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暑期讲义( 暑期讲义(六) 短语动词和句型 【考点直击】
  1. 短语动词的辨析;
  2. 英语句子的基本句型结构;
  3. 初中阶段主要句型的用法。 【名师点睛】 短语动词是中考的重要内容之一。在初中阶段,我们已经学习了不少短语 动词,把他们加以归纳总结,进行重点复习是十分必要的。英语中有许多短语 动词在意义上是一个整体,其用法有的相当于及物动词,有的相当于不及物动 词,有的兼有及物动词和不及物动词的特征。
  1. 短语动词的分类 (
  1)动词+介词 动词+ 动词 常见的有 look for, look after, ask for, laugh at, hear of 等。这类短语动 词的宾语只能放在介词后。如: Don’t laugh at others. Tom asked his parents for a bike. (
  2)动词+副词 动词+ 动词 常见的有 give up, pick up, think over, find out, hand in,等。这类短语动 词的宾语如果是名词,既可放在副词前边,又可放在副词后边;宾语如果 是人称代词或反身代词,则要放在副词前边。如: You’ll hand in your homework tomorrow. Please don’t forget to hand it in. (
  3)动词+副词+介词 动词+ 动词 副词+ 常见的有 go on with, catch up with 等。这类短语动词的宾语只能放在 介词后边。如: Go on and I’ll catch up with you in five minutes. After a short rest, he went on with his research work. (
  4)动词+名词+介词 动词+ 动词 名词+ 常见的有 take care of, make use of, pay attention to, make fun of 等。这 类短语动词的宾语只能放在介词后边。如: You should pay attention to your handwriting. We should make full use of our time. (
  5)动词+形容词 动词+ 动词 常见的有 leave open, set free, cut open 等。 这类短语动词的宾语如果是 名词,则宾语可放在形容词的前边,也可放在后边;宾语如果是人称代词 或反身代词,则必须放在形容词前边。如: The prisoners were set free. He cut it open. (
  6)动词+名词 动词+ 动词 常见的有 take place, make friends 等。这类短语动词用作不及物动词。 如:This story took place three years ago. I make friends with a lot of people.
  2. 短语动词的辨析 ,be made of(由……组成或构成) (
  1)be made in(在……生产或制造)
!
(
  2)come down(下来;落), come along(来; 随同), come to oneself(苏醒), come true(实现),come out(花开;发芽;出现;出来),come over(过来;顺便 来访) come in(进来), , come on(来吧; 跟着来; 赶快), come up with(找到; 提出) (
  3)do one’s best( 尽 最 大 努 力 ), do well in( 在 …… 干 得 好 ), do one’s homework(做作业),do some reading(阅读) (
  4)fall asleep(入睡),fall behind(落在…..后面),fall off(从……掉下),fall down(到下;跌倒) 落下), on(上车), to(到达), up(起床), back(回 get get get get (
  5)get down(下来; 来; 取回), off(下来), on well with(与……相处融洽), married(结 get get get 婚),get together(相聚) (
  6)give up(放弃),give…a hand(给与……帮助),give a concert(开音乐会) (
  7)go back(回去),go on(继续),go home(回家),go to bed(睡觉),go over(过 go 到外面), wrong(走错路), on doing(继 go go 一遍; 仔细检查), out(外出; 续做某事),go shopping(买东西),go boating(去划船), go fishing(去钓鱼), go hiking(去徒步旅行),go skating(去滑冰),go straight along(沿着……一 直往前走) ( , ( , (
  8)have a look(看一看), have a seat 坐下) have supper 吃晚餐) have a rest (休息), have sports(进行体育活动), have a cold(感冒), have a cough (咳嗽) have a good time 过得愉快) have a headache 头痛) have a try(尝 , ( , ( , 试;努力) (
  9)look for(寻找),look out(留神; 注意),look over(仔细检查),look up(向上 看;抬头看),look after(照顾; 照看),look at(看; 观看),look like(看起 来像),look the same(看起来像), (
  10)make friends(交朋友),make phone calls(打电话),make money(赚钱), make the bed(整理床铺),make a noise(吵闹),make a faces(做鬼脸),make one’s way to(往……走去),make room for(给……腾出地方),make a decision(做出决定),make a mistake(犯错误),make up one’s mind(下决心) (
  11)put on(上演;穿上;戴上),put up(挂起;举起),put down(把某物放下 来),put away(把某物收起来), put off(推迟) (
  12)take off(脱掉衣服),take photos(照相),take time(花费时间),take out(取 出),take a seat(坐下),take an active part in(积极参加),take care of(照顾; 照料;注意),take exercise(做运动),take one’s place(坐某人的位置;代 替某人的职务),take turn(轮流) (
  13)talk about(谈话;交谈),talk with(和……交谈) (
  14)turn on(打开电灯,收音机,煤气,自来水等),turn off(关上电灯,收音 机,煤气,自来水等),turn down(关小;调低),turn…over(把…..翻过来) (
  15)think of(认为;想起),think about(考虑)
  3.句子的基本句型结构 句子的基本句型结构 句子的基本句型 根据句子所用动词的不同,句子可归纳为五个基本句型。 (
  1)主语 连系动词 表语。例如: 主语+连系动词 表语。 主语 连系动词+表语 My mother is a doctor. Her voice sounds nice. 主语+不及物动词 (
  2)主语 不及物动词。例如: 主语 不及物动词。
!
He runs fast. We study hard. (
  3)主语 及物动词 宾语。例如: 主语+及物动词 宾语。 主语 及物动词+宾语 Children often sing this song. He studies English.
  1)常用-ing 形式, 而不用不定式作宾语的动词有:enjoy, finish, feel like, consider, practise, keep, suggest, mind 等。例如: She enjoys reading novels and swimming. I finished reading the book last night.
  2)常用不定式,而不用-ing 形式作宾语的动词有:wish, hope, agree, plan, decide, refuse 等。例如: Where do wish to sit? Tom agreed to lend some money.
  3)有些及物动词既可用不定式,由可用-ing 形式作宾语,但意义不同。这 类动词常见的有:remember, forget 等。例如: Please remember to post the letter for me. 请记住替我发了这封信。 I remember posting the letter. 我记得那封信寄过了。 不过 stop 后面跟不定式不是作宾语, Stop 的用法同上面的词相仿, 而是作状语。试比较下列句子: He stopped to smoke. 他停下来吸烟。 He stopped smoking. 他停止吸烟了。
  4)有些及物动词的宾语, 既可用不定式, 又可用-ing 形式, 意义基本相同。 这类动词常见的有:like, love, hate, begin, start, continue 等。例如: I like to swim in summer. I like swimming in summer. (
  4)主语 及物动词 间接宾语 直接宾语。例如: 主语+及物动词 直接宾语。 主语 及物动词+ 间接宾语+直接宾语 My father bought me a new bike. He gave me an apple.
  1)及物动词之后跟有双宾语, 往往一个指人, 一个指物。 指人的为间接宾语, 指物的为直接宾语。一般情况下,间接宾语在前,直接宾语在后。如果要 把间接宾语放在直接宾语之后,间接宾语前需加介词。例如: Please pass me a cup of tea.= Please pass a cup of tea to me. Show me your new book, please. =Please show your new book to me.
  2)把间接宾语放在直接宾语之后,间接宾前有时加介词 to, 有时加介词 for, 这主要取决于谓语动词。一般在动词 give, tell, sell, lend, show 之后加 to。 在动词 buy, make, get 等之后加 for。例如: Would you lend me your dictionary, please? =Would you lend your dictionary to me, please? Tom’s mother bought him a pair of new shoes. =Tom’s mother bought a pair of new shoes for him. (
  5)主语 及物动词 宾语 宾语补足语。例如: 主语+及物动词 宾语+宾语补足语 主语 及物动词+宾语 宾语补足语。 We keep our classroom clean and tidy.
!
I hear someone singing in the next room.
  1)及物动词指后跟有复合宾语,一个是宾语,一个是宾语补足语。宾语和宾 语补足语之间有逻辑上的主谓关系。例如: We call him Jack. Don’t get your hands dirty.
  2)在及物动词之后,用不定式作宾语补足语和用-ing 形式作宾语补足语表示 的意思往往不同。用不定式作宾语补足语指事情的全过程;用-ing 形式作 宾语补足语指正在进行的动作的一部分。例如: I heard him sing that song. (我听他唱过那首歌。) When I came back, I heard him singing in the room. (我回来时,听见他正在房间里唱歌。)
  3)在感官动词 see, hear, feel, watch, listen to, look at 使役动词 let, make, have 等的复合宾语种,不定式须省去 to。但变为被动句时,省去的 to 要加上。例如: I saw him go into the room. He was seen to go into the room.
  4. 初中阶段主要句型的用法。 初中阶段主要句型的用法。
  1. It's time to (for) .... 表“时间到了;该干…的时间了”之意。 It's time to go home. It's time for school. 注意:to 的后面接动词短语,而 for 的后面接名词。
  2. It's bad (good) for ... 表示“对…有害(有益)的”含义。 Please don't smoke. It's bad for your health. Please take more exercise. It's good for your health.
  3. be late for (school) 是“上学(迟到)”之意。for 后面还可以接 meeting 或 class。 He was late for school this morning. Don't be late for class, please.
  4. had better do / not do sth. 表示“最好做/不做某事”之意。 You had better put on the coat when you go out. It's cold outside. We had better stop to have a rest. 注意: had better 时, 用 后面一定要直接跟动词原形, 决不能加 to do sth. 否 定一定用在第二个动词之前,是动词不定式的否定式。
  5. be (feel) afraid of ... 表示“恐怕”,“害怕…”之意。 He is afraid of snakes. Mary feels afraid of going out alone.
  6. enjoy doing sth. 是“喜欢(爱好)做某事”之意,doing 是动名词作动词 enjoy 的宾语。enjoy 有欣赏之意。 Are you enjoy living in Beijing? Do you enjoy listening to music?
  7. stop doing sth. 停止做某事 stop to do sth. 停下来做某事 It's time for class. Stop talking, please. When she saw me, she stopped to talk with me.
  8. Let (make) sb. do 让(使)某人做某事。
!
Let's go to school. Father made his son clean the room again. 注意:当 make sb. do sth. 用于被动语态时,第二个动词前面就一定要加 to 了。如: His son was made to clean the room again. he was made to work twelve hours a day in the past.
  9. like to do / like doing sth. 是“喜欢做某事”之意。 like to do sth. 是表示比较具体的喜欢做某事;like doing sth. 是表示宠统的喜 欢做某事。如: I like to swim in the swimming pool. 我喜欢在游泳池中游泳。 (喜欢的具体的地方游泳) I like swimming. 我喜欢游泳(只讲喜欢这项运动)
  10. ask (tell) sb. to do. (not to do) sth. 请(让)某人(不)做某事 Jim asked his mother to help him with his lessons. When did you tell him not to shout loudly?
  11. give (lend) sb. sth. = give (lend) sth. to sb. 给(借给)某人某物 Mike gave me a new pair of stockings. Please lend us your car.
  12. be busy doing sth. 表示“忙于做某事”之意。 The students are busy getting ready for the exams. Is Mrs Black busy washing clothes?
  13. too ... to ... 表示“太…以致不能…”的含义。 She is too young to go to school. The old man was too tired to walk farther.
  14. not……until …… 是“直……才……”之意。 My daughter didn't go to bed until 11 o'clock last night. We won't have time to rest until the summer holiday comes.
  15. so ……that 是“如此……以致……”的意思。 Peter is so clever that all the teachers like him very much. The song is so wonderful that everyone likes to listen to it.
  16. neither ……nor ……是“既不……也不……”之意。 Mr. Smith is neither a worker nor a soldier. He is a scientist. Neither you nor I am free.
  17. enough to do sth. 是“足以去做某事”之意。 She is old enough to go to school. Peter was tall enough to reach the apple.
  19. prefer……to ……是“比起来,还是……好,”“喜欢……而不喜欢”之意。 I prefer English to maths = I like English better than maths He prefers playing football to playing basketball.
  20. not ……at all ……是“根本不……”之意。 I don't know Mr. King at all. David doesn't like singing at all.
  21.keep sb. doing sth. 是“使某人继续做某事”之意。 Mr. Wang didn't come to school on time. She kept me waiting for two hours.
!
Don't keep your mother doing everything for you You should do it by yourself.
  22. keep sth. + adj. 是“保持某物处于某种状况”之意。 Please keep our classroom clean and tidy. That wool sweater kept her body warm enough.
  23. see sb. doing sth. 表示“看见某人正在做某事”之意。 When my brother passed the post office, he saw a little boy crying at the door. Did you see a car coming here ?
  24. see sb. do sth. 是“看见某人做了某事”之意。 That girl saw an old woman fall down on the road y
 

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   UNIT1 beard n.(下巴上的)胡须;络腮胡子 cheetah n.猎豹 sailfish n.旗鱼;姥鲛 voyager n.航行者;航海者;航天者 tight adj.紧的;难解开的;紧密的 tightrope n.绷紧的绳索或钢丝 gorge n.峡谷 edition n.版本;版次 moustache n.髭;八字须;小胡子 Urumqi n.乌鲁本齐 brewery n.啤酒厂 conclude vt.结束时说;(经推理)相信;达成 vi结束 hire ...