Computer English
Unit 3 Computer Language and programming (计算机语言与编程 计算机语言与编程) 计算机语言与编程
Section A Programming Language (程序设计语言) 程序设计语言) 程序设计语言
Ⅰ. Introduction
Programming languages, in computer science, are the artificial languages used to write a sequence of instructions (a computer program) that can be run by a computer. Similar to natural languages, such as English, programming languages have a vocabulary, grammar, and syntax. 计算机科学中的程序设计语言就是用于编写计算机 即计算机程序) 人工语言。 可以运行的指令序列 即计算机程序 可以运行的指令序列 (即计算机程序 的人工语言。类 似于诸如英语这样的自然语言,程序设计语言也 似于诸如英语这样的自然语言,程序设计语言也有词 语法和语义。 汇、语法和语义。
However,natural languages are not suited for , programming in computers because they are ambiguous, meaning that their vocabulary and grammatical structure may be interpreted in multiple ways. The languages used to program computers must have simple logical structures, and the rulers for their grammar, spelling, and punctuation must be precise. 然而,自然语言不适合于计算机的编程, 然而,自然语言不适合于计算机的编程,因为它们 含糊,即它们的词汇和语法结构 语法结构可用多种方式来解 很含糊,即它们的词汇和语法结构可用多种方式来解 释。可用于计算机的编程的语言必须具有简单的逻辑 结构, 并且它们的语法、拼写和标点规则必须很精确。 标点规则必须很精确 结构, 并且它们的语法、拼写和标点规则必须很精确。
Programming languages vary greatly in their sophistication and in their degree of versatility . Some programming languages are written to address a particular kind of computing problem or for use on a particular model of computer system. For instance, , programming languages such as FORTRAN and COBOL were written to solve certain general types of programming problems?FORTRAN for scientific applications, and COBOL for business applications. 各种程序设计语言的复杂度和通用性相差很大。 各种程序设计语言的复杂度和通用性相差很大。有些 复杂度 相差很大 程序设计语言是专为处理 处理某种计算问题或专门用于某 程序设计语言是专为处理某种计算问题或专门用于某 种特定模型的计算机上而编写的 例如, 而编写的。 种特定模型的计算机上而编写的。例如,程序设计语 FORTRAN和 言FORTRAN和COBOL 是专门为解决某类程序设计问题而 编写的?FORTRAN用于科学应用,COBOL用于商业应用 FORTRAN用于科学应用 用于商业应用。 编写的 FORTRAN用于科学应用,COBOL用于商业应用。
Although these languages were designed to address specific categories of computer problems, they are highly portable, meaning that they may be used to program many types of computers. Other languages, such as machine language, are designed to be used by one specific model of computer system, or even by one specific computer in certain research applications. The most commonly used programming language are highly portable and can be used to effectively solve diverse types of computing problems. Languages like C, Pascal, and BASIC fall into this category. 尽管这些语言被设计用来处理特定类型的计算机问题, 尽管这些语言被设计用来处理特定类型的计算机问题,但它们 处理特定类型的计算机问题 可移植性很强, 即可用于多种类型计算机的编程。其他语言, 的可移植性很强, 即可用于多种类型计算机的编程。其他语言, 机器语言,是设计用于某种特定模型的计算机系统上, 如机器语言,是设计用于某种特定模型的计算机系统上,甚至 用于某些研究领域的某种计算机上。 用于某些研究领域的某种计算机上。最常使用的程序设计语言 的可移植性较高,并且可用于有效地解决多种类型的计算问题。 多种类型的计算问题 的可移植性较高,并且可用于有效地解决多种类型的计算问题。 PASCAL和BASIC就属于这个范畴。 就属于这个范畴 像C、PASCAL和BASIC就属于这个范畴。
语言类型) Ⅱ. Language Types (语言类型) 语言类型 Programming languages can be classified as either low-level languages or high-level languages. Low-level programming languages, or machine languages, are the most basic type of programming languages and can be understood directly by a computer. Machine languages differ depending on the manufacturer and model of computer. High-level languages are programming languages that must first be translated into a machine language before they can be understood and processed by a computer.
程序设计语言可以分为低级语言和高级语言。 程序设计语言可以分为低级语言和高级语言。低级 低级语言 程序设计语言或机器语言是最基本的程序设计语言并且 程序设计语言或机器语言是最基本的程序设计语言并且 可被计算机直接懂得。机器语言因厂商和计算机模型的 可被计算机直接懂得。机器语言因厂商和计算机模型的 相差很大。 不同而相差很大 不同而相差很大。高级语言是那些在可被计算机懂得和 处理之前必须首先被翻译成机器语言的语言。 处理之前必须首先被翻译成机器语言的语言。
Examples of high-level languages are C, C++, PASCAL, and FORTRAN. Assembly languages are intermediate level languages that are very close to machine language and do not have the level of linguistic sophistication exhibited by other high-level languages, but must still be translated into machine language. 高级程序设计语言的例子有C, 高级程序设计语言的例子有 C++, PASCAL和 和 FORTRAN。汇编语言是接近机器语言的中级语言, 。汇编语言是接近机器语言的中级语言, 并且不具有其他高级语言所表现出来的语言复杂性, 并且不具有其他高级语言所表现出来的语言复杂性, 但它仍然必须被翻译成机器语言( 但它仍然必须被翻译成机器语言(才能被计算机理解 和执行)。 和执行)。

  1. Machine Languages ( 机器语言) 机器语言) In machine languages, instructions are written as sequences of 1s and 0s, called bits, that a computer can understand directly. An instruction in machine language generally tells the computer four things: (
  1)where to find one or two numbers or simple pieces of data in the main computer memory ( Random Access Memory, or RAM), (
  2) a simple operation to perform, such as adding the two numbers together, (
  3)where in the main memory to put the result of this simple operation, and (
  4) where to find the next instruction to perform. 在机器语言中,指令被编写成1 称为位)的序列, 在机器语言中,指令被编写成1和
  0(称为位)的序列,计算机 可直接懂得。机器语言的一条指令一般告诉计算机四件事: 可直接懂得。机器语言的一条指令一般告诉计算机四件事:(
  1) 从计算机主存(即随机存取存储器或RAM RAM) 从计算机主存(即随机存取存储器或RAM)的那个地方找到一个 或两个数或一个简单的数据块;(
  2)去执行的一个简单操作, ;(
  2)去执行的一个简单操作 或两个数或一个简单的数据块;(
  2)去执行的一个简单操作,如 把两个数加在一起;( ;(3 把两个数加在一起;(
  3)在主存的什么地方放入这个简单操作 的结果;( ;(4 在什么地方找到下一条待执行的指令。 的结果;(
  4)在什么地方找到下一条待执行的指令。
While all executable programs are eventually read by the computer in machine language, they are not all programmed in machine language. It is extremely difficult to program directly in machine language because the instructions are sequence of 1s and 0s. A typical instruction in a machine language might read 10010 1100 1011 and mean add the contents of storage register A to the contents of storage register B.
尽管所有可执行的程序最终都以机器语言形式被计 算机读取, 算机读取,但并不是所有这些程序都是用机器语言编 写的。因为机器语言指令都是0 的序列, 写的。因为机器语言指令都是0和1的序列, 要直接用 机器语言来编程是很困难的。 机器语言来编程是很困难的。一条典型的机器语言指 令可如10010 1011所示 所示, 它表示把存储寄存器A 令可如10010 1100 1011所示, 它表示把存储寄存器A 的内容加到存储寄存器 存储寄存器B中 的内容加到存储寄存器 中。

  2. High-level Languages (高级语言 高级语言) 高级语言 High-level languages are relatively sophisticated sets of statements utilizing words and syntax from human language. They are more similar to normal human languages than assembly or machine languages and are therefore easier to use for writing complicated programs. These programming languages allow larger and more complicated programs to be developed faster.
高级语言是较为复杂的语句集合, 高级语言是较为复杂的语句集合,这些语句利用人类语言中 语句集合 的词语和语义构成 。它们比起汇编语言或机器语言来更像正常 的人类语言,因此更易于编写复杂的程序。 的人类语言,因此更易于编写复杂的程序。这些程序设计语言使 得大而复杂的程序开发起来更快。 得大而复杂的程序开发起来更快。

  3. Assembly Languages (汇编语言) 汇编语言) Computer programmers use assembly languages to make machine-language programs easier to write, each statement corresponds roughly to one machine language instruction. An assembly language statement is composed with the aid of easy to remember commands. The
command to add the contents of storage register A to the contents of storage register B might be ADD B, A in a typical assembly language statement. 计算机程序员使用汇编语言来使机器语言程序更容易编写, 计算机程序员使用汇编语言来使机器语言程序更容易编写, 汇编语言的每一条指令粗略地对应于一条机器语言指令。 汇编语言的每一条指令粗略地对应于一条机器语言指令。一条 汇编语言指令一般由有助于记忆命令的助记符组成。 汇编语言指令一般由有助于记忆命令的助记符组成。把存储寄 存器A的内容加到存储寄存器B的内容上的命令可能是 ADD B, A 存器A的内容加到存储寄存器B 这样的典型汇编语言语句。 这样的典型汇编语言语句。
Assembly languages share certain features with machine languages. For instance, it is possible to manipulate specific bits in both assembly and machine languages. Programmers use assembly languages when it is important to minimize the time it takes to run a program, because the translation from assembly language to machine languages is relatively simple. Assembly languages are also used when some part of the computer has to be controlled directly, such as individual dots on a monitor or the flow of individual characters to a printer. 汇编语言与机器语言具有一些相同的性能,比如, 汇编语言与机器语言具有一些相同的性能,比如,在汇编语言 与机器语言中都可以处理特定的位。当极小化程序运行时间很重 与机器语言中都可以处理特定的位。 要时程序员可以使用汇编语言, 要时程序员可以使用汇编语言,因为从汇编语言到机器语言的翻 译相对简单。当计算机的某些部分需要直接控制时, 译相对简单。当计算机的某些部分需要直接控制时,也可以使用 汇编语言, 汇编语言,比如当显示器上的一个点或输往打印机的字符流需要 直接控制时就可以使用汇编语言。 直接控制时就可以使用汇编语言。
Ⅲ.
Classification of High-Level Languages (高级语言的分类)
High-Level Languages are commonly classified as procedureoriented, functional, object-oriented, or logic languages. The most common high-level languages today are procedure-oriented languages. In these languages, one or more related blocks of statements that perform some complete function are grouped together into a program module, or procedure, and given a name such as “procedure A.” If the same procedure is needed elsewhere in the program, a simple statement can be used to refer back to the procedure. 高级语言通常分为面向过程的语言、函数式的语言、 高级语言通常分为面向过程的语言、函数式的语言、面向对象 的语言或逻辑语言。如今最常用的高级语言是面向过程的语言。 的语言或逻辑语言。如今最常用的高级语言是面向过程的语言。 在这些语言中, 在这些语言中,一个或多个相关的执行某种完整功能的语句块 被组织成一个程序模块 过程,并被给予诸如“ 程序模块或 A” 被组织成一个程序模块或过程,并被给予诸如“procedure A 这样的名字。如果程序中
 

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