Computer English
Chapter 13 Computer Graphics
Key points: concept of computer graphics Difficult points: Applications of computer graphics
Requirements:

  1. Concept of computer graphics
  2. Applications of computer graphics.
  3. Example of analogue device and digital device 4掌握求职英语的写法 掌握求职英语的写法 掌握

  13.1 Introduction To Computer Graphics
New Words & Expressions:
via 经,通过 adage n. 谚语,格言 谚语, diverse a. 不同的 adopt v. 采用,采纳 采用, classify vt. 分类 span v.横越,跨越 横越, 横越 perspective a. 透视的 plot v. 绘图,划分 绘图, conversation n. 会话,交谈 会话, pervade 蔓延,遍及,扩大 蔓延,遍及, encompass v. 包括,包含 包括, image n. 图像 simulation n. 模拟,仿真 模拟,
orthographic projections 八面图形投影法
Renaissance n. 文艺复兴 intractable a. 难解决的
Abbreviations:
CRT(Cathode-ray tube) 阴极射线管

  13.1 Introduction To Computer Graphics
The use of computer graphics pervades many diverse fields. Applications range from the production of charts and graphs, to the generation of realistic images for television and motion pictures to the interactive design of mechanical parts [1] .To encompass all these uses, we can adopt a simple definition: 计算机图形学的应用扩展到了许多不同领域,应用的范围从表和图形 计算机图形学的应用扩展到了许多不同领域, 的产生,到用于电视和动画片的真实图像的生成, 的产生,到用于电视和动画片的真实图像的生成,到机械零件的交互 式设计。我们采用一个简单的定义来概括所有这些应用: 式设计。我们采用一个简单的定义来概括所有这些应用: Computer graphics is concerned with all aspects of using a computer to generate images. “计算机图形学主要研究采用计算机生成图像的所有方面。” 计算机图形学主要研究采用计算机生成图像的所有方面。 计算机图形学主要研究采用计算机生成图像的所有方面

  13.1 Introduction To Computer Graphics
We can classify applications of computer graphics into four main areas: ? ? ? ? Display of information Design Simulation User interfaces
我们可以把计算机图形学的应用分作四个主要方面: 我们可以把计算机图形学的应用分作四个主要方面: ? 信息显示 ? 设计 ? 模拟 ? 用户界面

  13.1 Introduction To Computer Graphics

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  1.1 Display of information
Graphics has always been associated with the display of information. Examples of the use of orthographic projections to display floorplans of buildings can be found on 4000-year-old Babylonian stone tablets.
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  1.1 信息显示 图形总是和信息显示相联系的。4000年以前在巴比伦发现了在石桌上用 图形总是和信息显示相联系的。4000年以前在巴比伦发现了在石桌上用 八面图形投影法去表现建筑平面设计图的例子。 八面图形投影法去表现建筑平面设计图的例子。 Medical imaging uses computer graphics in a number of exciting ways. 医学图像也运用计算机图形学解决了大量难题。 医学图像也运用计算机图形学解决了大量难题。

  13.1 Introduction To Computer Graphics

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  1.2 Design Professions such as engineering and architecture are concerned with design. Although their applications vary, most designers face similar difficulties and use similar methodologies. One of the principal characteristics of most design problems is the lack of a unique solution. Hence, the designer will examine a potential design and then will modify it, possibly many times, in an attempt to achieve a better solution. Computer graphics has become an indispensable element in this iterative process. 工程和建筑的专业人员关心设计,尽管他们的应用不同, 工程和建筑的专业人员关心设计,尽管他们的应用不同,但大多数设 计者面对相似的困难,采用了类似的方法。 计者面对相似的困难,采用了类似的方法。大多数设计问题的基本特 点之一是缺少唯一的解决方案,因此, 点之一是缺少唯一的解决方案,因此,设计者可能需要多次检查原来 的设计,修改它,以获得一个更好的解决方案。在这个重复的过程中, 的设计,修改它,以获得一个更好的解决方案。在这个重复的过程中, 计算机图形学已变成一个不可缺少的部分。 计算机图形学已变成一个不可缺少的部分。

  13.1 Introduction To Computer Graphics

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  1.3 Simulation Some of the most impressive and familiar uses of computer graphics can be classified as simulations. Video games demonstrate both the visual appeal of computer graphics and our ability to generate complex imagery in real time. The insides of an arcade game reveal state-of-the-art hardware and software. Computer-generated images are also the heart of flight simulators, which have become the standard method for training pilots. The savings in dollars and lives realized from use of these simulators has been enormous. The computergenerated images we see on television and in movies have advanced to the point that they are almost indistinguishable from real-world images.
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  1.3 模拟 最为人所知的计算机图形学应用可归为模拟类。 最为人所知的计算机图形学应用可归为模拟类。视频游戏展示了计算机图 形学的视觉魅力和我们实时生成复杂图像的能力。 形学的视觉魅力和我们实时生成复杂图像的能力。走廊游戏的内容揭示了当前 软件和硬件的技术发展水平。计算机生成的图像是飞行模拟器的核心, 软件和硬件的技术发展水平。计算机生成的图像是飞行模拟器的核心,已经成 为训练飞行员的标准方法,这种模拟训练大大节省了人力物力。 为训练飞行员的标准方法,这种模拟训练大大节省了人力物力。我们在电视和 电影中看到的计算机生成的图像已经达到了和真实图像几乎无法区分的地步。 电影中看到的计算机生成的图像已经达到了和真实图像几乎无法区分的地步。

  13.1 Introduction To Computer Graphics

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  1.4 User Interfaces The interface between the human and the computer has been radically altered by the use of computer graphics. Consider the electronic office. The figures in this book were produced through just such an interface. A secretary sits at a workstation, rather than at a desk equipped with a typewriter. This user has a pointing device, such as a mouse, that allows him to communicate with the workstation. The display consists of a number of icons that represent the various operations the secretary can perform. For example, there might be an icon of a mailbox that ,if pointed to and clicked on ,causes any electronic-mail messages to appear on the screen. 计算机图形学的应用已经根本改变了人和计算机之间的界面。 计算机图形学的应用已经根本改变了人和计算机之间的界面。讨论一下电子 办公室,本书的图是由这样的界面产生的,秘书坐在工作站前, 办公室,本书的图是由这样的界面产生的,秘书坐在工作站前,而不是备有 打字机的办公桌前,这一用户有一个指示设备(如鼠标) 打字机的办公桌前,这一用户有一个指示设备(如鼠标)实现他和工作站之间 的交互。显示由许多图符组成,代表秘书可进行的各种操作,例如, 的交互。显示由许多图符组成,代表秘书可进行的各种操作,例如,有一个 邮箱图符,如果指向并点击它,屏幕上将会显示电子邮件信息. 邮箱图符,如果指向并点击它,屏幕上将会显示电子邮件信息.

  13.2 Video Display Devices
New Words & Expressions:
video monitor 视频监视器 predominant 支配的 frame buffer 帧缓冲器 pixel (or pel) n. 像素 bitmap n. 位图 vector 矢量,向量 矢量, pen plotter 笔式绘图仪 rugged 粗糙的,要求不高的 粗糙的,
solid-state 固态 使用电晶体不用真空管)的 固态(使用电晶体不用真空管 的 使用电晶体不用真空管
raster-scan display 光栅扫描显示器 intensity n. 强度 resolution n. 分辨率 random-scan display 随机扫描显示器 hard-copy device 硬拷贝设备 flat-panel displays 平板显示器
Abbreviations :
CRT(cathode-ray-tube) ( ) DVST(Direct-View Storage Tube) ( ) 阴极射线管 直视存储管

  13.2 Video Display Devices
Raster-Scan Displays The most common type of graphics monitor employing a CRT is the raster-scan display, based on television technology [1]. In a raster-scan system, the electron beam is swept across the screen, one row at a time from top to bottom. As the electron beam moves across each row, the beam intensity is turned on and off to create a pattern of illuminated spots. 光栅扫描显示器 光栅扫描显示器 使用CRT的普通图形监视器是基于电视技术的光栅扫描显示器。 CRT的普通图形监视器是基于电视技术的光栅扫描显示器 使用CRT的普通图形监视器是基于电视技术的光栅扫描显示器。在光栅扫 描系统中,电子束横向扫描屏幕,一次一行,从顶到底依次进行。 描系统中,电子束横向扫描屏幕,一次一行,从顶到底依次进行。当电 子束沿横向逐行移动时,电子束的强度不断变化, 子束沿横向逐行移动时,电子束的强度不断变化,从而建立亮点的可显 示模式。 示模式。

  13.2 Video Display Devices
Raster-Scan Displays Picture definition is stored in a memory area called the refresh buffer or frame buffer. This memory area holds the intensity values for all the screen points. Stored intensity values are then retrieved from the frame buffer and “ painted” on the screen one row (scan line) at a time. Each screen point is referred to as a pixel or pel (shortened forms of picture element). The capability of a raster-scan system to store intensity information for each screen point makes it well suited for the realistic display of scenes containing subtle shading and color patterns. Home television sets and printers are examples of other systems using raster-scan methods. 图形定义保存在称为刷新缓冲器或帧缓冲器的存储器中。 图形定义保存在称为刷新缓冲器或帧缓冲器的存储器中。该存储器保存 一组对应屏幕所有点的强度值。然后再从刷新缓冲器取出存储的强度值, 一组对应屏幕所有点的强度值。然后再从刷新缓冲器取出存储的强度值, 并在屏幕上逐行(扫描行)画出。每个屏幕点作为一个像素。 并在屏幕上逐行(扫描行)画出。每个屏幕点作为一个像素。光栅扫描 系统对于屏幕每一点都有存储强度信息的能力, 系统对于屏幕每一点都有存储强度信息的能力,从而使之较好地适用于 包含细微阴影和彩色模式的场景的逼真显示。 包含细微阴影和彩色模式的场景的逼真显示。家用电视和打印机是另一 类使用光栅扫描方式的例子。 类使用光栅扫描方式的例子。

  13.2 Video Display Devices
Random-Scan Displays When operated as a random-scan display unit, a CRT has the electron beam directed only to the parts of the screen where a picture is to be drawn. Random-scan monitors draw a picture one line at a time and for this reason are also referred to as a vector displays(or stroke-writing or ( calligraphic displays). The component lines of a picture can be drawn ) and refreshed by a random-scan system in any specified order. A pen plotter operates in a similar way and is an example of a random-scan, hard-copy device. 随机扫描显示器 当使用随机扫描显示器时,CRT的电子束只在屏幕的图形部分移动 的电子束只在屏幕的图形部分移动。 当使用随机扫描显示器时,CRT的电子束只在屏幕的图形部分移动。随机 扫描显示器一次只绘制图形中的一条线,因此也称为向量显示器( 扫描显示器一次只绘制图形中的一条线,因此也称为向量显示器(或笔 划显示器,或笔迹显示器) 划显示器,或笔迹显示器)。图形的组成线条由随机扫描系统按任意指 定的顺序绘制并刷新。笔式绘图仪也以类似的方式工作,它是随机扫描、 定的顺序绘制并刷新。笔式绘图仪也以类似的方式工作,它是随机扫描、 硬拷贝设备的一个例子。 硬拷贝设备的一个例子。

  13.2 Video Display Devices
Direct-View Storage Tubes An alternative method for maintaining a screen image is to store the picture information inside the CRT instead of refreshing the screen. A direct-view storage tube (DVST) stores the picture information as a charge distribution just behind the phosphor-coated screen [3]. Two electron guns are used in a DVST. One, the primary gun, is used to store the picture pattern; the second, the flood gun, maintains the picture display. 直视存储管 保持屏幕图形的另一种方法是把图形信息存储在CRT CRT内 保持屏幕图形的另一种方法是把图形信息存储在 CRT 内 , 而不再是刷 新屏幕。直视存储管(DVST) (DVST)通过紧贴在屏幕荧光层后的电荷分布来
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