广告英语教程 TIPS:广英的课文不需要去背诵,但一定要熟悉和理解!关于名词解释类的一定要背! Unit 1 The dimensions of Advertising
  1. Definition of advertising: Advertising is any of various methods used by a company to increase the sales of its products or services or to promote a brand name, and it’s aslo used by organizations and individuals to communicate an idea, to recruit staff, to publicize an event, or to locate an item or commodity. So, simply we can define advertising as a process of non-personal communication, process of public relations, an economic and social process of information and persuasion process.
  2. The aim of Advertising: It’s usually designed to win consumers through persuasion, or promote products which include goods, services and ideas.
  3. Two basic types of advertising: Informative advertising and Persuasive advertising.
  4. Target audience refers to the people who most suited to the product which can be divided into different parts ranging from wealthy professionals to students, the retired, and the unemployed.
  5. Market research is important because it can measure the success of the advertising and it’s a necessary preparation for the design of advertisements.
  6. Feedback is the response from the consumer that could verify whether the message was received and understood.
  7. Source dimensions: (
  1)Sponsor: people who pays for the ads. (
  2)Designer: who designs the advertisement (
  3)Spokesperson: who gives voice and appears in the ad to convey the message to the audience.
  8. Message dimensions: (
  1)Autobiographical messages: are those of “I” tell a story to “you” (
  2)Narrative message: a third person tells a story about others to an imagined audience. (
  3)Drama: characters act out events directly in front of an imagined audience.
  9. Receiver dimensions: (
  1)Implied consumers: particular groups of people imagined by the advertisers to be the audiences of a particular ad. (
  2)Sponsorial consumers: people who decides the ad will be run or not. (
  3)Actual consumers: people who really watch the ad in the real world. Understand:
  1. Why Advertising is a non-personal communication? Because it’s directed to groups of people instead of individuals.
  2. Not all advertisements are aimed at all people. WHY? Advertisements must appeal to a target audience who most suited to their product.
  3.On the contrary, advertising can be also seen as a hindrance to perfect competition.
  4.WHY? It attempts to make distinctions between similar products. The advertising communication process: The process starts when one party(the source)
1
encodes a thought to a message and sends it through some channel to another party(the receiver), the receiver decode the message to understand it and then responds his feedback. Unit 2 The evolution of Advertising
  1. The ancient period: Most messages were actually delivered by criers who stood on street conrners shouting the wares of the sponsor. Information rather than persuation was the objective of the early commercial message.
  2. The age of print: Began with the invention of the printing press. The invention of moveable type moved society toward mass communication. The early print ad included posters, handbills and classified ad in newspapers, messages were simple and informative.
  3. The formative years: Agencies had taken on the role of convincing manufacturers to advertise their products. Ads had assumed a more complete informational role.
  4. Modern advertising: Advertising industry had become a major force in marketing and had achieved a significant level of respect and esteem Understand:
  1.“Soft-sell” advertising: Such advertisement which use a series of soft way to persuade consumers by creating images through a slow accumulation of positive messages.
  2. “Hard-sell” advertising: Such advertisement which promoting its product by direct way.
  3. Why does advertising develop so rapidly in modern society? Advertising was spawned by a market-driven system and grew through self-interest in capitalistic, free enterprise market economics. Efficient methods of production made advertising essential as a demand simulation tool.
  4. Urbanization, transportation expansion, and communications advancements all facilitated the use and growth of advertising.
  5. When did modern advertising really begin? Why? In the 1880s, because the output increased and the costs decreased by the new methods of manufacturing and the development of transportation, manufacturers and the sellers needed to promote their products and goods better for the aim of profitability.
  6. What’s the situation of the American marketing system and advertising before and after 1880s? Before 1880s the American marketing system had been characterized by an intricate set of wholesalers, jobbers and retailers, and the wholesaler was king; After 1800s, manufacturers could package their products, brand and advertise, national advertisers began to provide services for them which could make their standards of conduct higher than before.
  7. Through most of the nineteenth century what consumer product was advertised most widely?
  8. Patent medicines. The advertisement was often extravagantly false claims, but the companies always depended upon repeat-purchase behavior and thus upon building a bond
2
of trust with the consumer, so they eschew the blatant falsehoods made by purveyors. Unit 3 Advertising&Marketing process
  1. The martketing mix approach is one model of crafting and implementing marketing strategies.
  2. Marketing mix: a combination of factors that can be controlled by a company to influence consumers to purchase its products.
  3. The target market: A target market is the market segment which a particular product is marketed to. It’s often defined by age, gender and/or socio-economic grouping.
  4. The importance of Marketing: (
  1)A business is generally doomed to failure if it does not look at the product through the eyes of the consumer. (
  2)A successful marketing depends upon a salable price which the right consumer would be willing to buy and the right marketplace where the consumer can buy it, and a good advertisement to convince consumer to buy it. (
  3)Many work is required for the planning, development, and the implementation of an overall marketing program, before designing any form of advertising.
  5. Questions for marketers to consider concerning the marketing mix?(4P’s) (
  1)Product: Whether the product satisfy the consumer’s needs and also be competitive when comparing with other products. (
  2)Price: Whether the price of product is competitive so that consumer would be willing to buy. (
  3)Place: Whether the product is well sold in the right places which is convenient for consumer to see and to buy. (
  4)Promotion: Whether the competitive benefit of product is well persuasively communicated to the right consumer.
  6. The two requirements for the product, or the inadequate product will soon come to an demise even with an effective advertising, and the greatest advertising plan will absolutely fail: (
  1)the product must offer a competitive benefit at a price the consumer is willing to pay; (
  2)the product is in distribution.
  7. Good marketing is always the basis for good advertising, Understand:
  1. The 4 P’s look at marketing from the perspective of the marketer.
  2. The 4 C’s: converting Product into “customer solution”, converting Price into “cost to the consumer”, converting Place into “convenience”, converting Promotion into “communication”. These C’s reflect a more client-oriented marketing philosophy and provide useful reminders. And it also provides a handy framework for marketing analysis.
  3. Why marketing texts still tend to use 4P’s to describe the elements of the mix instead of 4C’s ? The 4C ’ s reflect a client-oriented philosophy but the marketing mix is too product-oriented, and the 4C’s are also not so memorable as the 4P’s.
3

  4. Borden devised a model with 12 decision variables: planning, pricing, branding, channels of distribution, personal selling, advertising, promotions, packaging, display, servicing, physical handling, fact finding.
  5. Albert Fray classified the marketing variables into 2 categories: the offering and the process variables. The “offering” consist of the product, service, packaging, brand, and price. The “process” or “method” variables included advertising, promotion, sales promotion, personal selling, publicity, distribution channels, marketing research, strategy formation, and new product development.
  6.The marketing mix model is often expanded to include sub-mixes, for example the promotion variable can be further decomposed into a promotional mix. And within the promotional mix advertising can be further broken down into an“advertising media mix”. Thinking:
  1. Small is better when selecting segments to target in marketing strategies, WHY? My answer: According to the principle of Market Segmentation, selecting a small target market will better and easier fit the consumers and satisfy their needs by selling products throughout a particular way.
  2. Advertising strategies are followed by marketing strategies, WHY? My answer: Because the good marketing strategies is always the basis for good advertising strategies by laying a solid foundation for the formation of advertising strategies, effective advertising strategies can only come from effective marketing strategies.
  3. The positioning strategy adopted for a brand would need to be supported by all other elements of the marketing mix. WHY? My answer: Because the progress which could only lead a new brand to success always depends upon every aspect of the marketing mix such as product planning, channel of selling, advertising and promotion. Unit 4 Marketing communication tools
  1. The communication mix is a marketing communication tool.
  2. Personal communication includes personal contact with customers, which may be letters, memos, personal interviews, telephone conversations and email.
  3.Non-personal Communication use some medium as an intermediary for communicating ,including: Advertising, Direct Marketing, Public Relations, Collateral Materials, Sales Promotion.
  4. Advertising is sometimes called mass selling or non-personal selling. Its usual purpose is to inform, persuade and remind customers about particular products and services.
  5. Advertising works best with differentiated products, and it doesn ’ t work efficiently for undifferentiated products like raw materials and commodities.
  6. An advertising’s success is based upon: \ (
  1) High primary demand trend. (
  2) Chance for significant product differentiation,
4
(
  3) Hidden qualities highly important to consumers, (
  4) Opportunity to use strong emotional appeals, (
  5) Substantial budgets to spport advertising.
  7. Direct Marketing refers to the selling process that is like taking the store to the consumer, it builds and maintains its own database of consumers and uses a variety of media to communicate with those consumers. And it’ well-suited to highly-targeted s marketing efforts.
  8. Telemarketing is a dierect marketing technique which person-to-person phone contact makes the sale. Telemarketing is a component of Direct Marketing.
  9. Direct Marketing has four distinctive characteristics: Nonpublic, immediate, customized, interactive.
  10. Public Relations are used to inform various audiences about the company and its products and build corporate credibility and image. Publicity (news releases, media advertisements, feature stories) and special events (open houses, factory tours, grand openings) for instance.
  11. Collateral Materials include booklets, catalogs, brochures, films,sale kits, annual reports.
  12. The function of Sale promotion: it supplements the basic mechanisms of the marketing mix by stimulating channel members or prospective cunstomers to some immediate, overt behavior in a short period of time. Trade deals, free samples, displays, contests, sweepstakes, cent-off coupons for instance. Understand:
  1. The difference between Advertising and Publicity: Advertising is never institutional and Publicity is usually institutional in character.
  2. Sales promotion is defined as a direct inducement which offers an extra value or incentive for the product to the sales force distributors or to ultimate consumer, and its primary objective is to create an immediate sale.
  3. Relationship marketing requires sharing information, working toward the same goal, mutual trust, cost-effective link between customer and salesperson.
  4. The product life cycle includes five courses: Pre-Introduction: Light advertising, pre-introduction publicity; Introduction: Heavy use of advertising, public relations for awareness, sales promotion for trial; Growth: Advertising, public relations, branding and brand marketing, personal selling for distribution; Maturity: Advertising decreases, sales promotion, personal selling, reminder and persuation; Decline: Advertising and public relations decrease, limited sales promotion, personal selling for distribution. The product life cycle can be understood as a new product progresses through a sequence of stages from introduction to growth, maturity, and decline. This sequence is known as the product life cycle and is associated with changes in the marketing situation, thus impacting the marketing strategy and the marketing mix.
5
Thinking:
  1. Marketing communication is a systematic
 

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