公共英语一级考试阅读基础精选题(二 公共英语一级考试阅读基础精选题 二)
温馨提示:帮考网外语免费练习题,如需完整题库请登录 http://news.bangkaow.com 温馨提示: 帮考网外语免费练习题, Passage three Advertisers Perform a Useful Service to the Community Advertisers tend to think big and perhaps this is why they’re always coming in for criticism. Their critics seem to resent them because they have a flair for self-promotion and because they have so much money to throw around. ‘It’s iniquitous,’ they say, ‘that this entirely unproductive industry (if we can call it that) should absorb millions of pounds each year. It only goes to show how much profit the big companies are making. Why don’t they stop advertising and reduce the price of their goods? After all, it’s the consumer who pays…’ The poor old consumer! He’d have to pay a great deal more if advertising didn’t create mass markets for products. It is precisely because of the heavy advertising that consumer goods are so cheap. But we get the wrong idea if we think the only purpose of advertising is to sell goods. Another equally important function is to inform. A great deal of the knowledge we have about household goods derives largely from the advertisements we read. Advertisements introduce us to new products or remind us of the existence of ones we already know about. Supposing you wanted to buy a washing machine, it is more than likely you would obtain details regarding performance, price, etc., from an advertisement. Lots of people pretend that they never read advertisements, but this claim may be seriously doubted. It is hardly possible not to read advertisements these days. And what fun they often are, too! Just think what a railway station or a newspaper would be like without advertisements. Would you enjoy gazing at a blank wall or reading railway byelaws while waiting for a train? Would you like to read only closely printed columns of news in your daily paper? A cheerful, witty advertisement makes such a difference to a drab wall or a newspaper full of the daily ration of calamities. We must not forget, either, that advertising makes a positive contribution to our pockets. Newspapers, commercial radio and television companies could not subsist without this source of revenue. The fact that we pay so little for our daily paper, or can enjoy so many broadcast programmes is due entirely to the money spent by advertisers. Just think what a newspaper would cost if we had to pay its full price! Another thing we mustn’t forget is the ‘small ads.’ which are in virtually every newspaper and magazine. What a tremendously useful service they perform for the community! Just about anything can be accomplished through these columns. For instance, you can find a job, buy or sell a house, announce a birth, marriage or death in what used to be called the ‘hatch, match and dispatch’ column but by far the most fascinating section is the personal or ‘agony’ column.
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No other item in a newspaper provides such entertaining reading or offers such a deep insight into human nature. It’s the best advertisement for advertising there is!
  1. What is main idea of this passage? A. Advertisement. B. The benefits of advertisement. C. Advertisers perform a useful service to communities. D. The costs of advertisement.
  2. The attitude of the author toward advertisers is A. appreciative. B. trustworthy. C. critical. D. dissatisfactory.
  3. Why do the critics criticize advertisers? A. Because advertisers often brag. B. Because critics think advertisement is a “waste of money”。 C. Because customers are encouraged to buy more than necessary. D. Because customers pay more.
  4. Which of the following is Not True? A. Advertisement makes contribution to our pockets and we may know everything. B. We can buy what we want. C. Good quality products don’t need to be advertised. D. Advertisement makes our life colorful.
  5. The passage is A. Narration.
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B. Description. C. Criticism. D. Argumentation. Vocabulary
  1.come in for ( sth. ) 是某事物的对象,吸引(某事物),获得
  2.flair 天资,天分
  3.escalator 极邪恶的,极不公正的
  4.drab 单调的,乏味的
  5.subsist 活下去,生存下去,维持下去
  6.hatch 孵化(指生孩子)
  7.match 匹配,婚姻
  8.dispatch 派遣,发送
  9.El Dorado 极大痛苦,煎熬
  10.agony column (报刊中关于个人疑难问题征询意见的)读者来信专栏 four(preface) Passage four(preface) Science is a dominant theme in our culture. Since it touches almost every facet of our life, educated people need at least some acquaintance with its structure and operation. They should also have an understanding of the subculture in which scientists live and the kinds of people they are. An understanding of general characteristics of science as well as specific scientific concepts is easier to attain if one knows something about the things that excite and frustrate the scientist. This book is written for the intelligent student or lay person whose acquaintance with science is superficial; for the person who has been presented with science as a musty storehouse of dried facts; for the person who sees the chief objective of science as the production of gadgets; and for the person who views the scientists as some sort of magician. The book can be used to supplement a course in any science, to accompany any course that attempts to give an understanding of the modern world, or - independently of any course - simply to provide a better understanding of science. We hope this book will lead readers to a broader perspective on scientific attitudes and a more realistic view of what science is, who scientists are, and what they do. It will
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give them an awareness and understanding of the relationship between science and our culture and an appreciation of the roles science may play in our culture. In addition, readers may learn to appreciate the relationship between scientific views and some of the values and philosophies that are pervasive in our culture. We have tried to present in this book an accurate and up-to-date picture of the scientific community and the people who populate it. That population has in recent years come to comprise more and more women. This increasing role of women in the scientific subculture is not an unique incident but, rather, part of the trend evident in all segments of society as more women enter traditionally male-dominated fields and make significant contributions. In discussing these changes and contribution, however, we are faced with a language that is implicitly sexist, one that uses male nouns or pronouns in referring to unspecified individuals. To offset this built-in bias, we have adopted the policy of using plural nouns and pronouns whenever possible and, when absolutely necessary, alternating he and she. This policy is far form being ideal, but it is at least an acknowledgment of the inadequacy of our language in treating half of the human race equally. We have also tried to make the book entertaining as well as informative. Our approach is usually informal. We feel, as do many other scientists, that we shouldn’t take ourselves too seriously. As the reader may observe, we see science as a delightful pastime rather than as a grim and dreary way to earn a living.
  1. According to the passage, ‘scientific subculture’ means [A] cultural groups that are formed by scientists. [B] people whose knowledge of science is very limited. [C] the scientific community. [D] people who make good contribution to science.
  2. We need to know something about the structure and operation of science because [A] it is not easy to understand the things that excite and frustrate scientists. [B] Science affects almost every aspect of our life. [C] Scientists live in a specific subculture. [D] It is easier to understand general characteristics of science.
  3. The book mentioned in this passage is written for readers who [A] are intelligent college students and lay person who do not know much about science.
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[B] are good at producing various gadgets. [C] work in a storehouse of dried facts. [D] want to have a superficial understanding of science.
  4. According to this passage. [A] English is a sexist language. [B] only in the scientific world is the role of women increasing rapidly. [C] women are making significant contributions to eliminating the inadequacy of our language. [D] male nouns or pronouns should not be used to refer to scientists.
  5. This passage most probably is [A] a book review. [B] the preface of a book. [C] the postscript of a book. [D] the concluding part of a book. Vocabulary
  1.subculture 亚文化群(指在一个社会或一种文化内具有独特性的一群人)
  2.superficial 肤浅的,浅薄的,表面的
  3.lay person 外行,门外汉,俗人
  4.musty 发毒的,老朽的,陈腐的
  5.gadget 小玩意儿,小配件,新发明
  6.pervasive 渗透的,弥漫的,遍布的
  7.populate 居住于……中,在……中占一席之地
  8.implicit 含蓄的,内含的
  9.unspecified 未特别提出的
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  10.offset 抵消,补偿 写作方法与文章大意: 这是一篇书的序言,作者用夹叙夹议的写作方法介绍了书的涉及面及其功能。首先提出科学是我们文化的 重大主题,但人们也该了解科学家生活的亚文化群,只有懂得一些激励和挫伤科学家的种种情况,才能理 解科学的一般特征及其特殊概念。第二方面指出书的读者对象是对科学一知半解的学生及门外汉。书可作 理工科课程的辅助(补充)读物,又可独立自成体系。它可开阔人们科学的视野,真正了解科学、科学家 及其工作,理解科学和文化的关系,科学观点和哲学的关系。第三方面指出亚文化群中妇女增多,贡献巨 大,而我们的语言却隐含这性别的歧视,难以充分平等地反映妇女。最后指出书信息量大又具娱乐性,寓 教于乐。 答案详解:
  1. C 科学社区。 答案在第一段第二句, 人们也该了解科学家生活在其中的亚文化群以及他们是什么样的人。 第三段又讲到,有关科学社区的画面以及妇女对科学亚文化的贡献。可见科学社区即亚文化。 A. 科学家所组成种种文化群体。 B. 科学知识有限的一些人。 C. 对科学作出很大贡献的人。
  2.B 因为科学几乎影响到我们生活的各个方面。文章开综明旨点出:科学是我们文化中的重要主题,由于 它几乎涉及到我们生活的每一方面,有知识的人至少需要熟悉一些结构和作用。 A. 了解激发和挫伤科学家的事情可不太容易。(比较难) C. 科学家生活在特定的亚文化群中。 D. 了解科学的一般特性比较容易。
  3.A 不太了解科学的大学生或门外汉。第二段首句就点出了这本书为对科学一知半解的大学生和门外汉所 写,为某些人,一直把科学看作干巴巴的事实堆砌的发霉的石屋的人;为那种把科学的主要目的视为生产小 配件的人;为那些把科学视为某种魔术的人而写。这说明主要为 A 项人所写,对科学了解不多的大学生和普 通人。 B. 善于生产各种小配件。 C. 在干巴巴的事实堆砌的石屋中工作。 D. 相对科学有肤浅了解的人。
  4.D 不应当用阳性的名词和代词去指科学家。 第三段集中讲了这本书提供精确而又现代的有关科学社区 (社 会)和居住在其中的人的画卷。近年来,越来越多的妇女包括进来,原因是许多妇女进入传统上为男人统
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治的领域,并作出巨大贡献,所以妇女在科学亚文化群中的增多并不是罕见的偶然事件,而是社会各部门 明显趋势的组成部分。在讨论其变化和贡献时,我们面临着隐含性别歧视的语言――用阳性名词和代词来 指未指定人物,为了消除这种偏颇,我们在可能和必要时采用了复数名词和代词来取代他或她。 A. 英语是一种性别语言。 B. 只有在科学领域中,妇女的作用增长很快。 C. 妇女在晓民我们语言中的不 适当性作出了巨大的贡献。根据此题注释说明这三项都不对。英语不能说成是有性别的语言,其中虽有些 词性表示男性或女性。文内明确指科学界妇女增多是整个社会的趋势的组成部分。由于妇女在科学界的贡 献,所以不能再用阳性名词或代词去指科学界,并不是在消灭语言……
  5.B 书的前言,见文章大意。 A. 书的评论。 C. 书跋、书的附录。 D. 书的结论部分。
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