1】extend 【课文原句】As time passed, however, the carnival period was extended, so that it began just after Christmas. (Page
  32) 【点拨】extend 在句中用作及物动词,意为"延长,扩大"。如: We will finally extend the road as far as the station. 【拓展】extend 作及物动词,还可意为"伸出,展开;给予(欢迎,帮助等)"。如: He refused to take the hand I extended in friendship. We extended warm congratulations to the winners. extend 还可作不及物动词,意为"延伸,延续,继续"。如: The hot weather may extend into October in this area. 【词条
  2】pretend 【课文原句】Ordinary people could pretend to be rich and important, while famous people could have romantic adventures in secret. (Page
  32) 【点拨】pretend 在句中意为"假装",常用于结构 pretend to do sth.。如: She just pretended to be friendly to me. 【拓展】pretend 还可接名词和 that-clause。如: He pretended sleep when his mother called him to do housework. Let’s pretend that we are grown-ups. 短语 pretend to 意为"自称具有,自称应得到",to 为介词。如: I don’t pretend to much experience in this field. 【词条
  3】mark 【课文原句】This marked the beginning of the slave trade. (Page
  39) 【点拨】mark 在句中用作动词,意为"标志着"。如: This battle marks the end of the war. 【拓展】mark 作动词,还常意为"作标记;使有污点;标示;打分;纪念"。如: In this school, every kid’s hat is marked with his or her name. A large scar marked his cheek. The route to the tower has been marked in red. I’ve got a pile of papers to mark. There will be ceremonies to mark the tenth anniversary of the company. mark 还可用作名词,常意为"污点,疤痕;记号;标志,迹象;成绩"。如: The children left dirty marks all over the kitchen floor. I put a mark in the margin to remind me to check the figure. They stood up as a mark of respect when the guest entered the room. He got the best mark in this English test.
经典短语透视 【短语
  1】consist of 【课文原句】a food that consists of a tube of skin containing meat mixed with herbs(Page
  35) 【点拨】consist of 意为"由……构成(组成)",不用于进行时和被动语态。如:
Our dinner consisted of four courses only. 【拓展】consist of 的同义短语为 be made up of。如: The committee is made up of five members. = The committee consists of five members. consist in 意为"在于",与 lie in 同义。如: The future of a nation consists in its education. = The future of a nation lies in its education. 【短语
  2】dress up 【课文原句】... and they were not allowed to dress up as women. (Page
  33) 【点拨】dress up 在句中意为"打扮",常用作 dress up as sb."打扮成某人";dress up in sth." 穿着……衣服"。如: Don’t bother to dress up for the party, for it is informal. My mom dressed up as a witch in Halloween last year. Children often enjoy dressing up in their parents’clothes. 【拓展】dress up 还可意为"把……打扮起来,给……穿上衣服"。如: While Lily was being dressed up, Mary was playing with the cat.
热点语法聚焦 一、常用时态被动语态的构成形式 时态形式一般现在时 is / am / are + 动词的过去分词 一般将来时 will / shall + be + 动词的过去分词 现在完成时 has / have + been + 动词的过去分词 现在进行时 is / am / are +being +动词的过去分词 一般过去时 was / were + 动词的过去分词 过去将来时 would be + 动词的过去分词 was / were going to be + 动词的过去分词 过去完成时 had been + 动词的过去分词 过去进行时 was / were + being+动词的过去分词 二、被动语态的使用要点
  1. 不及物动词不能用于被动语态及物动词才有被动语态,不及物动词 happen, take place, appear, arrive, die, fall, last, occur, remain, succeed, start 等没有被动语态。例如: Great changes have been taken place in my hometown. (×) Great changes have taken place in my hometown. (√)
  2. 表示状态的动词不能用于被动语态英语中有些动词(短语动词)不是表示动作,而是表示某种 状态或情况,如"拥有、 容纳、 适合、 明白"等意,这类词不能用于被动语态,常见的有:lack, mean, hold, have, become, last, cost, consist of, look like 等。如: The new stadium can be held 5,000 people. (×) The new stadium can hold 5,000 people. (√)
  3. 主动形式表示被动意义的词 (
  1)某些感官动词和系动词加形容词可以表示被动意义,常见的有:look, smell, taste, feel, prove, wear, sound 等。如:Your idea sounds great. (
  2) 某些行为动词后加副词(有些可不加副词)也可以表示被动意义,常见的有:wash, write,
sell, read, handle, keep, pay 等。如: The meat cuts easily. The shoes wear well. (
  3) want, deserve, need, require, worth 等词的后面可以用动名词的主动形式表示被动意义。 The point deserves mentioning.
  4. 在主动语态中,若动词为 make, let, see, hear, watch, notice 时,后接不带 to 的动词不定 式;但是变被动语态时,必须把省掉的 to 带上。例如: You should make him deal with this problem carefully. = He should be made to deal with this problem carefully.
  5. 某些表语形容词后,常用不定式的主动表被动。 The question is difficult to understand.
  6. 当不定式作定语,与前面的名词或代词有动宾关系时,用不定式的主动表被动。 Have you got anything to say at the meeting?
  7. be to blame, be to let 要用主动形式表示被动意思。 三、考例分析
  1. ?What’s the noise? ?Oh,I forgot to tell you. The new machine . (2008 浙江) A. was tested B. will be tested 试"。
  2. I like these English songs and they many times on the radio. (2008 安徽) A. taught B. have taught C. are taught D. have been taught 答案:D。they 指代的是 English songs,与 teach 构成被动关系,且强调完成。
  3. ?Do you have any problems if you this job?(2008 湖南) ?Well, I’m thinking about the salary ... A. offer B. will offer C. are offered D. will be offered 答案:C 。句意:如果给你这份工作,你有问题吗?本句应用被动语态,排除 A、B,而条件状语从句 中要用现在时表示将来,故 C 符合题意。
  4. ?Did you go to the show last night? ?Yeah. Every boy and every girl in the area invited. (2008 陕西) A. were B. have been C. has been D. Was 答案:D。句意:?你昨晚去看演出了吗??去了,这个地方的每一个人都被邀请了。主语是 every boy and every girl,谓语要用单数,而整体时态是过去时,故选 D。 C. is being tested D. has been tested 答案:C 。从题目的对话"What’s the noise?"可以看出,噪音现在存在着,所以"新机器正在被测


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