【词条
  1】apply 【点拨】apply 意为"申请",为不及物动词。常构成短语 apply for sth."申请……";apply to do sth. "申请做某事"。如: We advertised three positions and over 50 people applied for them. He has applied for a scholarship to Harvard University. Why don’t you apply to be admitted to the club? 【拓展】
  1. apply 还可意为"应用,运用;适用;有关,涉及"。常构成短语:apply to"适用于;运用到; 关系到";apply sth. to sth. "把……运用于……";apply oneself to"致力于"。如: The new method can’t be applied in every case. The rules just apply to the kids under twelve years old. The experience can be applied to other fields. She applies herself to helping children in the poor areas.
  2. application n. 申请;应用,运用 applicant n. 申请人 【词条
  2】require 【点拨】require vt. 需要,要求,后面可接不同的宾语形式。requirement 为其名词形式。
  1. 接名词或代词。如: As a primary teacher, it requires great patience to teach children.
  2. 接动词-ing 的主动式或不定式的被动式。如: The old house requires repairing / to be repaired.
  3. 接不定式的复合结构。如: They required people not to smoke in the room.
  4. 接宾语从句(从句常用虚拟语气)。如: We required that people present at the meeting (should)arrive on time. 【拓展】辨析:require, demand&request 这三个词都有"要求"之意,具体区别如下:
  1. require 强调根据需要或纪律、法律等提出的要求。如: The situation there requires that I should take effective measures.
  2. demand 一般指理直气壮地提出强烈要求(或不允许对方拒绝的要求)。不用于 demand sb. to do sth.结构。此外,demand 还可用作名词。如: He demanded an immediate answer from me.
  3. request 是正式用语,指非常正式有礼貌地请求或恳求(多含担心种种原因导致对方不能答应 的意味)。request 还可用作名词。如: In the invitation, he requested that my family should attend his wedding. 【词条
  3】suffer 【点拨】suffer vt.遭受,经历,后常跟 defeat, hunger, loss, pain, poverty 等词作宾语。如: They have been suffering poverty since their unemployment. The enemy has suffered a sharp defeat and huge losses. vi. 受损失;受痛苦 If you break your promise, your reputation will suffer a lot. He suffered terribly when his parents died in the accident.
【拓展】suffer from 意为"受……折磨,受……之苦"。如: Workers in this factory suffered from overwork. A lot of old people suffer from heart disease. suffering n. 疼痛,痛苦, 常用作复数,表示"种种痛苦(苦难)"。如: He died without much suffering. She keeps complaining about all her sufferings.
经典短语透视 【短语
  1】take...for granted 【点拨】 take ... for granted 想当然,认为……理所当然,对……不予重视。 take 之后可接 sth. / it 作宾语:take sth. for granted 视某事为理所当然;take it for granted that 认为…… 理所当然, it 为形式宾语,真正的宾语为 that-clause。如: He takes everything his parents do for him for granted. Mother often tells me not to take things for granted. You can’t take it for granted that they’ll behave themselves. 【短语
  2】in response to 【点拨】in response to 回答,作为对……的回应。如: The president visited the country in response to an invitation. She opened the door in response to the knock. 【拓展】respond vi. 回应,响应;回答。构成短语:respond to 回答,回应。如: Many young people eagerly respond to the Party’s call to work in the border regions. I offered him a drink but he didn’t respond.
热点语法聚焦 由于一般过去时、过去完成时、过去进行时三种时态的基本用法大家已经非常熟悉,本单元 我们主要讲解各时态的特殊用法。
  1. 一般过去时 (
  1)一般过去时表示现在的情形,在这种情况下,常用的动词有:know, think, expect, hope, plan, mean, intend 等。如: Oh, it’s you. I didn’t know you were here. (事实上,你现在就在这里) I didn’t expect to be offered the post.(现在被给予了这个职位) I thought you were busy.(其实你现在不忙) (
  2)在时间或条件状语从句中,主句用过去将来时,从句用一般过去时表示过去将来。如: He said he would phone me when he decided to visit me. (
  3)表示过去经常发生的动作时常用 used to 或 would +动词原形。如: The boy would / used to go to the forest alone.
  2. 过去完成时 (
  1)和另一个动词的过去时连用,表示两个过去动作发生的先后。如: He had worked for three years before he went abroad for further education. (
  2)表示从过去某一时间开始,一直延续到过去另一时间的动作,常与以下时间状语连用:by
then, by the time, by the end of 等。如: By the end of last year, we had been friends for five years. (
  3)It was / had been +一段时间+ since 从句。since 从句用过去完成时。如: It was at least three years since I had enjoyed a good drink. (
  4)That / It was the first / second ... time + that 从句。that 从句的谓语用过去 完成时。如: It was the third time that he had mentioned the person. (
  5)表示过去未曾实现的愿望、 打算或意图,常用动词有 hope, expect, want, mean, intend, plan, think, suppose 等。如: I had intended to attend the ceremony, but I had to prepare a plan. We had hoped to get together last weekend, but we were just too busy.
  3. 过去进行时 (
  1)过去进行时表示过去某一时刻正在进行的动作。如: We were talking about the famous stars when the teacher came in. (
  2)过去进行时也可表示过去某一时间段正在进行的动作。如: Those days he was helping with my maths. (
  3)表示按计划、安排,过去某时将发生的动作。如: They were leaving for Paris three days later. (
  4)与 always, usually, frequently, often, all the time 等连用,表示说话人的赞美、 厌烦等情绪。如: She was always complaining about lacking money.
 

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