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高中英语词语辨析(三十)
make...from,make...of,make...into,make up
make...from为“用...原料制成”,介词的宾语是原材料,用from表示从制成品上看不出原来的制作材料。例如:They make wine from grapes. 他们用葡萄为原料制成葡萄酒。This cake is made from corn. 这个蛋糕是以玉米为原料制成的。
make...of为“用...材料制成”,介词的宾语是某种材料,用of表示从制成品上可以看出原来的材料。例如:Nearly everything inside the room is made of bamboo. 屋子里的东西几乎都是用竹子制成的。This big box is made of wood. 这个大盒子是由木头制成的。
make...into为“把...做成”,动词的宾语是某种原料和材料,介词into的宾语是制成品。例如:They make milk into butter and cheese. 他们把牛奶制成白脱和奶酪。Can you make this material into a skirt? 你能把这布料制成一件衬衫吗?
比较make...into与make...from, make...of的区别:Flour is made from wheat. 面粉是小麦制成的。Wheat can be made into flour. 小麦可制成面粉。Bottles are made of glass. 瓶子是用玻璃制成的。Glass can be made into bottles. 玻璃可制成瓶子。
make up为“构成,组成”,主语为构成一个整体的各个个体,宾语是一个集合体。此结构用于被动语态时,需加介词of,构成be made up of短语。例如:Ten doctors make up a visiting team. 十位医生组成了一支访问团。A car is made up of many different parts. 一辆汽车是由许多不同的零件组成的。Life is made up of both sweetness and sorrow. 生活中既有甘,又有苦。 
main,chief,major
这三个词都有“重要的”之意。
main:“主要的”,只用于物,强调事物的某一部分、分支的重要性,大小及潜力优于其他部分、分支,或表示该部分在整个事物中占有显赫的地位。This article has in the main preserved the fairness of news reporting.该文章大体上保留了新闻报道所用的不偏不倚的风格。His main reason for going to the library was to look up the book he spoke of yesterday.他到图书馆去的主要原因是去找他昨天谈到的那本书。
major:“重大的,主要的”,指在规模,数量,重要性方面超出同类的其他事物。John has also played a major part in the improvement of the paper.约翰在改进这份报纸的工作中也起了较大的作用。It was not until late afternoon that he began to tackle the major problem.直到傍晚,他才开始处理重大问题。
chief: "主要的,首要的",强调在顺序,等级,重要性,价值方面高于其他所有同类事物,用于人时指 "地位最高",用于物,意为 "最重要的"。The chief engineer is the most important of a group of engineers in a job. He is highest in rank and probably in pay.总工程师是参加一项工作的一组工程师中首要的一个,他的级别是最高的,薪水也可能是最高的。The chief reason for the great changes in the cultural field is the development of economy.经济发展是文化领域内发生巨大变化的主要原因。 
material,matter,substance
这三个词组都可作“物质,材料”讲。
material:“物质,物资,材料”,一般指具物理成份,构成某具体物体的物质,尤指人造物品的制作材料;有时则引申为现实观念或现实的根据或基础。如:raw material原材料,指能够进一步加工的物质,也指可以被进一步利用的事件,观念等,例如用作文学素材。With the development of industry, the consumption of raw material by industry has been rising surprisingly.随着工业的发展,工业所消耗的原材料增长惊人。They discovered that they could weave the wool into the material, which can be made into warm coats and suits.他们发现可以把羊毛纺成衣料,再把衣料制成暖和的外套和西装。
matter:“物质,内容”,基本上指某种实体或构成所有客观事物的“物质”,与精神相对;也指与形式相对的“内容”。常用短语:a matter of course 理所当然的事, matter-of-fact 讲求实际的。The matter in your composition is quite good, but the writing is not lucid enough.你的作文内容很好,但文字不够清楚。We know nothing about force or energy, nor of any physical phenomenon, except through the agency of matter. 要是不通过物质这个媒介,我们对力或能会一无所知,更不会了解任何物理现象。
substance:“物质,东西",常指具有某种物理或化学性质的特殊物质,或指构成某物,并赋予某种特性的物质;还可指 “重要的”或“实际性的”内容。常用短语:a question of substance 实质性问题;have substance 有道理,有根据,有内容。The function of the root of a plant is to fix the plant in its place and to take in water and food substance present in the earth.植物根的功能是将植物固定在所处的位置,并从土壤中吸收水及营养物质。A good chemical laboratory is equipped with precision instruments and supplies of many chemical substances. 一个好的化学实验室应配有精密仪器,并有充足的各种化学物质供应。 
maybe,possibly,perhaps,probably
这四个词都可表示“可能性”。
maybe:“可能,也许”,比其余的几个词更为随便和不正式,可能性不大,也可以表示一种非常委婉,礼貌的建议或要求。如:You could put it over there, maybe. 也许你可以把它搁在那边。He didn't feel quite right; maybe he got sunstroke. 他觉得不太好;也许是有点中暑。The doctor thinks maybe we'd better have a minor operation. 医生认为也许我们最好做个小手术。
possibly:“可能地,或者,也许",可能性较大。用于否定句和疑问句时表示 "无论如何"之意。She expressed regret for any inconvenience which might possibly be caused.她为任何可能造成的不便而深表歉意。I couldn't possibly have finished typing such a long document in such a limited period of time. 无论如何,我也不可能在如此有限的时间内打完这么长的文件。
perhaps:“可能”,较为常用也较为正式的词,可能性也不十分大。它可以表示建议或要求,也可以表示以礼貌的方式下命令。I thought perhaps it was the letter you had been expecting. 我想这大概是你一直盼望的那封信。Perhaps you will kindly give us a hand when we are in trouble. 当我们陷入困境时,也许你会善意地帮我们一把。
probably:“很可能,大概”,可能性在这一组词中最大,表示一种几乎完全肯定的意思。He is the only witness of the accident; he can probably give us some detailed information about it. 他是这次事故唯一的目击者,他大概可以告诉我们一些详细情况。There is probably some kind of living matter on some other worlds, but we do not know yet. 很可能在其他的世界存在着另类的生物,只是我们尚不知道。 
mean,intend,propose
这组词都有“打算,有心做某事”之意。mean:“打算,想象,有...意图”,不如intend正式,强调心里想做的意思,但不强调决心。短语: mean...for 准备让...做...Everyone believed that it would be a very suitable match because John and Julia were obviously meant for each other. 每个人都认为他们的结合会很般配,因为约翰和朱利亚显然天生一对。He shouldn't have done it, of course, but he was thoughtless. And he meant to pay the money back. 当然,他本来不该那么做,但他考虑不周到,再说他是打算还钱的。
propose:“打算,建议”,指宣布或明确确定某人的意图,含有公开宣称或清楚解释这一意图之意。可接名词,动名词,不定式及从句。While summarizing the year's work, the managing director of the company proposed a greater project for the next year. 公司的总经理总结了一年的工作,提出了下半年度更大的工程计划。Generally speaking, what's reached in the end may be better or worse than what was proposed. 一般说来,最终所达到的效果总的要比计划的好或差。 
much,quite,so,very
这四个词都表示“十分,非常”之意。
much:“非常,十分,颇”,程度副词,多修饰动词,副词,过去分词,偶尔修饰个别形容词。修饰动词时,通常以very much, too much, so much等形式出现。I feel so much better today that I would like so much to go out. 我今天觉得好多了,所以,非常想到外边去。The distance from here to the town is much the same by either of the two roads. 从这里到镇上有两条路,无论是走哪一条,路程都相同。
quite:“十分,相当,非常”,程度副词,相当于completely, perfectly, rather等意思,在不正式的场合可代替very,可以修饰动词,副词,分词,形容词及介词短语。He has quite recovered from his illness and is now able to return to his post. 他已完全恢复健康,可以重返工作岗位了。The first step will need quite a long time and cannot be accomplished overnight. 第一步所需的时间相当长,决不是一朝一夕就能完成的。
so:“非常,十分,极,很,如此地”,表示程度较高,常用于口语中,有时以very替换,但在so组成的结构中则不能用very。常用短语:so that 如此...以至于;so beautiful a child/ such a beautiful child 如此漂亮的孩子。So absorbed was he in his work that his wife would not dare to make a sound. 他全神贯注地工作,以致他妻子不敢作声。All this was so sudden and unexpected that nobody quite realized what had happened. 这一切来得那样突然,以至没有人晓得究竟发生了什么事情。
very:“很,十分,非常”,语气比quite强,可用于正式场合,通常修饰副词,形容词和纯粹用作形容词的过去分词,以及形容词的最高级以加强语气,不能直接修饰动词。They did their very best to increase quantity and variety of their products. 他们尽了最大的努力来增加产品数量和品种。Whatever you may have heard about me from poets, I am really not a very romantic character. 不管你从诗人那里听到关于我的什么情况,我实际上不是十足的浪漫派。
mark,sign,signal,symbol
这组词都有“标记,标志”之意。
mark:“标志,标记",含义广泛,指事物留下的深刻印迹或某物上用于辨别该物品的附属物,比sign更侧重于区别性或揭示性的标志,有时不一定十分直观或明显。One mark of a writer's greatness is that different minds can get a different inspiration from his works. 一个伟大作家的标志之一是不同的人都能从他那里得到不同的灵感。The lighthouse on the top of the hill serves as a mark for fliers. 山顶上的灯塔成了飞行员(识别地形)的标志。
sign:“记号,标记”,用法最广,可指符号(装置),也可指情绪,性格的直观显示,还指具体的用于识别或指示的标志,如指标牌,卡片等。借喻时讲作“征兆,迹象”。如:Sir, you are not to walk your pet on the lawn. Don't you see the sign: "keep off the grass"?先生,你不可以在草坪上溜狗,你没瞧见牌子上写着“请勿践踏草坪”吗?In the British Army, crown, stars and stripes are signs of military rank. 在英国军队里,王冠,星星和条形徽是军阶的标志。
signal:“信号”,常指约定俗成,用于传达某些信息的信号,也指灯光,声音或信号标志。A red light is a signal of danger, which is even known to a five-year-old child. 红灯是危险的信号,这一点就连五岁的孩子都知道。The sportsmen are all ready, waiting for the signal to start running. 运动员们都作好了准备,等待着起跑的信号。
symbol:“象征,符号”,指被人们选出的物体或图案,用来代表另一事物,并作为该事物的标记或象征。Symbol is a sign, figure or physical object, the meaning of which is established by convention. 常用的表义符号是由按常规规定其意义的符号,图案或实物图像构成的。In the picture the tree is the symbol of life and the snake the symbol of evil. 在这幅画中,树是生命的象征,蛇是邪恶的象征。 
made up of,made of,made from
这三个词组都同be动词连用。
made up of 含有“由...(成分)组成”的意思,即表示某物或组织由一个个成分或成员组成,of后通常接可数名词。例如:The committee is made up of seven members. 委员会由七名委员组成。The Third World is made up of the developing countries. 第三世界是由发展中国家组成。
made of和made from都有“由...(原材料)制成”的含义。但前者表示某一物品由某种原材料制成后,原料已看不出来。例如:Concrete is made of cement, sand, stone and water. 混凝土是由水泥,砂子,石头和水混合而成。Nylon is made from air, coal and water. 尼龙是由空气,煤和水加工制成。 
make the best of与get the best of
 

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