语态
语态:表示主语和谓语动词之间的关系。 语态:表示主语 谓语动词之间的关系。 主语和 之间的关系 两种语态, 主动语态和被动语态。 英语有两种语态 英语有两种语态,即主动语态和被动语态。 主动语态:表示主语是动作的执行者。 主动语态:表示主语是动作的执行者。 被动语态:表示主语是动作的承受者。 被动语态:表示主语是动作的承受者。 如: Many students study English.(主动语态 主动语态) 主动语态 English is studied by many students. (被动语态 被动语态) 被动语态
被动语态的结构 助动词be+过去分词 过去分词 助动词 (be + done)

  1.一般现在时的被动语态结构: 一般现在时的被动语态结构: 一般现在时的被动语态结构
is/are+过去分词 过去分词

  1.Many students study English. English is studied by many students.
  2.They make shoes in that factory. Shoes are made by themin that factory.
They play football on Sunday.
Football is played by them on Sunday.
Lucy does the homework in the evening.
The homework is done by Lucy in the evening.
They often use computers in class.
Computers are often used by them in class.
We make these machines in Beijing.
These machines are made in Beijing.

  2.一般过去时的被动语态结构:
  2.一般过去时的被动语态结构: 一般过去时的被动语态结构
was/were +过去分词 过去分词

  1. They bought a computer last term. . A computer was bought by them last term.

  2.We
  2.We planted many trees last year. Many trees were planted last year.
They built the tall building last year.
The tall building was built by them last year.
He took good care of his little brother yesterday.
His little brother was taken good care of by him yesterday.
We cleaned our classroom just now.
Our classroom was cleaned by us just now.
They used the rooms for resting.
The rooms were used for resting by them.

  3.一般将来时的被动语态结构:
  3.一般将来时的被动语态结构: 一般将来时的被动语态结构
be going to be/will be+过去分词 过去分词

  1.They will finish the work in ten days.
The work will be finished by them in ten days.

  2.Tom is going to clean the room tomorrow.
The room is going to be cleaned by Tom tomorrow.
We will hold a sports meeting next week.
A sports meeting will be held by us next week.
Children will take some photos in the schoolyard tomorrow.
Some photos will be taken by children in the school tomorrow.
The headmaster is going to give a talk this afternoon.
A talk is going to be given by the headmaster this afternoon.

  4.含有情态动词的被动语态结构:
  4.含有情态动词的被动语态结构: 含有情态动词的被动语态结构
can/may/must/should + be+过去分词 过去分词
  1.Amy can take good care of Gina .
Gina can be taken good care of by Amy.
  2.You should drink more water. More water should be drunk by you.

  1.He can take care of the baby.
The baby can be taken care of by him.

  2.Lucy may draw the pictures.
The picture may be drawn by Lucy.

  3.You must turn off the lights.
The lights must be turned off by you.

  4.They should learn English well.
English should be learned well by them.

  5.现在进行时的被动语态的结构
  5.现在进行时的被动语态的结构
is / am / are + being +过去分词

  1.Some workers are painting the rooms now. .
The rooms are being painted by some workers now.

  2.He is watching TV. TV is being watched by him.

  6.现在完成时的被动语态的结构
  6.现在完成时的被动语态的结构
have / has +been +过去分词

  1.We have made a key. .
A key
has been made
by us.

  2.We have finished our compositions. compositions.
Our compositions have been finished by us.
被动语态的用法

  1)不知道或没有必要说明动作的执行者是谁. 不知道或没有必要说明动作的执行者是谁.
Such books are written for children. 这些书是为儿童写的。 这些书是为儿童写的。

  2)强调动作的承受者,这时应用by短语。 强调动作的承受者,这时应用by短语 短语。
The cup was broken by David.

  3)作客观说明时,常采用一种被动语态句型. 作客观说明时,常采用一种被动语态句型.
It’s said / reported / + that …据说/据报道 …据说 据说/ It’s reported that it will rain tomorrow. 据报道,明天会下雨。 据报道,明天会下雨。
被动语态的几种类型

  1.带双宾语句子的被动语态.
  1.带双宾语句子的被动语态.(指物的宾语叫直接 带双宾语句子的被动语态 宾语,指人的宾语叫间接宾语) 宾语,指人的宾语叫间接宾语)
give me a book = give a book to me
间 直
如:
  1.He gave me a book. -I was given a book by him. -A book was given to me by Tom.
  2. I bought him a book. me. -He was bought a book by me. -A book was buoght for him by me.


to: pass, give, show, bring for: make, buy, draw

  2.含有短语的主动语态变被动语态
  2.含有短语的主动语态变被动语态
They take good care of my child. My My child is taken good care of . I turned off the radio. The radio was turned off (by me). The

  3.感官动词和使役动词的被动语态
  3.感官动词和使役动词的被动语态
即hear , watch , see , make , let ,这些词在 ,这些词在 主动句中,其后的动词不加to, 主动句中,其后的动词不加to,但变被动 句时必须加to. 句时必须加to.
  1.I saw him play basketball last Sunday. He was seen to play basketball last Sunday.
  2.The boss makes him work for 10 hours. He is made
to work for 10 hours.

  4.过去分词做后置定语,表示被动 过去分词做后置定语, 过去分词做后置定语
a boy called Tom 一个叫 一个叫Tom的男孩 的男孩 a book bought yesterday 一本昨天买的书

  5.过去分词做宾补,表示被动 过去分词做宾补, 过去分词做宾补
get/make/have sth done 使某物被… 使某物被 make me understood 使我被理解 使人理解我 使我被理解/使人理解我 have my hair cut 使我头发被剪 请人给我剪头 使我头发被剪/请人给我剪头

  6.不能用于被动语态的几种情况
  6.不能用于被动语态的几种情况

  1)当主动结构中的宾语是反身代词和相互代
词时, 能改为被动语态。 词时,不能改为被动语态。 We often help each other.
  2)have, take place,happen,feel感觉起来,look place,happen,feel感觉起来 感觉起来,look 看起来,sound,taste,smell 看起来,sound,taste,smell不用于被动 如: I have a bike. An accident happened to him. The music sounds beautiful.
填空(完成被动语态填空) Practice 填空(完成被动语态填空)
  1. They often clean their classroom after school . (改为被动语态) 改为被动语态) is cleaned Their classroom often by them after school.
  2. Li Lei gave Tom a new pen last week . 同上) (同上) was given by A new pen Tom last week .

  3. A lot of people in China can speak English now . (同上) 同上) can be spoken English by a lot of people in China now.
  4. I have learned English for about two years. (同上) 同上) has English been learned for about two years.
  5. They will read these story-books next storymonth. (同上) 同上) will be These story-books read next storymonth.

  5. -Do you like the skirt ? -It soft. A. is feeling B. felt C. feels D. is felt
  6. Are you still here ? You were here an hour ago . Who for ? A. are you waiting B. did you wait C. were you waiting D. do you wait
  7. to know Professor Zhang. A. He said B. I said C. He is said D. It says
  8. -I want to sit at the table near the window. -Sorry , already. A. it took B. it takes C. it is taking D. it has been taken

  9. The letter three days ago and it yesterday. A. had post , had arrived B. was posted , arrived C. posted , arrived D. had been posted , was arrived

  10. He told me that the final examination next Thursday. A. is given B. will be given C. would have given D. would be given
  11. Water into ice. A. will changed B. must be changed C. should change D. can be changed
  12. The birds fly away last Saturday. A. let to B. is let to C. was let D. were let to

  13. A strange sound yesterday evening. A. was heard B. hears C. heard D. is heard
  14. A beautiful bike him by his classmates. A. sent to B. will sent to C. was sent to D. will be sent for
  15. Miss Chen just to speak at the meeting. A. has …been asked B. has been …asked C. Have been … asked D. have …been asked
  16. Meat out in this shop . We can now. A. have been sold , get nothing B. has been sold , get nothing C. has been sold , get some D. have been sold , get some

  17. The new play in theatre now . Why don’t you go in and see it ? A. is being shown B. is showing C. is shown D. shows
  18. Can you tell ? A. when did it happen B. when was it happened C. when it happened D. when it was happened
  19. the job by Lucy or by John ? A. Has … finished B. Has …being finished C. Is …finish D. Has …been finished
完成下列句子: 完成下列句子: was opened
  1.Our school ____in 20
  02.(开办) be looked after
  2.The young trees must well. (照顾) Was built
  3. this building(建成)last year? was written
  4.The book (写)by him last year. wasn’t built
  5. The bridge (不建造)in19
  89.. be
  6.The 29th Olympic Games will held (举行) in UK in 20
  12.
时态
被动语态结构
一般现在时 am/is/are 表格:被动态基本结构 一般过去时 现在进行时 过去进行时 一般将来时 现在完成时
done was/were done am/is/are being done was/were being done be going to/will be done have/has been done
 

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