Discussing about the successful factors of ERP projects implementation and the risk management
by Nooredin Etezady The primary functions of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) are to integrate the inter-departmental operation procedures and Management Information System (MIS) modules, and to reallocate the resources of a company. How to successfully implement an ERP system in an organization is always a hot research topic for researchers as well as a pending problem for an organization that wants to implement it. A case study on the selection of system suppliers and contract negotiation during the ERP implementation of a local construction company in Taiwan, after reviewing the common key success factors discussed in the literature, discussed seven issues: coding system, working process reengineering, priority of ERP functionality implementation, customization, participant roles, consultant role and performance level of subcontractor, which also affected the implementation. Lessons learned from the case study in discussed seven issues are valuable for a construction company in deciding to implement an ERP system. This study suggests that additional case studies are necessary for the successful application of ERP systems in the construction industry. ERP implementation is a 'Triple Play' that combines people, technology, and processes. It embodies a complex implementation process, especially in developing countries like China, often taking several years, huge amount of fund and involving a major business process reengineering exercise. An attempt has been made to identify some Chinese-specific difficulties in the implementation process and provide solutions to implement ERP system successfully through questionnaire survey, interviews, and secondary data. On the basis of analysis of questionnaire results, some common difficulties have been explored by authors, such as support of top management, costly and time-consuming, cultural differences, technical complexity, lack of professional personnel, and inner resistance. The difficulties are largely due to the nature of enterprise's ownership and size. Suggested solutions to overcome these difficulties: ERP software packages selection, ERP implementation team, BPR, Training, and Outsourcing-Application Service Provider. These solutions can effectively solve ERP difficulties.
The effectiveness of the implementation of enterprise resource planning in improving service quality can be seen in the Taiwanese semiconductor industry by assessing the expectations and the perceptions of service quality from the perspectives of both upstream manufacturers and downstream customers. The study first establishes a modified service quality gap model incorporating: (i) the downstream customers' expectations and perceptions, and (ii) the upstream manufacturers' perceptions of the customers' expectations and perceptions. An empirical study by questionnaire survey is then undertaken to investigate the gaps proposed in the research model. The results show that service quality gaps do exist in the Taiwanese semiconductor industry between upstream manufacturers that are implementing ERP and their downstream customers. The study shows that the proposed model provides valuable guidance to manufacturers with respect to the prevention, detection, and elimination of the demonstrated service quality gaps. The model thus helps manufacturers to evaluate the contribution of various ERP modules to improved customer satisfaction with service quality and also provides guidance on improvement strategies to enhance service quality by eliminating quality gaps. Actually, ERP is widely used in many fields, from public sectors to individual business. Recently, service organizations have invested considerable resources in the implementation of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems, even using solutions initially targeted for manufacturing companies. To get an insight into how services approach help ERP implementation, a review of ERP projects, especially in services, completed by six case studies has been undertaken. We identify and discuss some characteristics of services, which are discriminatory regarding manufacturing. Main characteristics identified deal with complete or partial integration, product or customer orientation, importance of labor, human factor. In conclusion, trends to standardization and integration seen in the industrial sector are also growing in services, but in different ways. Refers to the overseas some literature material, a successful ERP project, often needs to spend several year times, number thousands of US dollars can complete. Again turns head looks at the home, along with ERP skepticisms gaining ground, price war starting, ERP took one kind of software supplier's product, has actually goes down the god world tendency. ERP leader SAP also promoted Business the One product, the price has been lower than 100,0
  00.Even if the ERP software can achieve
free, or like the IBM esteem according to the boundary which must collect fees, implements the angle from the entire enterprise, considers the personnel, training, the maintenance, the service reorganization, the re-development, three, n development, its expense should also in several 1,000,000 and even surely the scale. This speaking of the domestic enterprise, already was not the small number. But, some many enterprises harbor the beautiful dream, steps the ERP implementation the difficult travel. In which also has many projects to be defeated comes to an end. But regarding these final survivors, whether can the halberd be also put in storage, drinks wine to sing loudly? In fact, the enterprise implements the ERP project after the success will face implements a bigger risk. In future five to ten years in, some solid ERP risk management mechanism had decided whether the enterprise can obtain benefits truly in the initial ERP investment. In 1998 Thomas H.Davenport has published named "Puts in Enterprise System" the article in the Harvard commerce commentary (Putting the enterprise into the enterprise system).This article proposed systematically the enterprise system, or called the ERP system the operation brings for the enterprise positive and negative directs the sound. Simultaneously also directly proposed the future enterprise will have to face a risk: Puts in the enterprise system the entire enterprise the risk. According to US Project management Association to the risk the definition, "the risk" is refers to the project advantageous or the disadvantageous element of certainty. The project is "for completes the disposable endeavor which some unique product or the service station do", the project "the distinctive quality" had decided the project not impossible was by with the before identical way, simultaneously, the project which completed by and the before identical person must create the product or the service, as well as the project possibly involved the scope, the time and the cost all not impossible started when the project completely to determine, therefore, carried on in the process in the project also corresponding to be able to appear the massive uncertainty, namely project risk. Below this article mentioned "the risk" is refers to the project "disadvantageously" the element of certainty. Exists to the project disadvantageous risk in any project, often and can give the project the advancement and the project success brings the negative influence. Once the risk occurs, its influence is various, like causes the project product/service the function to be unable to satisfy the customer the need, the project expense surpasses the budget, the project
plan dragging or is compelled to cancel and so on, it finally manifests for customer degree of satisfaction depression. Therefore, the recognition risk, the appraisal risk and take the measure to be supposed to be the risk management have the extremely vital significance to the risk to the project management. Ⅰ Risk management concrete content The project risk management mainly divides into following several steps: The risk recognition, the qualitative/quota risk analysis, the risk should to plan the establishment and the risk monitoring.
  1. risk recognitions The risk recognition, is refers distinguishes and records possibly has the adverse effect to the project the factor. Because the project is in develops in unceasingly the change process, therefore the risk recognition also passes through in the entire project implementation entire process, but is not merely the project initial stage. The risk recognition is not the disposable work, but need more systems, crosswise thought. Possesses nearly about the project plan and the information all possibly takes the risk recognition the basis, like project progress and cost plan, work decomposition structure, project organizational structure, project scope, similar project historical information and so on. Needs to pay attention, all risks all may carry on the management by no means through the risk recognition. The risk recognition only can discover the known risk (for example: In the known project organization some member ability cannot satisfy the request completely) or the known unknown risk (known-unknown, namely "event name known", like "customer side personnel participates in dynamics being insufficient"); Before but certain risks, as a result of the project distinctive quality, not impossible to occur in it know in advance (unknown-unknown, namely unknown-unknown risk).
  2. qualitative/quota risk analysis The latent risk quantity distinguishes which through the risk recognition process are very many, but these latent risks to the project the influence are various. "The risk analysis" namely through the analysis, the comparison, the appraisal and so on each way, to determined various risks the importance, sorts to the risk and appraises it to
the project possible consequence, thus causes the project to implement the personnel to be possible to concentrate the main energy in the few in number main risk, thus enable the project the overall risk to be under the effective control. The risk analysis mainly may use the method includes: Risk probability/influence appraisal matrix, sensitive analysis, simulation and so on. When carries on the above analysis, mainly pays attention to following several risk factor: Risk probability: Namely the risk event occurs possible percentage expression. This numeral is, like the expert who obtains through the subjective judgment appraises, the interview or the basis before similar project historical information. Risk influence: Namely the risk has possibly the influence size which creates to the project. This kind of influence is possibly in the time, possibly is in the cost, also is possibly other various aspects. Risk value (required value EMV): The risk value = risk probability * risk influence, is to the risk the influence most direct appraisal which creates to the project, its overall evaluation probability with has affected two aspects the factors.
  3. risks should plan the establishment The risk should lie in to the plan goal through the formulation corresponding measure, comes to be supposed to the risk the threat which possibly creates to the project.Most often uses should to threat several measures be: The circumvention, reduces, the shift, accepts. The circumvention, namely eliminates this risk through the elimination risk origin; Reduces, namely through takes the measure to reduce "the risk probability" or "the risk influence", thus achieved reduces the risk value the result; The shift, soon the risk shifts to another side, like purchase insurance, sub package and so on;
Accepts, namely does not take the measure to this risk, accepts result which it creates, or occurs after this risk uses the contingency plan to carry on processing again. Selects what method to come specifically to be supposed to some risk, is decided in this risk value (EMV), plans to adopt should to the measure possible cost, the project management personnel treat the risk the manner (utility function) the type and so on various aspects, cannot be generally spoken. The risk should be aims at the risk to the plan which distinguishes to carry on; Regarding the unknown risk, not impossible to choose in advance the formulation corresponding to be supposed to plan or the contingency plan, therefore, may stockpile using the management should be right.
  4. risk monitoring The risk monitoring mainly includes following several aspects the duty:
  1) Carrying on in the process in the project to track has distinguished the risk, the monitoring remaining risk and distinguishes the new risk: Along with the project implementation as well as the risk should to the measure execution, each kind the influence factor be in the process to the project which changes unceasingly, therefore, needs in the entire project process, the time surveillance risk development and the change situation, determined follows the new risk which certain risks vanishing comes and formulates the corresponding processing measure.
  2) Guaranteed the risk should to the plan execution and appraised the risk should to plan carry out the effect. The appraisal method may be the project cycle (stage) the natural review, the achievements appraisal and so on.
  3) "accepts" to the sharp-edged risk the risk takes the suitable flexible measure. Through the risk monitoring process, the project pers
 

相关内容

基于J2EE的ERP系统实现-英语论文

   Discussing about the successful factors of ERP projects implementation and the risk management by Nooredin Etezady The primary functions of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) are to integrate the inter-departmental operation procedures and Manageme ...

英语论文自动评分系统探索

   语言 0艺术 英语论文自动评分系统探索 张  梅 (重庆大学 外国语学院 , 重庆  400030) 摘要 :英语论文自动评分系统是由美国教育测试服务中心利用自然语言处理技术与信息撷取技术研究开发的一种英文在线 测评英语写作能力的计算机程序 。本文首先介绍了自动评分系统的结构及工作原理 ,然后探讨了其优点和存在的问题以及在大 学英语四 、 六级考试作文网上阅卷的可行性 。 关键词 :英语论文自动评分系统 ;工作原理 ;可行性 p rocessing (NLP) and information ...

英语论文

   陆 丰 市 大 安 镇 石 寨 学 校 { 2010→2011 学年度第一学期 } → { Go For It } 八年级英语教学论文 八年级英语教学论文 英语 科任:薛美祝 科任 薛美祝 2011 年 01 月 14 日 1 初中英语书面表达失误的原因与教学策略 陆丰市大安镇石寨学校 薛美祝 书面表达是中学生学习英语应掌握的一项基本技能, 是初中英语 教学的重要内容和任务之一。它要求学生有扎实的语言基本功,具备 一定的审题能力、想象能力、表达能力和评价能力等。《英语课程标 准》也对学生的写 ...

英语论文

   初中英语教学论文:浅谈初中英语教学中的素质教育 「摘 要」基础教育阶段英语教学应以素质教育和学生发展为宗旨,通过优化课堂教学目标,改进教学方法、创设交际情境,提高教师素质等途径,使学生形成有效的学习策略,激发和培养学习兴趣,养成良好的学习习惯,注重对学生听、说、读、写综合技能的全面训练,获得基本的语言交际能力,为学生的发展和终身学习打下良好的基础。 「关键词」素质教育;课堂教学目标;教学方法;交际情境;教师素质 在广大农村初中,尽管英语教学已受到普遍重视,教学质量也在不断提高,但由 ...

英语论文-- ---

   - 郑州市第一中学 英语研究性学习论文 题目: 关于动物名词在中西方语言中 关于动物名词在中西方语言中 题目 的差异 姓名: 姓名: 章馨元 郭雨晴 刘星枫 所在年级 高一年级 所在班级 十五班 指导教师 魏荣 完成时间 2009 年 5 月 23 日 综合评定成绩: 综合评定成绩: 指导教师评语: 指导教师评语: 评定成绩: 评定成绩: 指导教师签名: 指导教师签名: 教师签名 答辩小组意见: 答辩小组意见: 日期: 日期: 评定成绩: 评定成绩: 答辩小组长签名: 答辩小组长签名: 日期 ...

英语论文

   英语教学中如何进行问答 英语教学中如何进行问答 如何进行 摘要:英语课堂提问是教师授课过程中普遍采用的一种方式手段,它往往贯穿于教学全过程。既 是教师发挥主导作用、引导学生理解运用知识的重要途径,也是体现学生自主学习、成为课堂学 习主体的主要形式。在英语课堂教学中,课堂设疑提问的质量直接影响着教学的质量,影响着学 生思维的训练:本文结合自身的教学实践,尝试探讨课堂提问的基本原则。 关键词:英语课堂提问 适时性 启发性 准确性 正确性 英语教学中的问答不仅是加强英语基础知识教学, 培养学生英语 ...

英语论文

   齐齐哈尔大学 成人本科毕业论文(设计) 题目: 题目:The Comparasion of the Legend of Stone and Pride Prejudice 院 (系 ) 专 年 姓 业 级 名 齐齐哈尔大学继续教育学院 英语 09 级 孙晓东 学号 职称 指导教师 2011 年 1 月 15 日 齐齐哈尔大学 齐齐哈尔大学继续教育学院 毕业设计(论文) 毕业设计(论文)任务书 学生姓名: 孙晓东 学 院:齐齐哈尔大学继续教育学院 年 月 日至 学号: 班级: 年 月 日 任务 ...

英语论文

   让英语课堂弥漫阳光的温暖 蚌埠市淮上实验小学 王阳 随着新一轮基础教育改革的不断深入,《英语课程标准》的实施,对于小学 英语教学提出了新的理念,如何感悟、渗透、落实课标,构建全新的课堂教学境 界,英语教学应积极倡导以人为本的理念,渗透人文关怀的情感。培养学生正确 的英语语感,形成良好的语言学习氛围,提高英语素养。 一、营造良好的英语学习氛围,教学活动体现英语化。 营造良好的英语学习氛围,教学活动体现英语化。 1. 在农村英语教学中,因为多方面因素,我们的学生学习英语严重缺乏自 然语言环境,这 ...

英语论文

   英语论文 浅谈初中英语有效教学的几点做法 亭湖区桂英初级中学 陈亮 [提要]英语教师在课堂教学中,要坚持在语境中教学词汇,加强听力、朗读、背诵训练、鼓励学生积极使用英语等多种途径,来打造有效的英语课堂。 [关键词] 语境 词汇 听力 诵读 激励 英语课程标准强调,要改变英语课程过分重视语法和词汇知识的讲解与传授、忽视对学生实际语言运用能力的培养的倾向,强调课程从学生的学习兴趣、生活经验和认知水平出发,倡导体验、实践、参与、合作与交流的学习方式和任务型的教学途径,发展学生的综合语言运用能力 ...

英语论文

   小学英语“情趣教学” 小学英语“情趣教学”漫谈 教育心理学告诉我们: 小学生的年龄特点是好奇心强、 模仿性强、 生性好动, 有意注意持续时间相对较短 。语言学习本身是较为单调枯燥的,而一味以教师 讲、学生听这种教学形式,势必使学生学习兴趣荡然无存。 只要学生感兴趣的 东西,他们就有求知欲,没有兴趣就不会有求知欲,学习热情大减,从而直接影 ,可以让学生在形式多变的教学 响学习效果 。因此,小学英语进行“情趣教学” 中,始终处于兴奋、活跃的状态,这样, 对教学是不无裨益的。那么,该如何 开展“情 ...

热门内容

江门一中高考英语语法复习资料

   江门一中高考英语语法复习资料 8.16 整理 一、考点聚焦 1.可数名词单、复数变化形式 (1)规则变化。 ①单数名词词尾直接加-s。如:boy ? boys, pen ? pens。 ②以 s、 、 、 结尾的单词一般加-es。 x ch sh 如: glass ? glasses, box? boxes, watch ? watches, brush ? brushes。 特例:stomach ? stomachs。 ③以“辅音字母 + y”结尾的变“y”为“i”再加“-es” 。如: ...

大学英语6级考试技巧

   听力篇 考试结构:Section A:10 short conversations 复习的重点 Section B:最可能考三个段子(3 passages)。其次,有可能考复合式听写(Compound Dictation)或听写填空(Spot Dictation)。 提高听力的步骤:第一步,听懂考题;第二步,总结考题规律;第三步,了解考试本身,做 类型题。 短对话题型分类: Section A 考题为六种题型。无论每个考题的具体内容是什么,考题的题型总在重复。我们 要培养解类型题的能力。 比 ...

2010小升初英语每日一练15

   2010 小升初英语每日一练(15) 小升初英语每日一练( ) 一、单项选择 1. He often me my English. A.helps, with B. help, with C. helps, learnt D. help, learn 2. Sorry, I can’t go with you. I have to my little cousin. A.take care B. look at C. babysit D.babysitter 3. Have you ever ...

中考英语满分作文指导

   中考英语满分作文指导: 中考英语满分作文指导:常考八类典型句子 常考主题的典型句子 1、 环保 1. It's our duty to protect our environment。 2. It is very important to take care of our environment 3. We should not throw litter onto the ground 4. We should not spit in a public place/ cut down the ...

九年级英语Unit 10 教案2(新人教版)_初三英

   初中英语辅导网 http://www.yingyufudao.cn/ 新人教版)_初三英语教案 九年级英语 Unit 10 教案 2(新人教版 初三英语教案 新人教版 Unit 10 By the time I got outside, the bus had already left. . 一、学习目标(Language Goal) 学习目标 1.Learn to narrate past events.学会描述过去所发生的事情。 2. Learn to express something ...