Democracy and personal liberty are not limitless,and they are under the control of certain conditions. It is known that in most parts of the world, the relation between population and resources is already unfavorable and will probably become even more unfavorable in the future. 民主和个人自由并非没有界限,而是受到某些条件的制约。众所周知,在世界绝大多 数地方,人口和资源的关系已经非常不利,而且将来可能会更加不利。 The unbalanced relation between population and resources makes the growing poverty more deteriorat-ing. This growing poverty constitutes a permanent menace to peace. And not only to peace, but also to democratic institutions and personal liberty. For over-population is not compatible with freedom. An unfavor-able relationship between numbers and recourses tends to make the earning of a living almost intolerably difficult. Labor is more abundant than goods, and the individual is forced to work long hours for little pay. The un-friendly nature or the equally unfriendly wielders of po-litical and economic power enable labor to have no sur-plus of accumulated purchasing power. 人口和资源之间不平衡的关系,使得不断增长的贫困现象更加恶化。不断增长的贫困, 不仅对世界和平构成永久的威胁, 而且还对民主设置和个人自由造成损害。 因为过多人口就 不能自由地和谐相处。 人口数和资源间的不利关系, 往往使得谋生达到几乎无法忍受的困难 程度。劳动力比商品更加丰富,个人为获得可怜的工资被迫工作更长的时间。不友善的自然 或者同样不友善的政治、经济权力的掌控者,使得劳动力没有剩余的购买力。 Democracy is, among other things, the ability to say “no” to the boss. As a man lives in a society confining to a govern-ment, he can‘t say “no” to the boss, unless he is sure of being able to eat when the boss’ favor has been with-drawn. s And he cannot be certain of his next meal un-less he owns the means of producing enough wealth for his family to live on, or has been able to accumulate sur-plus out of past wages. If he had a chance of moving to virgin territories, where he could make a fresh start, he would be able to say “no” to the boss, but there is no free land. 民主有别于其他事情,是对老板说“不”的能力。作为一个生活在受政府支配的社会 中的人, 除非他确信没有政府的恩惠他也能够吃饱, 除非他拥有的财产能足够满足家庭生存, 或者从过去工资中积累了可观的剩余, 否则是不会对老板说不的。 如果他有机会迁到未开垦 的疆域,一切可以重新开始,他甘愿对老板说“不”,但世上并没有自由国。 In an overcrowded country, very few people own enough to make them financially independent; very few people are in a position to accumulate purchasing power.
Moreover, in any country where population presses hard upon natural resources, the general eco-nomic situation is apt to be so precarious that govern-ment control of capital and labor, production and con-sumption, becomes inevitable. It results that democratic ideals will not work in conditions of poverty and extreme social unrest. 在人口过度拥挤的国家,很少人拥有能够在经济上保持独立的财产,很少人的购买力 能够不断增长。而且,在任何国家,如果人口给自然资源带来巨大压力,那么,普遍的经济 状况就会趋于不稳定,政府对资本、劳动力、生产和消费的控制就不可避免。其结果是在贫 困和极度社会动荡条件下,民主理念不起作用。 What is an American? An American is someone who loves their country and the people in it, and believes in bettering their own lives as well as the lives of those around them. Does it really matter that these individuals may be of German or Chinese descent? No, not at all; their ethnic background has nothing to do with being American. To say that the majority of people in the United States have some sort of tie with an ethnic background from a different country would be a safe assumption. This is what makes our American Culture unique. Immigrants bring to our country strong family structures and strong morals. Foreigners also help our economy prosper. Immigrants are what help make America be America; by being a multicultural society standing united. 美国人是什么? 美国人是这样的人:热爱自己的国家,热爱这个国家的人民,坚信自己的生活和周围 人的生活都会越来越好。 如果这些美国人是德国或者中国的后裔情形会有所不同吗?不, 一 点也不会。种族背景与成为美国人毫不相干。如果说大多数美国人都来自不同国家,有不同 的种族背景,这种假设肯定成立。正是这点使得美国文化独一无二。移民带给这个国家坚固 的家庭结构和强烈的道德观, 为经济繁荣也做出了贡献。 正是移民帮助美国成为所谓的美国, 使得一个多文化的社会联合在一起。 In today‘s American society it is not uncommon for people to be families broken up by divorce or other domestic disturbances. However, immigrants seem to have much stronger family values. For many immigrants, family comes first over everything; for many of them family is all they have. This is especially true of traditional developing societies. Many of these newcomers have strong traditions and beliefs which are strict and are instilled in their children. Immigrants coming to America with this type of beliefs and strong traditions sets good examples for our western civilization. By receiving new cultures to our society it is a chance to absorb their rules and respect they have for one another. This is ideal to help restore our family values.
今日美国社会,人们对于因离婚或其他家庭纠纷造成的家庭破裂早已司空见惯。但移 民似乎具有更加强烈的家庭观念。对许多移民而言,家庭重于一切,家庭就是他们拥有的全 部。 这种情况对于传统的发展中的社会尤其真实。 许多新来者带着强烈的传统和严格的信仰, 并且会渗透到子女身上。 具有这种类型信仰和传统的移民来到美国, 为西方文明树立了良好 的榜样。通过接受新文化,美国社会有机会相互借鉴,彼此尊重。这对于恢复美国的家庭观 念非常有帮助。 It has been said that “immigration is a threat to our economy.” This statement is so absurd. Immigration increases purchasing thereby, increases demand for labor. Immigration not only takes jobs, but also creates them. (Wall Street Journal) For instance, a man comes to America from China. This man opens a small Chinese restaurant. The restaurant makes outstanding business. Ten years later this man owns twelve restaurants and employs three hundred Americans. Stories like that happen all the time, which help our economy. 有人一直在说“移民对美国经济是个巨大的威胁”,这种论调荒谬可笑。迁移能增加 周围的购买力,扩大劳动需求;不仅占据工作岗位,而且还创造工作机会(华尔街杂志)。 例如,一个人从中国来到美国,开了一家小的中餐馆,由于经营良好,10 年之后拥有 12 家 餐馆,雇用 300 名美国人。类似这样的故事层出不穷,对美国经济大有裨益。 Immigrants are what help America be America. They say that America is just a melting pot. This is what makes our country unique. We have many cultures, many ideas, and traditions, but all of us have the same dream. That Dream is the American Dream. The same dream that keeps Americans in America and immigrants to come here. Diversity of cultures helps people understand and learn from each other. Taking immigration away would hurt this country more than economically, but, socially also. 移民帮助美国成为美国。人们常说美国就是个熔炉,这是美国之所以独一无二的原因。 我们有许多不同的文化、观念和传统,但大家都有一个同样的梦想:这就是美国梦。同样的 梦想,让美国人坚守美国,让各国移民纷至沓来,文化多样性促进人们相互理解和学习。取 缔移民美国不只是经济上遭受损失,社会生活也同样受损。 Immigration, I feel is extremely important. Being an Italian American myself, I understand the importance of immigration. My family has traditions and beliefs that they teach me and I‘ll teach my kids some day. And no one should be denied the opportunity my parents and I have to be a part of America.
我觉得人口迁移极其重要。作为意大利裔的美国人,我懂得移民的重要性。我的家庭 把传统和信仰教给我,有朝一日我会教给我的孩子。我的父辈和我努力成为美国的一部分, 这种机会任何人都不应失去。 We might marvel at the progress made in every field of study, but the methods of testing a person‘s knowledge and ability remain as primitive as ever they were. It really is extraordinary that after all these years, educationists have still failed to device anything more efficient and reliable than examinations. 我们可能对学科的每个领域所取得的进步感到大为惊异,然而测试一个人的知识和能 力的方法依然原始如初。确实是令人吃惊,这么多年以后,教育家们还没有找到比考试更为 有效和可靠的手段。 For all the pious claim that examinations test what you know, it is common knowledge that they more often do the exact opposite. They may be a good means of testing memory, or the knack of working rapidly under extreme pressure, but they can tell you nothing about a person‘s true ability and aptitude. 考试就是测验你知道什么,对于所有这些虔诚的说法,普遍认为往往适得其反。考试 可能是检验记忆力, 或者在极度紧张的情况下发现快速工作窍门的好方法。 但是它不能告诉 你一个人的真正能力和智能究竟怎样。 As anxiety-makers, examinations are second to none. That is because so much depends on them. They are the mark of success of failure in our society. Your whole future may be decided in one fateful day. It doesn‘t matter that you weren’t feeling very well, or that your mother died. Little things like that don‘t count: the exam goes on. No one can give of his best when he is in mortal terror, or after a sleepless night, yet this is precisely what the examination system expects him to do. 作为制造焦虑者,考试是最好的手段。这是因为它决定着很多事。它是一个人在社会 中成功或失败的标志。 在事关命运的一天里你的整个前途就被决定下来了。 它不管你当时的 心情很糟糕,或者你的母亲已去世。像那样的小事不足挂齿:考试依然进行。当身陷致命的 恐惧中或经过一个无眠之夜后, 没人能发挥出他的最佳水平, 不过这正是考试制度期望他这 样做的。 The moment a child begins school, he enters a world of vicious competition where success and failure are clearly defined and measured. Can we wonder at the increasing number of“drop-outs” young people who are written off as utter failures :
before they have even embarked on a career? Can we be surprised at the suicide rate among students? 从孩子开始上学的那一刻起,他就走进了一个成功和失败界限分明和可以衡量的恶毒 竞争之中。我们会对数目不断增加的“辍学者”??甚至在年轻人开始事业之前认为他已完 全失败??感到诧异吗?面对学生的自杀率我们能感到吃惊吗? A good education should, among other things, train you to think for yourself. The examination system does anything but that. What has to be learnt is rigidly laid down by a syllabus, so the student is encouraged to memorize. Examinations do not motivate a student to read widely, but to restrict his reading; they do not enable him to seek more and more knowledge, but induce cramming. 一种好的教育应当包括 培养你独立的能力。 而考试制度绝对没有这样的作用。 必须学的东西被强硬地用课程大纲给 制定出来,鼓励学生去死记。考试不能激励学生去广泛阅读,而是限制他阅读;考试不能使 学生探索越来越多的知识,而是起到填鸭式的作用。 They lower the standards of teaching, for they deprive the teacher of all freedoms. Teachers themselves are often judged by examination results and instead of teaching their subjects, they are reduced to training their students in exam techniques which they despise. The most successful candidates are not always the best educated; they are the best trained in the technique of working under duress. 考试促使降低教学标准,因为它剥夺了老师的一切自由。对老师本人教学水平的评判 通常就是看学生的考试成绩。老师们不去教授他们的课,而是简化教学,对学生进行他们嗤 之以鼻的考试技巧培训。 最成功的投考者不总是知识水平最高者; 他们是高压之下掌握考试 技巧最老练者。 The results on wh
 

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