The Evolution of Transport
交通运输业的发展
The evolution of transport has been closely linked to the development of humankind throughout the earth’s history.Transport’s early
function was to meet the basic need of hauling food supplies and building materials.But with the formation of tribes,then peoples,and finally nations,the societal and economic functions of transport became more and more complex. At first there was mobility required for individuals, clans,households,and animals to protect them against,and to escape from,the dangers of natural disasters and tribal aggressions,and in the search for the best places to settle.As tribal groups formed and gradually established their geographical identity,transport was increasingly needed to open up regions for development , to provide access to natural resources,to promote intercommunal trade,and to mobilize territorial defense. When the first nations came into being, transport played a major role in establishing national integrity. 交通运输的发展一直密切联系在一起的人类发展的整个地球的历 史。运输的早期功能是为了满足提供食物供给和搬运建筑材料。但是 随着部落甚至最后国家的形成,运输的社会和经济功能越来越复杂。 起初有需要调动个人,家族,家庭和动物以保护他们的反对,并逃避 自然灾害和部族侵略的危险,寻找最好的地方定居。随着种族部落的 形成和地理界线的逐步确定,开发新区域、开采新资源、发展社区间 的贸易以及捍卫领地,这些都日益需要交通的发展。当第一个国家应
运而生,在建立全国的完整性方面,交通运输扮演着重要角色。 After basic societal needs had generally been attended to,local communities could increasingly devote their efforts to enhancing their economic,cultural,and technological development through trade links with other peoples and regions.Again,transport provided the mobility required for such intertribal, international,and finally intercontinental cultural exchange and trade.During all of this gradual development toward an organized human society,represented today through the international family of nations,transport as physical process of moving people and goods,thus promoting such development,continuously underwent technological and organizational changes.Such changes were induced by several factors and circumstances.In fact,today’s transport in its various forms and organizational arrangements remains highly subject to changes in response to societal requirements and preferences. 基本的社会需求一般都得到照顾后,当地社区可以越来越多地贡 献自己的努力,用来加强与其他国家的人民和他们的经济贸易联系, 文化和科技发展。而且交通提供了诸如部落间、国际间乃至于洲际间 便利的贸易和文化交流。在向有组织的人类社会的演变过程中,这种 组织在今天是通过由各国组成的国际化大家庭表现出来的, 交通作为 人与货物移动的物理过程,电促进了这种发展,不断地经历着技术与 组织方面的改变。这些变化是由多种因素和情况引起的。事实上,今 天的运输在它的各种形态和组织仍然高度受变化的社会需求和偏好
的回应。 Clearly,the first and foremost criterion to be satisfied by transport was efficiency. centuries, particularly during the takeoff stages of For and local economics , society required reliable , fast , and low cost transport . The search for appropriate technologies was relatively unconstrained.There were times in human history when the demand for reliable and fast transport was especially pronounced, quick solutions and were required for national self-defense. During such periods of local and international conflict, human ingenuity devised new transport
technologies which often proved to be the decisive element for survival, and sometimes victory. Subsequently refined and developed, such new technologies made it possible to better meet increasing transport demand, thus improving both economic progress and human welfare. 显然,首先也是最重要的标准是运输效率。几个世纪以来,特别是 在地方经济起飞阶段,社会需要可靠、快速、低成本的运输。为寻找 合适的技术相对不受限制。在人类历史上有可靠的时候,快速运输的 需求尤其明显,快速的解决办法,为国家自卫所需的时间。在当地和 国际冲突的时期内,人类的聪明才智设计出新的传输技术,可往往被 证明是为逃生、 有时也是为了胜利, 的决定性因素。 随后完善和发展, 这种新技术使我们能够更好地满足日益增加的运输需求, 从而改善双 方的经济发展和人类福祉。 The need for better strategic mobility induced efforts to improve sea
and land transport. This resulted in bigger and faster ships and more reliable and sturdy land vehicles. Eventually, self-propulsion was introduced, exemplified by steamboats, the railways, and then the automobile. Research and development in the transport field finally became an organized undertaking with specific goals and objectives. As the result of the consequent concentration of talent and expertise, more and more sophisticated transport technologies evolved, such as the aircraft and, most recently, rocket propulsion. 为更好的战略机动诱导努力提高海上和陆路运输的需要。这导致 了更大,更快的船,更可靠,坚固的地面车辆。最后,详细介绍了汽 船,铁路,然后是汽车的例证。研究和运输领域的发展终于成为一个 具体的目标和组织目标的承诺。随之而来的是专家的集中,越来越复 杂的运输技术的进化,如飞机,和最新的火箭推进器。 The gradual evolution of increasingly sophisticated means of transport is manifested by today' s transport systems, which include air, surface, and water transport. Special industry needs have led to the development of transport modes that have rather limited applications, such as pipelines, cables, and belts. Within current societal needs and preferences, as well as the economic requirements of cost effectiveness, the various existing transport modes generally fulfill rather specific functions. 日益复杂的运输手段逐渐发展成今天的运输系统, 其中包括空中、
路面和水上运输。特殊行业的需求,引起了发展出相当有限的应用的 运输模式,如管道,电缆和传送带。因为当前社会的需求和喜好,以 及经济要求的成本效益,现有的各种运输方式一般都能完成特定功 能。 Although transport's potential to meet effectively numerous societal mobility needs improved continuously, it became evident that such effectiveness had its price. A number of transport technologies implied high energy consumption and required substantial capital inputs in production and operation. As a result, several transport modes became expensive to the user. This caused equity problems because charges required to cover operating costs were not affordable by all population groups, thus limiting their mobility and welfare. Many governments chose to subsidize transport, but quickly realized that the budget implications often caused serious distortions in their national economies. 尽管运输的潜力以满足社会的流动性需要而水平不断提高,但很 明显,这种效果有其代价。大量的交通技术要求和隐含的能耗高的巨 大的资金投入生产和经营。因此,一些运输方式对使用者来说是昂贵 的。这引起权益问题,因为需要支付运作成本费用是不是所有的人口 群体负担,从而限制其流动性和福利。许多国家的政府选择了运输补 贴,但很快就意识到,预算往往对其国家的经济造成严重的扭曲。 Pollution caused by various transport modes gradually became another serious problem as world transport in most countries and the need
to cope with rising volumes of commodity flows and person travel. In several regions of the world having high population and industry concentrations, such detrimental impacts on the environment have reached high levels. These effects of such damage yet are to be fully explored. 各种运输方式污染造成的,逐渐成为另一问题,如同世界大多数 国家需要应付不断上升的商品流动和人的旅行量严重的问题。 在一些 地区具有高浓度的人口和产业, 这种对环境的不利影响已达到很高的 水平。这种损害是这些影响尚未得到充分开发。 Finally, problems caused by dwindling world energy resources, particularly petroleum, have increasingly impeded transport services and operations. Most existing transport modes are critically dependent on petroleum derivatives for proper functioning. With unabated growth of demand for transport and a progressively limited supply of energy, the costs of providing transport have increased steadily. In particular, the disproportion of petroleum requirements and petroleum supply has caused serious inflationary problems to arise in many countries. Especially hard hit are countries with a partial or total dependence on an external petroleum supply, which have experienced growing deficits in their current accounts. 最后,这些问题引起世界能源资源的日益减少,特别是石油,已 越来越多地阻碍交通服务和操作。 大多数现有的运输方式都是以依赖
石油衍生品才能正常运转。 随着需求量的增长与不衰减得运输和能源 供应的有限,逐步提供运输的成本已经稳步增加。特别是,石油需求 和石油供应不均衡造成了严重的通货膨胀问题出现在许多国家。 尤其 沉重的打击与对外部石油供应, 其中也经历了他们的经常帐赤字增长 部分或完全依赖国家。 The transport sector' s increasing inability to satisfy demand efficiently and equitably is a problem with which all nations have to cope in trying to advance economic and social progress. Energy-supply constraints, high capital and operating costs, often with excessive foreign-exchange components, and the seriousness of transport-related environmental pollution account in large part for this problem. But transport is and will continue to be an essential requirement for world development and human welfare. There is no other choice but to look for alternatives to present transport systems or to modify the technical and operational characteristics of related modes so that energy consumption and costs wil1 be reduced and environmental impacts can be kept at a minimum. Obviously, the development of transport demand will have to be controlled. 运输部门的增加无法满足有效且公平需求的问题,这是一个所有 国家必须应对努力促进经济和社会进步。能源供应的限制,高额的资 本和运营成本, 往往与外汇组件以及与运输有关的环境污染的很大一 部分用于这个严重性的问题。 但运输是并将继续是世界发展和人类福
利的基本要求。没有任何其他选择,只能寻求替代或修改目前的运输 系统, 使能源消耗和成本永存相关的技术和业务模式的特点是减少对 环境的影响, 可以保持在最低水平。 显然, 交通需求的发展将被控制。
 

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