[English Abstractl The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne
is a classical novel in American literature in the 19th centur\r.
Since the first Chinese translation of The Scarlet Letter
appeared in the 1950's scholars and readers in this country
have shown an ever-increasing interest in his works. Its
immortal enchantment lies in not only its condemnation of the
negative impact of Puritan society on people's spirit, but also its
affirmation of goodness. The novel aims at criticizing severely
Puritanical asceticism, suggesting Hawthorne's further thinking
over the "original sin" "good and evil" "soul salvation" "total
depravity" by analyzing the four main characters in the novel.
The novel concerns the consequence caused by the sin and
people's attitude towards sin rather than the sin itself. He
believes man can do good deeds to get rid of evil in his heart.
[Key Words] Puritanism; Human nature; Prynne;
Dimmesdale; Roger; Pearl; the scarlet letter

  1. Introduction
The Scarlet Letter is a famous American novel whose author,
Nathaniel Hawthorne, is considered the leading American native
fictionist of the 19th century. Hawthorne was born in Salem,
Massachusette, of a prominent Puritan family, on July4, 18
"In 1850 he brought out his masterpiece The Scarlet Letter, the
stor\t of a triangular love affair in colonial America. In this novel
Hawthorne condemned the Puritan philosophy of life"[1]P49
"His stories display a psychological insight into moral isolation
and human emotion. He distrusted the claim of objective
reason to be able to arrive at humanly relevant truth" L21P53
His short stories and novel includes: The Minister's Black Veil,
Twice Told Tales, Mosses from an Old Manse, The House of The
Seven Gables, The Marble Faun, among which The Scarlet
Letter is the most famous. The novel is short but very moving.
Prynne, a young and beautiful woman, came to New England
two years before his husband, an old, ugly man who can not
give Prynne love. Prynne, then falls in love with Dimmesdale, a
young handsome clergyman and then has a baby, Pearl,
because she can not get any news from her husband, thinking
that he has died. When her "adultery" is discovered, she is
punished to wear a scarlet letter "A" on her chest all her life.
Her husband, Roger, tries his best to torment Dismmesdale.
And Dimmesdale, suffering from both physical and spirit
torment, announces his "sin" at last, he dies an honest man.
Roger, withers at last, Prynne, restructures her life and wins
people's respect, Pearl, leaves for Europe, marries a noble
family, leading a happy life.
Hawthorne's thought was full of contradictions. In his days,
American capitalism was developing rapidly, and the social
structure was changeable. He couldn't understand this change,
and tried to explain it by discovering the "hidden evil" in
everyone's heart because of the influence of Puritanism. He
used symbolism and imagination, which made his works full of
mystical color.
In this research paper, I analsize the main characters of the
novel aiming at discussing the novel is a skeptic to the Puritan

  2. Puritanism in American
"Puritanism was entirely English in its origin, yet the
movement achieved its greatest influence in America. The 17th
century colonies in New England represent the fullest
development of the movement."[3]P22 Puritanism is the
practices and beliefs of the Puritans. The Puritans were
originally members of a division of the Protestant Church, who
came into existence in the reigns of Queen Elizabeth and King
James I. The first Puritans to arrive in America were
Separatists. A new group of Separatists fled England in 1607
1609, to the north of Plymouth, in the area around Boston,
other Puritans began arriving in 162816
  30. They came over
under the auspices of the Massachusetts Bay Company, a
corporation with rights to the area of land lying between the
Charles and the Merrimack rivers,
They came to America out of various reasons, but it should be
remembered that they were a group of serious, religious
people, advocating highly religious and moral principles. They
believe that the church should be restored to complete "purity",
they accepted the doctrine of predestination, original sin and
total depravity, and limited atonement through a special
infusion of grace from God. Puritans' lives were extremely
disciplined and hard. As a culture heritage, Puritanism did have
a profound influence on the early American mind. American
Puritanism also had a enduring influence on American
literature. It had become, to some extent, so much a state of
mind, so much a part of the national cultural atmosphere,
rather than a set of tenets.
"Puritans includes people from the humblest to the loftiest
ranks of English society, educated and uneducated, poor and
rich" [4]P91"The Puritans were indebted to John Calvin and the
example of the Calvinist tradition. Another source of Puritanism
was the Bible, considered the sole authority in matters of faith"
It has the following thoughts: "The Puritans demand greater
purity and stricter obedience to the will of God, Englishmen in
the 16th called such person: "Puritans", a name derived from
the Latin word for pure, and intended as a criticism of the
reformers for being too extreme in their demands." [5]P21
"Puritan opposition to pleasure and the arts has sometimes
been exaggerated." [6]P91

  3. The analysis of characters

  3.1 Hester Prynne
Hester Prynne was a woman who committed adultery, which is
representation of evil of human nature in Puritans'eye, and
cannot be accepted by the puritans and the society at that time
and. Hester betrayed her husband and went against the
principle of honesty according to Puritanism, so she must
accept the severe penalty in the puritan society, wearing a
scarlet letter "A'f on her breast all her life which means
“adultery". "At the least, they should have put the brand of a
hot iron on Hester Prynne's forehead." "This woman has
brought shame upon us all, and ought to die." [7]P43
The women's vicious curse was the supplement of the
puritanical code of law. To the puritans, the civilized life was to
throw the human nature into the prison. Here, we can see the
writer's negation to the Gail-the symbol of the Puritanism. But
“And never had Hester Prynne appeared more ladylike, in the
antique interpretation of the term, than as she issued from the
prison." [8]P45 "The door of the jail being flung open from
within, there appeared, in the first place, like a black shadow
emerging into sunshine, the grim and grisly presence of the
town-beadle, with a sword by his side and his stuff of office in
his hand" [9]P44
In the whole story, Hester generally kept silent, accepted the
insult from adults to children in the puritan society, In fact, she
showed extreme strength and courage to resist the bias of the
Puritanism by her good deeds. She was always the flrst one to
help people in trouble; gradually she won people's respect by
her benevolence. She spent most of her time on embroidery
and Pear, her fancy work was elegant and incomparable, which
made people admire her ability. She didn't only struggle for the
right of her own but also for a new world where both men and
women could possess the equal right to love. She was an
Amazon against the Puritanism. Several times when they met
in the forest, she encouraged Dimmesdale to escape together
with her. "Hester never thought of meeting him in any narrower
privacy than beneath the open sky." [10]P154 "She took off the
formal cap that confined her hair;" "Her sex, her youth, and the
whole richness of the beauty, came back from what men call
the irrevocable past."[11]P171 In Hawthorme's and Poe's
novels, women's black long hair stands for romance and desire,
while evil in Puritan society(茌霍桑,爱伦?坡等许多作家的小说中,女人
的长黑发缘征浪漫和情欲,这在清教徒眼中就是罪恶)[12]P66 Her
action itself is an affirm to the feudal regime and oppress. Here,
we can see Prynne never give up her pursue for love and
At the end of the story, to the reader's surprise, Prynne had
returned to New England. "People brought sorrows and
perplexities, and besought her counsel, as one who had herself
gone through a mighty trouble. Earlier in life, Prynne had vainly
imaged that she herself might be the destined prophetess"
[13]P221 this is the bitterest satire to the Puritanism and its
doctrine of total depravity.

  3.2 Dimmesdale and Roger
"Dimmesdale was a man torn between human nature and the
religious rules that formed civilization at that time." [14]P27The
puritans saw themselves as restoring the Christian tradition to
its original purity by new faith but to restore an old one. They
hoped to inspire whole communities with zeal for Christian
living, mainly through powerful preaching and bible study. He
represents many of their best virtues. He was conscientious,
learned, and eager to serve. He also represents some of their
common vices. He was hypocritical humorless, and a bit vain.
"Unlike Hester and Roger who represented two poplars of
passion and puritan doctrine, Dimmesdale struggled between
the two extremes. The rigorous doctrine of puritan society got
him stuck in his dilemma. Neither could he deny his love to
Hester nor could he make a public confession about his sin
because he was afraid of the consequence. This dilemma
gnawed his heart till his final confession and death." [15]P43
As a puritan representative, he suffered more from the guilt of
his hypocrisy than from the guilt of his passion. He was a
clergyman, meanwhile he was a man full of compassion and
human nature, he loved Prynne very much, and he committed
adultery which betrayed the puritanical code of law. Four
decisions were thus forced upon him; he must assert his
position in relation to man, God, his original sin and better self.
In each case, he only added new falsity to his torment and
suffering. "He was struggling on the edge of the spirit and flesh
coming breakdown, and he was beat and lashed by the so-
called articles of religion "the gory whip" at every moment. It
must be considered that he continued to be engaged in the
pure mission of a priest with the criminal body should be a
great affront to god and a deception to god-people. Eventually,
he told the secret in mind with divine courage, he obtains
tranquil and the newborn of spirit." [16]P48 this restraint from
religion in human nature exposes the hypocrisy of Puritanism
and its doctrine of predestination.
. Roger was someone whose emotional famine ended in a dark
feast of avenge. This made him a figure of black magic in
Hawthorne's sense, that was, someone who had willingly
committed his soul to the devil's care, and who became learned
in the arts of evil-doing. He was the most deplorable figure, "at
first, he was a victim; at last, he entirely became a ruthless
devil. The basic factor led to the result is affected by moral
conception, and the main criterion is Puritanism at that time."
[17]P92 His fate was a satire to the "good and evil" "soul
salvation" in the Puritanical code of law.
Roger was the full embodiment and victim of the rigorous code
of puritan society which negates human passion. He
represented moral evil and destroying power, When his evil
work was done he positively withered up, shriveled away like
an uprooted weed that lay wilting in the sun. Some people may
think that he was the victim and he revenged for his dignity.
But from the cruel means he revenged on Prynne and
Dimmesdale he committed an unforgivable sin. When
Dimondale, his tormented subject, ascended the scaffold to
confess his sin triumphantly, he was completely defeated just
as the puritan hierarchy was defeated.
Prynne and Dimmesdale were sinners at first, they committed
the 'original sin' according to the Puritanical code of law, and
however, they did good deeds to others and got rid of evil in
their heart. On the contrary, Roger was not forgivable he saw
revenge his sole purpose of life.

  3.3 The Role of Pearl
"Pearl was a character who has not yet chosen good or
evil ,She was in a natural pre-moral state. In this crucial sense
she was an unformed person and a reader cannot penetrate
much of he personality. Her innocence is tainted with a natural
inclination to selfishness, perhaps strengthened by her sadly
1037 it



   精心收集.。用心发布 lj£:R.用心推荐http://www.docin.com/jd1006 [English Abstractl The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne is a classical novel in American literature in the 19th centur\r. Since the first Chinese translation of The Scarlet Letter appeared in th ...

英语论文 毕业论文, 论文 自考论文 英语

   本论文可作为英语专 业本科,自考, 业本科,自考,大专旅 游英语和商务英语的 毕业论文 浅析广告英语的修辞技巧和翻译方法 摘要 随着社会的发展,广告已经渗透到我们生活的每一个角落.作为 一种宣传和传递信息的方式,它的作用是不能低估的,因为它不仅仅 是在用巧妙的方法说服人们购买商品, 而且也逐渐成为社会的沟通工 具并影响着社会经济的发展.中国加入 WTO 后,越来越多的广告出现 在市场上并且它们还运用各种修辞手法,使广告的语言变得更加生 动,新颖和有节奏,充分展示了广告语言的魅力.自然而然,广 ...


   陆 丰 市 大 安 镇 石 寨 学 校 { 2010→2011 学年度第一学期 } → { Go For It } 八年级英语教学论文 八年级英语教学论文 英语 科任:薛美祝 科任 薛美祝 2011 年 01 月 14 日 1 初中英语书面表达失误的原因与教学策略 陆丰市大安镇石寨学校 薛美祝 书面表达是中学生学习英语应掌握的一项基本技能, 是初中英语 教学的重要内容和任务之一。它要求学生有扎实的语言基本功,具备 一定的审题能力、想象能力、表达能力和评价能力等。《英语课程标 准》也对学生的写 ...


   1 中文翻译 1.1 钢筋混凝土 素混凝土是由水泥、水、细骨料、粗骨料(碎石或;卵石) 、空气,通常还 有其他外加剂等经过凝固硬化而成。将可塑的混凝土拌合物注入到模板内,并将 其捣实,然后进行养护,以加速水泥与水的水化反应,最后获得硬化的混凝土。 其最终制成品具有较高的抗压强度和较低的抗拉强度。 其抗拉强度约为抗压强度 的十分之一。因此,截面的受拉区必须配置抗拉钢筋和抗剪钢筋以增加钢筋混凝 土构件中较弱的受拉区的强度。 由于钢筋混凝土截面在均质性上与标准的木材或钢的截面存在着差异,因 此,需 ...


   山东农业大学 课 程 论 文 科 目 英美文化及影视欣赏 论文题目 _ Superhero 学 院 机械与电子工程学院 交通运输 胡小松 20096278 任艳 专业 09 级 2 班 专业班级 学生姓名 学 号 任课教师 2010 年 12 月 28 日 论文方向: 论文方向: 1. 2. 3. Superhero Complex Reflected in the American Movies Vampire Complex in American Culture Christmas C ...


   英语教学中如何进行问答 英语教学中如何进行问答 如何进行 摘要:英语课堂提问是教师授课过程中普遍采用的一种方式手段,它往往贯穿于教学全过程。既 是教师发挥主导作用、引导学生理解运用知识的重要途径,也是体现学生自主学习、成为课堂学 习主体的主要形式。在英语课堂教学中,课堂设疑提问的质量直接影响着教学的质量,影响着学 生思维的训练:本文结合自身的教学实践,尝试探讨课堂提问的基本原则。 关键词:英语课堂提问 适时性 启发性 准确性 正确性 英语教学中的问答不仅是加强英语基础知识教学, 培养学生英语 ...


   整个高中教学都是为高考服务的 一、 语篇教学的必要性和紧迫性。 1:语篇阅读教学的模式就是以段落或篇章为教学的基本单位,以培养学生的语言运用能力 为目的,进行听、说、读、写、译等方面的训练的教学模式。 2:根据国家考试中心制定的《高考英语学科考试说明书》及《高考试题分析》的规定,最 近几年高考命题所依据的理论是:作为语言,各部分相加的总和不等于整体。也就是说,学 生虽然掌握了英语语法知识,掌握了英语词汇知识,并不等于学生学好了英语,并不意味着 学生的英语水平就很高。所以不能片面的强调语法,片 ...


   AN ANALYSIS OF LANGUAGE FEATURES IN ENGLISH ADVERTISEMENTS 摘要 本文旨在通过对书面英语广告的语言分析总结出广告英语在词汇句法篇章上的语言特点。为了使研究从数据出发得出科学结论,本文作者建立了一个拥有60篇各类广告的小型语料库。通过对此语料库中日用品广告科技设备广告服务业广告的深入细致的定量和定性分析,总结出广告英语在此三类广告中的相同点与不同点,并且根据语言的意义,风格及功能解释广告英语的共性以及广告英语在不同类型广告中的特殊性。 本 ...


   让英语课堂弥漫阳光的温暖 蚌埠市淮上实验小学 王阳 随着新一轮基础教育改革的不断深入,《英语课程标准》的实施,对于小学 英语教学提出了新的理念,如何感悟、渗透、落实课标,构建全新的课堂教学境 界,英语教学应积极倡导以人为本的理念,渗透人文关怀的情感。培养学生正确 的英语语感,形成良好的语言学习氛围,提高英语素养。 一、营造良好的英语学习氛围,教学活动体现英语化。 营造良好的英语学习氛围,教学活动体现英语化。 1. 在农村英语教学中,因为多方面因素,我们的学生学习英语严重缺乏自 然语言环境,这 ...


   小学英语“情趣教学” 小学英语“情趣教学”漫谈 教育心理学告诉我们: 小学生的年龄特点是好奇心强、 模仿性强、 生性好动, 有意注意持续时间相对较短 。语言学习本身是较为单调枯燥的,而一味以教师 讲、学生听这种教学形式,势必使学生学习兴趣荡然无存。 只要学生感兴趣的 东西,他们就有求知欲,没有兴趣就不会有求知欲,学习热情大减,从而直接影 ,可以让学生在形式多变的教学 响学习效果 。因此,小学英语进行“情趣教学” 中,始终处于兴奋、活跃的状态,这样, 对教学是不无裨益的。那么,该如何 开展“情 ...



   2006 年河南省中招英语试卷评析 2006 年河南省中招英语试题依据教育部制订的九年义务教育《新 课程标准》 ,紧扣现行人教版 go for it 新目标英语教科书命制而成。 命题切实体现了素质教育的要求, 加强与注重社会生活实际和学生生活 实际的紧密联系,重视考查学生运用所学知识和技能去分析问题、解决 问题的能力。试题侧重考查学生语言技能、语言知识、跨文化交际意识 和跨文化交际能力,由知识立意向能力立意转变,做到了知识、能力的 统一。 试卷根据 “稳中求进” 的指导思想, 坚持英语中招考 ...


   基于网络的基础教育 跨越式创新探索 跨越式创新探索试验 探索试验 北京师范大学 现代教育技术研究所 何克抗 Email:hekk@bnu.edu.cn http://www.etc.edu.cn/学者专访 何克抗 学者专访/何克抗 1 基于网络的基础教育 跨越式创新探索试验 一、引言 二、目标 三、试验概况及效果 四、理论基础 实施方案(五维创新教学模式) 五、实施方案(五维创新教学模式) 六、教学案例 北京师范大学现代教育技术研究所 2 基于网络的基础教育 跨越式创新探索试验 一、引言 1 ...


   序幕 准备好 3 个座椅供继母和两个女儿。 中间座椅前准备好洗衣盆和脏衣服。 左边座椅上准备好碗勺。 右边座椅上准备好针线和衣服。 ( 背景音乐:1) 旁白 :Long ago, there lived a girl. The poor girl had to work day and night. She must sleep in the kitchen. She wearied dirty clothes. All of them called her cinders for Cind ...


   本资料来自于资源最齐全的21世纪教育网 www.21cnjy.com ??应用文 09 年中考英语作文指导训练 2??应用文 15 种 二、 应用文训练 1、 日记 根据中英文提示,与一篇日记,记叙一次(西塞山)郊游。(短文的开头已经给出。) 要求:1.短文应包括汉语和英语提示内容。 2.语句通顺,意思连贯。 3.书写工整,卷面整洁,标点符号正确。 4.字数不少于 80 个英语单词。 Sunday, May 1st I got to school very early. Our class ...


   本资料来源于《七彩教育网》 本资料来源于《七彩教育网》http://www.7caiedu.cn 听力(共二节, 第一部分 听力(共二节,满分 30 分) 第一节(共 5 小题;每小题 1.5 分,满分 7.5 分) 听下面 5 段对话,每段对话后有一个小题,从题中所给的 A、B、C 三个选项中选出最 佳选项并标在试卷的相应位置。 1. Who bought the dress? A. The girl. B. The girl’s sister. C. The girl’s mother. ...