美式论文、报告写作技巧
参考书目(References or Bibliography) 附录资料(Appendix)。 进行论文或报告写作之前, 先要确定想要表达的主题, 主题确定后, 将其具体表达, 即为题目。题目可以提供研究者: 一.研究的方向 二.研究的范围 三.资料搜集的范围 四.预期研究成果 通常在确定题目之後就开始找资料从事研究, 建议在找资料之前最好去问教授有哪 些参考资料来源可供参考引用。构思为确定写作大纲或 Proposal 的先前步骤, 大 纲是论文、报告的骨干, Proposal 是研究的架构、流程及范围的说明书。如何构 思大纲或 Proposal 为论文、报告写作前的必要准备工作。好的论文或研究报告,要 基于在完整、详实的资料上,而参考资料除了和教授商借之外,最主要的来源就是 图书馆了,一般参考资料来源可分成教科书或手册、政府机构的报告、科技或商业 方面的杂志,及会议性质的资料。此外现代的电脑资料库也可帮助收集资料,在国 外可利用学校的电脑连线资料库寻找自己需要的资料。当一切准备就绪,即可开始 着手写报告,一般报告还分大报告如期末、专题等报告,及小报告如 Seminar 式 的报告。 就算是小报告,也至少应含 (一)TITLE PAGES :包含主题名称、作者、日期 (二)Summary: 即主要的结论 (三)Introduction:包括理论背景及内容 (四)Technical Sections:是论文的主体,为最重要的部份应再细分为 几个片断。 (五)Conclusions:即扼要的结论 (六)Appendixes:复杂公式的导引及叁考资料和电脑程式的报表可附加在 此项 美式报告的撰写通常要打字,两行式,行间若有未拼完的字要以音节来连接。写报 告通常需要用到电脑,如有计算数字统计图表的需求,也常会用到程式软体如 PASCAL、LOTUS,统计分析软体如 SAS,也是不可或缺的,电脑绘图在今日已成 为工商界及学术界的重要工具,文书处理更是最基本的要求,因此 Word for
编者按:美式教育的特点即是课程内容强调学生参与及创新运用,因此,报告便成 了常见的考核学生学习成果的方式,比如实验报告、学期报告、专题报告、研究报 告及论文(含毕业论文)等。研究生 presentation 及 seminar 的机会更是占很大的 比重,有些甚至占学期成绩很大比例。如何完成报告、论文同时得到良好的成绩, 是本文提供给有志留学的有心人参考的目的。 美国大学生由於自小已养成自动寻找答案习惯,在启发式的教育环境下,写报告、 论文对他们来说比较不陌生,虽然专业知识上美国学生不见得比外籍学生强,但是 表达能力由於自小培养,加上英语能力的优势,常比外籍学生在报告、论文方面有 较隹的利基。反之中国学生比较缺乏报告写作的训练,因此如果在留学过程中无法 适应美式教育会比较辛苦,其实论文、报告的写作要领其实不难,只要把握技巧就 可水到渠成。 通常论文由篇首(Preliminaries),本文(Texts)以及参考资料(References)三部分构成; 而这三大部分各自内容如下: (一) 篇首: 封面(Title) 序言(Preface) 谢词(Acknowledge) 提要(Summary) 目录(Tables and Appendixes) (二) 本文: 引言(Introduction) 主体,含篇(Part)、章(Chapter)、节(Section) 、以及注释 (Footnotes) (三)参考资料:
Window、Powerpoint、Excel 便成了颇受欢迎的工具。此外在英文语法、文法上的 润饰与修改,如能请老美帮忙会比较好。 论文、报告完成后有时会需要做解说(Presentation),用英文来讲演对中国人来说算 是一大挑战,通常课堂讲演时间为十五分钟到三十分钟,若是论文囗试则至少一小 时。投影机及麦克风的使用对讲演的效果有很大帮助,正式讲演前多预习几次,时 间宜控制适中,上台时忌讳低头拿着报告照念,需留意听众的反应,切中主题,避 免太多数字的导引。
1 New International Business English (华夏版 BEC 中级听力 Tapescript) Unit one Face to face
  1.1 First impressions B You'll hear ten people meeting or greeting someone.
  1.Woman: Good evening, Mr. Green, how nice to see you again. Man: Good evening, it's nice to be back. How are you?
  2.Man: Good morning, madam, can I help you? Woman: Yes, I've got an appointment with Mr. Henry Robinson.
  3.Woman: Good afternoon, sir. Man: Good afternoon, I'd like to see Mr. Ferguson, please.
  4. Man: Hello, madam, can I help at all? Woman: Yes, I'd like to know what time...
  5. 1st man: (brusque) Er...good morning, sir. Do you have an appointment? 2nd man: Yes, I've arranged to see Ms. Shapiro. I think I may be a bit early...
  6. 1st man: Good morning, sir. Do you have an appointment? 2nd man: Yes, sir. I've arranged to see Ms Shapiro. I think I may be a bit early...
  7. Woman: Good morning, Mr. Rossi. How are you today? Man: Just fine, thanks. Is Mr. Grady in yet? Woman: I'll just find out for you...
  8.Man: Er...hello, Miss Macdonald, I'm afraid... er...Mrs. Sanderson isn't back from lunch yet. Woman: Oh, that's OK. I'll sit and wait if that's all right. Man: Oh, certainly. Would you like some coffee? Woman: Mm, that sounds a good idea, thanks.
  9.Woman: (off-band) Yes?
Man: Good morning, my name's Martin. I'm here to see Mr. Suzuki. Woman: Who? Man: Mr. Suzuki. Woman: Oh, he's busy I think. Man: Could you let him know I'm here, please? Woman: OK.
  10.Woman: Good morning, sir. Man: Good morning, my name's Martin, I'm here to see Mr. Suzuki. Woman: If you'll just take a seat, Mr. Martin I'll let him know you're here. Man: Fine, thanks. Woman: Mr. Suzuki, Mr. Martin's in reception for you... He's on his way down.
  1.1 D You'll hear three conversations.
  1. Alex White: Oh, good afternoon. Chris Grey: Good afternoon. Alex White: Er... I'd just like to introduce myself. Er...the name's Alex White and I'm the new export sales coordinator.
2 Chris Grey: Oh, yes. I've heard of you. How do you do? I'm...er...Chris Grey. Pleased to meet you. Er...have you just arrived? Alex White: Er...no, no, I got here... er...it was yesterday morning, but it...it's the first time I've been up to this floor. So, Chris, what do you do? Chris Grey: Well, I'm not very important really. I'm...er...Jenny Santini's assistant. She's head of personnel, have you met her? Alex White: Oh, yeah. I was introduced to her yesterday. Actually, I'm looking for Jim Price's office. Am I on the right floor for that? Chris Grey: Er... well, no actually, Mr. Price is on the fifth floor. Er...if you take the lift over in the corner you...
  2. Tiny Harris: Ms. Smith...er...I'd like you to meet Mrs. Jones. Mrs. Jones is from our sales office in Toronto. Liz Jones: Hi! Claire smith: How do you do, Mrs. Jones? I've been looking forward to meeting you. Liz Jones: Oh, please call me Liz.
Claire Smith: And I'm Claire. Liz Jones: Hi. Claire Smith: Well, Liz, did you have a good journey? Liz Jones: Yeah, not too bad. God, there was all this fog at Heathrow, though. Claire Smith: Oh no, what happened? Liz Jones: Oh, it was...my flight was diverted to Bournemouth, ye...and then we had to go by bus from there to London. So...I didn't get to by hotel till lunchtime, it was crazy...
  3. Mrs. Green: Mr. Evans, um...have you met Miss Lucas? She's from Argentina. Mr. Evans: Yes, I think we've met before. It's good to see you again! Miss Lucas: That's right, hello again. How are you? Mr. Evans: Fine, thanks. Er...must be, what, a couple of years since we last met? Miss Lucas: Oh, even longer-four years ago I think. In Miami, wasn't it? Mr. Evans: Yes! Yes, that was an interesting conference! Ha...W...would you both like some coffee? Miss Lucas: Oh, yes, please. Black for me. Mrs. Green: Oh, thanks a lot, Mr. Evans. Er.. white with sugar for me. Mr. Evans: Right. Mrs. Green: Er...Miss Lucas, er...whereabouts do you come from in Argentina? Miss Lucas: Er...well mm...I live in Buenos Aires, but I was raised in Mendoza. Mrs. Green: Oh, was it...that's in the north…
  1.3 What do you enjoy about your work? A You'll hear four people talking about their work. Ian: My name's Ian McShane and I'm the group accountant for Small World-wide. I'm responsible for the day-to-day accounting for the group, covering financial management, management accounting, cash books, purchase ledger, sales ledger, credit control and so on. Virtually every day you've got a different kind of...er...job to tackle, it's always without exception urgent. I'm always up against deadlines and therefore I'm never bored. I find the whole of finance fascinating anyway and the whole exercise is very, very interesting. It's not very pleasant being difficult, or having to be difficult with people to get money out of them. I don't particularly like doing that. Lesley: My name's Lesley Trigg. At Small World I work as an administrator for the international
organizing people's travel in the company to various different countries throughout the world. The most important thing that I enjoy is actually the people that are here in Small World. The people are very friendly and I enjoy the work. I wish at times I was a little bit more busier. Um...I have to wait for people to generate work for me and, as working within the international business development group most of the people actually work in...within other countries because they're going out into other countries to find partners that will assist Small World. And when they're out of the country they're not generating the work for me back in the office, they generate the work when they're back in the office for me to deal with. Patrick: My name is Patrick Verdon. I deal with the systems administration for Small World. I think the best description of systems administration is that it's a trouble-shooting kind of job, there are all kinds of responsibilities, such as back-up of data, installation of new machines, installation of the operating system and the installation of the product that ...er...Small World actually Produces. It's quite a challenge, because there's such a variety of problems: sometimes it'll be a loose cable on a...on a machine that's a problem, another time it'll take hours to solve. I think the nice part of systems administration is the challenge. Um...sometimes it's very quiet, but on the other hand you can have a day when it's completely hectic and all kinds of different problems come up. So y...you're always being confronted with ...with different problems, which is nice The things I don't enjoy are the routine back-ups of all the data, these take a bit of time. The other thing that I don't quite like is the...the out of hours concept of system ...systems administration, because the best time to actually fix problems is when people aren't working, which means that ideally we should do that after six when everybody's gone home, so, yes, we can be here until the early hours of the morning at the extreme. Paul: I'm Paul Lockwood and I'm one of the training officers at Small World and my job is to...um...run and provide training courses for our customers and agents. The thing I enjoy most about my work is...um...being able to have direct contact with customers and...er...direct knowledge of the sort of problems they encounter and how to resolve them. The things I don't enjoy so much is that I feel that I...I...um... tend to be spending a lot of time either teaching or preparing training material, and I don't get enough chance to do hands-on programming that I would like to do. I do have to have the skills of programming but what I don't
3 business development group. My responsibilities are responding to correspondence, making sure that meetings are scheduled for the right rooms at the right places. Um... also I deal with
get the opportunity to do at the moment is to actually use them to develop real applications for customers, I'm just showing other people how to do it. Generally speaking, I ...I enjoy my job. I...I enjoy the company that I work for. Um...it's a very
good environment, a very stimulating environment.
  1.5 Developing relationships A You'll hear five short conversations between people who work in the same company.
  1. Bob: Er...Tony? Tony: Mmm. Boy: Er...I'd like to see you for a minute, would you come into the office? Tony: Oh, yeah, right. Bob: Good. Now, how did you get on in Copenhagen? Tony: Ah, yeah...er...well, Carlsson had the flu, so I couldn't see him.
Barry: Yeah. Mr. Allen: Er...anything essential. I'll take care of, OK? Haha. Barry Susanna: Haha.
  3. Mr. Green: OK, Martin, er...let's go through it again. You go to the airport. Martin: Right. Mr. Green: OK. Terminal 2 Martin: Terminal
  2. Mr. Green: Pick up Glenn Donaldson. Martin: Glenn Donaldson Mr. Green: Now I want you to write this down.
4 Bob: Couldn't see him? Tony: No, so I had to see his assistant. And, you know, we...er...we got along quite well, but...um...th...er...there are problems...er...Crystals got in before us. Bob: Oh Lord! Tony: Yeah, they were in last week. So...er...they...you know, they...they spent days there and...er...it was all wrapped up really by the time I got there. Bob: Is it...is it a question of...of ... supply? Are we...are we not producing enough for them? Tony
 

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