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  2,A3 中所示各种类型外,这两种从句均可由 as 或 because 来引导。但是用 as 引导原因从 句较为稳妥(参见 A) ;用 because 引导结果/原因从句较为稳妥(参见 B) 。 A 原因从句 1 由 as/because/since 引导的原因从句: We camped there as/because/since it was too dark to go on. 我们在那里露宿是因为天太黑,不能再继续往前走了。 As/Because/Since it was too dark to go on,we camped there. 因为天太黑不能再继续往前走,我们就在那儿露宿了。 2 in view of the fact that 可用 as/since/seeing that 来表示,但不能用 because: As/Since/Seeing that you are here,you may as well give me a hand. 既然你在这儿,你就帮我个忙吧。 As/Since/Seeing that Tom knows French,he’d better do the talking. 既然汤姆懂法语,最好让他来谈。 3 在 as/since/seeing that 意指以前共知的或共知的陈述时,可用 if 来代替: As/Since/Seeing that/If you don’t like Bill,why did you invite him? 既然/如果你不喜欢比尔,你为什么邀请了他? 注意:if so 的用法: ?I hope Bill won’t come. ?If so(=If you hope he won’t come) ,why did you invite him? ?我希望比尔别来。 ?如果这样(=如果你希望他不来) ,你为什么邀请了他? 关于 if+so/not,参见第 347 节。 B 结果从句由 because 或 as 引导: The fuse blew because we had overloaded the circuit. 保险丝烧断了,因为我们使线路超载了。 He was angry because we were late. 他生气是因为我们来晚了。 As it froze hard that night there was ice everywhere next day. 因为那天晚上冷得厉害,所以第二天到处都是冰。 As the soup was very salty we were thirsty afterwards. 因为这汤很咸,后来我们渴得厉害。 C 这种组合也可用 so 连接两个主句的形式来表示: It was too dark to go on,so we camped there. 天太黑了,不能继续往前走了,所以我们就在那儿露宿了。 You are here,so you may as well give me a hand. 你们既然在这儿,不如就帮我一下。 It froze hard that night,so there was ice everywhere next day. 那天夜里冷得厉害,所以第二天到处都是冰。 也可以使用 therefore,但只限用于非常正式的句子中: The Finnish delegate has not yet arrived.We are therefore postponing/ We have therefore decided to postpone/Therefore we are postponing the meeting. 芬兰代表还没有到达。 我们因此要把会议推迟/因此我们已决定把会议推迟/因此我们要把会议推迟。
(注意 therefore 可以放在几个不同的位置。 ) such/so…that 引导的结果从句 A such 是形容词,用于形容词 名词结构之前: They had such a fierce dog that no one dared to go near their house. 他们有一条如此凶猛的狗,以致没人敢靠近他们家。 He spoke for such a long time that people began to fall asleep. 他说了这么长时间,以致在座的人都犯困了。 B so 是副词,用于副词和不带名词的形容词之前: The snow fell so fast that our footsteps were soon covered up. 雪下得这么快,以致我们的脚印很快就被雪盖住了。 His speech went on for so long that people began to fall asleep. 他的讲话这么长,以致在座的人都开始犯困了。 Their dog was so fierce that no one dared come near it. 他们的狗太凶猛了,所以没人敢靠近它。 但 such 不能用于 much 和 many 之前,所以 so 可用于后跟名词的 much 和 many 之前: There was so much dust that we couldn’t see what was happening. 灰尘太大了,使得我们看不清发生了什么事。 So many people complained that they took the programme off. 抱怨的人太多,所以他们取消了那个节目。 C 注意: such+a+形容词+名词可由 so+形容词+a+名词来代替, 所以 such a good man 可由 so good a man 来代替。这只能在名词前面有 a/an 的情况下使用。这种形式不常见,但有时出现在文学作品中。 有时为了表示强调,so 位于句首。这时后面跟动词的倒装形式: So terrible was the storm that whole roofs were ripped off. 暴风真可怕,把整个的屋顶全都刮飞了。 让步从句 它们由下列词来引导:although,though,even though,even if,no matter,however。有时也可以使用 whatever。as 也可以,但是只限于形容词+as+be 结构。 Although/Though/Even though/Even if you don’t like him you can still be polite. 尽管/即使/纵然/即使你不喜欢他,你仍可有礼貌一些。 No matter what you do,don’t touch this switch. 无论怎样,都别碰这个按钮。 However rich people are,they always seem anxious to make more mon- ey. 无论人们多么富有,他们似乎总还渴望赚到更多的钱。 However carefully you drive,you will probably have an accident eventual- ly. 无论你开车多小心,最后你大概还会出车祸。 Whatever you do,don’t tell him that I told you this. 无论如何,别跟他说这件事是我告诉你的。 Patient as he was,he had no intention of waiting for three hours. 哪怕他再有耐心,也不打算等上三个小时。 may+动词原形可用于假设情况: However frightened you may be yourself,you must remain outwardly calm. 无论你有多害怕,外表上你仍要保持冷静。 may 含有 I accept the fact that(我接受这一事实)的意思: ?But he’s your brother!
?He may be my brother but I don’t trust him! ?可他是你的兄弟! ?尽管他是我的兄弟,可我不信任他! 但 may 这样用时, 是另一主句的一部分, 并不属于让步从句之列。 should+动词原形结构可用于 even if 之后,正如用于条件句的 if 之后一样,用来表示 should 后面的动词原形所指的动作不太可能发生: Even if he should find out he won’t do anything about it. 即便他发现了,他也不会采取什么行动的。 比较从句 A 形容词和限定动词连用时的比较: It’s darker today than it was yesterday. 今天比昨天天色昏暗。 He doesn’t pay as much tax as we do/as us. 他没我们交的税款多。 He spends more than he earns. 他花的比挣的多。 注意:that+形容词是一种口语形式,表示“那么……”: ?Will it cost£1
  00? ?No,it won’t cost as much as(all)that.It won’t be(all)that expen - sive./It won’t be as expensive as that. ?要花 100 英镑吗? ?不,花不了那么多。没那么贵。 that+形容词结构有时用于口语中表示 very(很)的意思。 B 副词和限定动词连用时的比较: He didn’t play as well as we expected/as well as you(did) . 他打得不如我们预料的好/你打得好。 He sings more loudly than anyone I’ve ever heard/than anyone else (does) . 他唱得比我听到的任何人唱得都响/比任何人都声音响。 You work harder than he does/than him/than I did at your age. 你比他干得卖劲/我在你这个年龄时干得卖劲。 C 形容词和不定式或动名词连用时的比较: 通常两者都可使用,但动词不定式常常用于特定的动作,动名词则用于一般情况(参见下面 E) : It’s sometimes as cheap to buy a new one as(it is) (to)repair the old one. Buying a new one is sometimes as cheap as repairing the old one. 有时买一个新的跟修理旧的一样便宜。 He found that lying on the beach was just as boring as sitting in his office. He found lying on the beach just as boring as sitting etc. 他发现躺在沙滩上和坐在办公室里一样没趣/烦人。 He thinks it(is)safer to drive himself than(to)let me drive. He thinks that driving himself is safer than letting me drive. 他认为自己开车要比让我开车更安全些。 It will soon be more difficult to get a visa than it is now. Getting a visa will soon be more difficult than it is now. 不久之后,签证会比现在更难拿到。 D 上面 C 所述的这种比较句式中,如 as/than 前面用的是动词原形,则常在 as/than 后面用动词原形
而不用动名词。与此相同,如 as/than 前面用的是动名词,则在其后面一般也使用动名词,而不用动词原 形,见前面的例子。位于 as/than 之前的限定动词+this/that/which 后面多跟动名词,虽也可跟动词不 定式: I’ll deliver it by hand;this will be cheaper than posting it. 我自己送过去,这样比邮寄要便宜。 He cleaned his shoes,which was better than doing nothing. 他把自己的鞋擦了,这总比无事可做好。 E 动词原形与 would rather/sooner 连用(参见第 297 与第 298 节) : Most people would rather work than starve. 多数人宁可工作也不愿挨饿。 I would resign rather than accept him as a partner. 我宁可辞职也不愿接受他为合伙人。 时间从句 A 时间从句由下列表示时间的连词来引导: after immediately till/until as nosooner…than when as soon as since whenever before the sooner while hardly…when 时间从句也可由 the minute,the moment 来引导。 用 when,as,while 的例句,参见第 331 节至第 333 节。 用 before 的例句,参见第 195 节 B。 B 请留意,时间从句中不用将来时态或条件时态。 1 如将下列将来时态放入时间从句中,须将它变为一般时态。 一般将来时: You’ll be back soon.I’ll stay till then. 你会很快回来,我一直等到那时。相当于: I’ll stay till you get back. 我一直等到你回来。 be going to 形式: The parachutist is going to jump.Soon after he jumps his parachute will open. 跳伞运动员要往下跳。他刚跳之后不久,降落伞就会打开。 现在进行时用做一般将来时和将来进行时: He’s arriving/He’ll be arriving at six. 他将在 6 点到。 但是: When he arrives he’ll tell us all about the match. 等他到了,他会好好给我们讲讲那场比赛。 Before he arrives I’ll give the children their tea. 在他来到之前,我会给孩子们吃茶点的。 如进行时态表示某一行动在继续,则其完全可以用在表示时间的从句中: Peter and John will be playing/are playing/are going to play tennis tonight. While they are playing (during this time)we’ll go to the beach. 今晚彼得和约翰要去打网球。他们打球时,我们将去海滨。
2 在时间从句中,将来完成时变为现在完成时,将来完成进行时变为现在完成进行时: I’ll have finished in the bathroom in a few minutes. 我一会儿就用完浴室了。 The moment/As soon as I have finished I’ll give you a call. 我一完事儿,就给你打电话。 3 在时间从句中,条件时态变为过去时态: We knew that he would arrive/would be arriving about six. 我们知道他将在六点钟左右到。 We knew that till he arrived nothing would be done. 我们知道在他到来之前,什么都干不了。 但是,如 when 引导的是一个名词从句,后面可跟将来时态或条件时态: He said,‘When will the train get in?’ 他说:“火车什么时候进站?”相当于: He asked when the train would get in. 他问火车什么时候进站。 C since 从句 since 从句后面常跟完成时态: They’ve moved house twice since they got married./Since they gotmarried,they’ve moved house twice. 他们结婚后已搬了两次家。 He said he’d lived in a tent since his house burnt down. 他说自从他的房屋被烧毁后,他就一直住在帐篷里。 It’s ages since I sailed/have sailed a boat. 我未驾驶帆船已有好多年了。 I haven’t sailed a boat since I left college. 自从我大学毕业后就没再驾驶帆船了。 D after 从句 after 从句之后常跟完成时态: After/When he had rung off I remembered… 等他把电话挂断了之后,我才想起…… After/When you’ve finished with it,hang it up. 你用完了之后,请把它挂起来。 E hardly/scarcely… when,no sooner… than: The performance had hardly begun when the lights went out. Hardly had the performance begun when the lights went out. 演出刚开始就停电了。 这里可以用 scarcely 代替 hardly,但不常见。 He had no sooner drunk the coffee than he began to feel drowsy. No sooner had he drunk the coffee than he began to feel drowsy. 他喝了咖啡没多一会儿,就犯困了。 He no sooner earns any money than he spends it. Immediately he earns any money he spends it. 他钱一挣到手,就花光了。 注意 the sooner…the sooner 的用法: The sooner we start,the sooner we’ll be there.我们动身得越早,到那儿就越早。
 

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