way of touring should be changed. C. when traveling, you notice characteristics which confirm preconception. D. national stereotypes should be changed.
  5. What is 'grand tour' now?
A. moderate cost. B. local sight-seeing is investigated by the tourist organization. C. people enjoy the first-rate comforts. D. everybody can enjoy the 'grand tour'.
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w*w*w*k*s*5*u*c*o*m Vocabulary
  1.
  2.
  3. superb 卓越的,杰出的,第一流的 moderate 中庸的,中等的,适度的 grand tour 大旅行,指旧时英国富家子弟教育中,到欧洲大陆观光的旅行,为学业必
经阶段.
  4. holiday.
  5.
  6.
  7.
  8.
  9. chartered flight 包机航班 set out to do sth. = begin a job with a particular aim 开始做某事,决心/打算做…… cosset 宠爱,溺爱,纵容 conducted tour = guided tour 有人指导/引到下的参观,有导游的旅游 censor 检查 package tour 由旅行社代办而费用与路线,日程
 

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