【词条
  1】refuse 【点拨】refuse 为动词,意为"拒绝"。常用于结构: ① refuse to do sth.
② refuse + n. / pron. ③ refuse sb. sth.。
如: What annoyed us was that Mary refused to talk about this matter. He refused his friend’s invitation to go on an adventure. She is so enthusiastic that you can’t refuse her anything. 【拓展】
  1. 辨析 refuse&reject&decline 这几个词都可作"拒绝"解。其区别在于:refuse 是表示"拒绝"这一概念的最普通的用词, 可接不定式,表示拒绝做某事,也可接名词,表示不接受;reject 语气比 refuse 强,表示断然拒 绝。如果不同意一种意见或信仰,通常用 reject;decline 比较正式,表示礼貌、客气地"婉拒", 当表示对于对方的邀请、请求、提议等表示"不接受"时,可以用 decline 来缓和语气。如: I refused to take part in anything that is illegal. The army doctors rejected several recruits as unfit. I invited her to join us, but she declined.
  2. refusal 为 refuse 的名词形式,意为"拒绝,拒不"。如: Your refusal of such a good offer was very foolish. 【词条
  2】arise 【点拨】arise 为不及物动词,意为"产生;出现"。常用搭配:arise out of / from sth."由…… 引起"。如: We didn’t know how the quarrel arose. Disagreements have arisen from the new program. 【拓展】
  1. arise 还可意为"站起来,起立"。如: He arose, telling me that he would wait for me outside the office.
  2. 注意几个与 arise 意义相近的词: (
  1) rise 是不及物动词,意为"上升;升起;增加;提高"。也可意为"起床"和"站起身",这时可 与 arise 换用。如: Our hopes rose and fell in the same instant. The chairman rose from his chair and came forward to present the award. We arose from the chairs when the guest entered the room. (
  2) raise 是及物动词,意为"举起;使起来;提高;提出"。如: He raised his hand to ask the speaker questions. My salary was raised to 8,000 yuana month. (
  3) arouse 也是及物动词,意为"唤醒;激起;引起"。如: I was suddenly aroused by the thunder. Great enthusiasm was aroused by the speech. 【词条
  3】accompany 【点拨】accompany 动词,可意为"陪伴"。如:
Will you accompany me in drinking a glass of wine? 【拓展】accompany 还可意为"伴随发生;伴奏"。如: Lightning usually accompanies with thunder. The pianist accompanied her singing.
经典短语透视 【短语
  1】treat ... as ... 【点拨】treat ... as ... 意为"把……当成……"。如: People here all treat me as an expert on farming. 【拓展】下面的词组都可以表示"把……当成……"。如: All the patients regard him as a considerate nurse. She thinks of the monitor as the cleverest student in the class. They look on others’ difficulties as their own. This sculpture is considered as a symbol of this city. 【短语
  2】rely on 【点拨】rely on 意为"依靠,指望",常用于以下结构: They usually rely on themselves.(rely on sth.) They have to rely on the river for their water.( rely on sth. for) You can rely on Peter to do what he promises.(rely on sb. to do sth.) 【拓展】count on 和 depend on / upon 都可意为"依靠,依赖"。如: I can count on Bill to get the job done. Our success mostly depends on your help. 【短语
  3】break down 【点拨】break down 可意为"分解,分化"。如: After many years, rocks break down into dirt. 【拓展】根据下列例句体会 break down 的其他意思: We are late because the car broke down halfway. (坏了) The peace talks have broken down because neither side would compromise. (失败) She broke down with a sob and covered her face with the hands. (感情失控) The expenditure on the project breaks down as follows: wages 5,000 dollars, materials 8,000 dollars. (分割)
热点语法聚焦 虚拟语气是一种特殊的谓语动词形式,用于表示说话人的假设、愿望、怀疑或推测等。本期 重点讲述虚拟语气在 if 引导的非真实条件状语从句中的用法。 引导的非真实条件句表示的是 if 假设的或实际可能性不大的情况, 故采用虚拟语气。 虚拟条件句从时间上又分为与现在事实相反、 与过去事实相反、与将来事实可能相反三种情况。以下表格是虚拟语气用于 if 条件状语从句中 时,主句和从句谓语动词的形式:
与现在事实相反:动词的过去式(be 动词一般用 were)would d could d might +动词原形 If he had time, he would come to visit you. (实际上很可能没时间) 与过去事实相反: had + 动词-ed 形式 would d could d might have +动词-ed 形式 If he had taken my advice, he would have finished it on time.(实际上没有采纳建议,结 果没按时完成) 与将来事实可能相反
  1. 一般过去时(be 动词一般用 were)
  2. should + 动词原形
  3. were to + 动词原形 would d could d might +动词原形 If it were to rain tomorrow, the football match would be put off.(说话人认为明天下雨 的可能性很小)
注意:
  1. 在 if 虚拟条件从句中,如果主、 从句动作发生在不同的时间,主从句谓语动词应根据各自所体 现的时间关系加以适当的调整,采用不同的动词形式,这叫作混合虚拟条件从句。如: If he had told me his telephone number yesterday, I could phone him now. (从句表达的 情况与过去的事实相反,主句表达的情况与现在的事实相反。)
  2. 在 if 虚拟条件从句中,如果从句的谓语动词含有 were, had, should,可将之提至句首,将连 词 if 省去,从而构成倒装句型。如: Should it rain tomorrow (= If it should rain tomorrow), I would not go to Beijing.
  3. 有时用介词 without 或介词短语 but for 来表达虚拟语气。如: Without electricity human life would be quite different today. But for your help, we couldn’t have arrived here on time.
 

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