知识改变命运
勤奋塑造成功
整理人 时间
落叶 2011-4-15
天才是百分之九十九的勤奋加百分之一的灵感
No.8 Arts
Imaginative Works (
  2) 49 "Imaginative works such as novels, plays, films, fairy tales, and legends present a more accurate and meaningful picture of human experience than do factual accounts. Because the creators of fiction shape and focus reality rather than report on it literally, their creations have a more lasting significance." (3+
  1) From 244,讲堂有例文。 讲堂有例文。 ) 讲堂有例文 有想象力的作品,比如小说、戏剧、童话和传说向人们展示了过去人们经历的精确且有意义的画面,而事 实记述则稍逊。因为小说的作者重在刻画和关注事实,而非表面事实的报道,他们的作品有更深远的意义。
  1. Imaginative works not only shape and focus reality, but concentrate on reverie and vision as well, which reduce fiction of their accuracy. Their significance may also decay with time goes by.
  2. Factual accounts literally document reality and facts using more scientific language and rational analysis, therefore enhancing their accuracy and meaningfulness
  3. Both the two are valuable presentation of human experience, with each dealing with different aspects 14 "It is necessary for everyone to read poetry, novels, mythology and other types of imaginative literature." (
  1) (From 讲堂) ) 讲堂 每个人都有必要去阅读诗、小说、神话和其他有想象力的文学作品。
  1. Poetry, novels, mythology and other types of imaginative literature are the outcome of human intellectual creation, the reading of which will surely enrich our spirtual world.
  2. Literature can help us sharpen our ability to analyze and cope with complex social issues, stimulate our imagination and broaden our appreciation of art.
  3. Liturature expresses the history and culture of different religions, natiionalities and cultural backgrounds, thus improving mutual understanding, respect and tolerance.
  4. However, it may be excessive for those concerned with practical work, who struggle for food and shelter, precluding entertainment. It is presumptuous to advise that every person should read, and subsequently benefit, from imaginative literature. Government & Arts (
  3) 85 "Government funding of the arts threatens the integrity of the arts." [05/10; 06/0] 政府对艺术的资助威胁着艺术的独立性。 Excepted from 提纲 政府对艺术的资助威胁着艺术的独立性。 (13+
  2) )
  1. 承认政府会限制艺术的发展。因为政府总是它自己的一定立场,是维护自己这个国家利
益的。比如过去苏联 The soviet Union 过去甚至让他们的艺术家按照 party line 去创作 作品。在这种情况下,艺术家就没有办法按照自己对艺术的理解去创造艺术。虽然不是 所有政府都会像苏联那样明显,但是这种影响总是暗藏着的。
  2. 虽然政府一定程度上会影响艺术,但是政府的支持对于艺术的发展还是非常 necessary 的。一方面资助有利于艺术的发展。如庞大的建筑艺术 庞大的建筑艺术,更需要政府的资助才能得到发 庞大的建筑艺术 展。比如 Samuel Johnson 为了写作那本著名的 a dictionary of the English language ,四 处乞求经济支持,最后被很多人拒绝了,特别是 Lord chesterfield ,最后他多花了比预计 的时间多了 5 年的时间完成了。但是如果他能够得到适当的支持,那么完成时间可以大 大缩短。有时候,必要的经济支持,会给艺术的发展带来巨大的推力,因此也能对整个 人类文明也是有巨大作用的。
  3. 另一方面,国家对艺术的资助有利于艺术的传播。艺术家们,受种种影响,如资金缺乏, 影响力不够,不善于传播艺术。而有了国家的资助,可以让艺术家的作品让更多的人见
到,欣赏艺术带来的震撼感,陶醉感。从而有更多的人投入艺术。
  4. 就艺术家而言, 他们应该学会保持自己的艺术创作风格, 不受其他的力量而左右。 we As all know, art is the product of the artist’s authentic passion, a manifestation of the artist’s unique creative impulse, and a creation of the artist’s spirit. If art were shaped by integrating the concern of the governments, it would cease to be art.
101 "Governments should provide funding for artists so that the arts can flourish and be available to all people." (
  2) 同 85 政府应资助艺术家,促进艺术繁荣,以便人们都能接触到艺术。 190 "As long as people in a society are hungry or out of work or lack the basic skills needed to survive, the use of public resources to support the arts is inappropriate -- and, perhaps, even cruel -- when one considers all the potential uses of such money." (33+
  1) ) 当人们挨饿、失业或者缺少维持生存的基本技能时,动用公众资源来支持艺术就不合适了,也许,考虑到 这些金钱的所有可能用途时,就更不人道了。 Totally Excepted from 提纲
Begin:承认要政府应该适度的选择去支持艺术的发展,但是我们也要明白上面提高的一些 社会问题是永远不会彻底消失的,我们不能完全不去支持艺术。
  1. 承认政府必须把一些公共资源着重于解决那些紧急的社会问题。 如果国内发生了重大 的自然灾害,比如洪水,成千上万的人流离失所,比如发生饥荒,很多人都没有饭吃, 国内经济通货膨胀那样,如果在这种场合下,还想着花很大的精力支持艺术的发展,是 违背政府的主要职责的, 这种场合下, 设及很多人的生命, 很有可能社会发生巨大动乱, 甚至这个国家维持下去都是很困难的。
  2. 但是我们要明白艺术也是需要支持。因为艺术的发展没有很强的市场规律,并不是所有 有天赋的艺术家都能赢得与天赋相关的舒适生活,甚至正常生活都有问题,但是他们能 为社会创造永恒的价值。比如 Samuel Johnson 为了写作那本著名的 a dictionary of the English language ,四处乞求经济支持,最后被很多人拒绝了,特别是 Lord chesterfield , 最后他多花了比预计的时间多了 5 年的时间完成了。但是如果他能够得到适当的支持, 那么完成时间可以大大缩短。有时候,必要的经济支持,会给艺术的发展带来巨大的推 力,因此也能对整个人类文明也是有巨大作用的。
  3. 有时艺术也可以帮助解决社会问题。第一:艺术作品可以给人精神动力,比如革命时期 的一些鼓舞人心的歌曲、小说。第二:艺术也可以帮助那些饥饿、失业或者缺乏谋生的 基本技能的人,比如通过慈善晚会号召大家捐款等等,SARS 时期、地震时都会有这样 的活动。 End:最后,我们要明白社会问题和艺术都很重要,我们要优先把资源用来解决紧急的社会 问题,但是社会问题永远是不会消失,不能为了无止境的社会问题,忽视了对人类有长远意 义的艺术的支持。
Artists & Critics (
  5) 76 "Truly profound thinkers and highly creative artists are always out of step with their time and their society." (11+
  1) 不好写,感觉就是不停的举例子 From 讲堂 不好写, 讲堂&244 真正影响深远的思想家和具有高度创造力的艺术家们总是与他们的时代和社会步伐不一致。 Begin:

  1. If we think about the implication of the concepts “profoundity” and “creativity”, we find that it is natural that thinkers and artists relate quite differently to them than do their do their contemporaries. “Profound” means deep. When used to refer to thinkers, its meaning is that their thoughts have penetrated the superficial views that most people hold. After reflecting on
the implecations of these concepts, we may recongnize that these concepts are distinct from ordinary beliefs. “Creativity” is always related to something new.
  2. In human history, there were many great thinkers who were ignored or even suffered persecution. In the field of natural science, some profound thinkers were out of step with their time and societ, such as Galileo, Bruno and Copernicus. Einsteinian's great theories, principle of relativity, was accepted by few of contemporaries (As in the field of philosophy, some of the greatest Chinese ideas may only receive the recognition they deserve after the death of the progenitor.)Some highly creative artists who are quite popular and esteemed today were unappreciated and obscure during their lifetimes, such as Vincent Van Gogh and Schubert.
"heliotrope ", one of painting created by Van Gogh, was recognized its achievement untill 100 hundred years after his death

  3. Moreover, profund and high work surely are also based on modern society which act the foundation of them and they never be separtated completedly from modern society. because profound thinker place the aim on finally development of human being as a whole and enhance modern society, End:In conclusion, the truly great thinker and arist need to be out of time at which they are living to make them exceed our society and then direct human being evolve in thought and art.
96 "Although, critics who write about the arts tend to deny the existence of any objective standards for evaluating works of art, they have a responsibility to establish standards by which works of art can be judged." (
  4) From 讲堂 尽管那些评价艺术作品的批评家企图否定在评价艺术作品时任何客观标准的存在,他们还是有责任建立起 一套艺术作品的评判标准。
  1. As is well know to all, the creation of a work of art is mainly the subjective representation of the emotions, observations, values and tastes of the artist. What is less recongnized is that, in fact, the examination and review of art works, as done by critics, is also a highly subjective precedure. Therefore, by reviewing art works, art critics are, to some extent, recreating the work in their own way. (可用在批评家的作用上!)
  2. 艺术不同于其他学科,它本身就是一个仁者见仁,智者见智的创作过程。When we evaluate the works of scientists and technicians, things are somewhat easier due to the often definite purpose of the work. Yet things are quite different when it comes to artworks. Some artists regard beauty as the creativity of their work, while others try to break though conventional ideology and understanding.
  3. The result of setting standards for works of art tends to hinder artists’ creation and 使艺术家的作品 发生扭曲。毕竟艺术更多的是热情与灵感的创作。使得观众失去了鉴赏艺术的最初目的:获得心灵上 的共鸣。 143 "Artists should pay little attention to their critics. *Criticism tends to undermine and constrain the artist's creativity." *those who evaluate works of art, such as novels, films, music, paintings, etc. (
  7) From 讲堂 艺术家应该对给予他们的批评毫不理会。批评家总是削弱和限制艺术家的创造力 。*评价艺术作品,例如 小说、电影、音乐、绘画等的人。
  1. Because of the limits of human beings, even highly creative individuals such as artists, can become stuck in a rut. A trained critic can help artist evaluate their works and find new directions.
  2. However, poor criticism or criticism taken to the extreme might have the effect of undermining an artist’s belief in hime or herself and constrain the artist’s creativity.
  3. Critics are unlike to be in complete accord regarding any works of art. Their criticism is more likely to express a range of reactions. If an artist is able to synthesize different evaluations and take from them what is helpful, the result may be improvemet of his or her future work. 144 "It is the artist, not the critic,* who gives society something of lasting value." *a person who evaluates works of art, such as novels, films, music, paintings, etc. " [05/75; 06/11] (152+
  7) 是艺术家而不是批评家,带给社会一些具有持久价值的东西。*批评家指经常评价艺术作品,例如小说、电 影、音乐、绘画等的人。
Begin:The speaker asserts that it is the arts rather than critics serve as the main contribution to long lasting arts. While, I fundamentally disagree with this assertion for it, to some extent, overstate the role of the artists in the creation of a long lasting works while, neglect the value of the critics towards the artistic works. Close scrutiny (Reflecting on this claim) shows that one priceless works needs the association of the artist and critics.
  1. 艺术家们给了社会长久的价值。一方面艺术家带给人们美的享受;或给人精神的鼓励; 如:达芬奇的蒙娜丽莎;肖邦的音乐;另一方面使人们了解社会更深层次的东西,这些都 是永久的价值;如 Mark Twain 的小说。
  2. 评论家也是可以创造永恒价值的,但是很容易被人们忽略。比如 18 世纪在欧洲非常盛 行的文学沙龙(literary salon) ,评论家们口头讨论作家的最新小说,从艺术价值,结构, 美感,文化背景,可能对作家很有帮助。因为评论家大多数的价值是无形的思想
 

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