初中英语专题复习之
非谓语动词
一、动词不定式 (一)构成:
  1.肯定形式:to (一)构成:
  1.肯定形式:to + v
  2.否定形式:not
  2.否定形式:not to + v (二)句法功能:
  1.主语:
  1.主语: eg: (
  1) To speak English is not easy for us. to speak =It is not easy for us English. (
  2) It is necessary for them to practice more. more. To practice more = is necessary for them. 不定式充当主语时,常常用it代(放到句首),而把真正的不 不定式充当主语时,常常用it代(放到句首),而把真正的不 定式放在后面。
  2.表语:
  2.表语: eg: (
  3)My work is to clean the room every day. =To clean the room every day is my work. (
  4)Your duty is to collect information. information. 多数情况下,不定式作表语,可转换为作主语。

  3.宾语:
  3.宾语: eg: (
  5)He likes to play basketball. basketball. (
  6)I want to go fishing with you on weekends. 动词不定式只能作某些及物动词的宾语,一般不作介词的宾语。 want, refuse, wish, need, choose, hope, agree, try, begin, offer, would like to等动词后只能跟不定式作宾语。 to等动词后只能跟不定式作宾语。
  4.宾补:
  4.宾补: eg: (
  7)She asked me not to speak Chinese in an English class. (
  8)I heard her cry in the next room just now. 在make, let, have, see, hear, watch等使役动词、感官动 watch等使役动词、感官动 词后,不定式省略to。但在变为被动句时应加上to。 词后,不定式省略to。但在变为被动句时应加上to。 tell, ask, want, allow, get, would, encourage后常跟不 encourage后常跟不 定式作宾补。
  5.定语:
  5.定语: eg: (
  9)Have you anything to say? say? (
  10)I need a room to live in. in.
不定式作定语,位于中心词之后;若作定语的不定式为不及物动 词,且与中心词之间有动宾关系,要在该动词后加上适当的介词 (如例
  10)。 (如例
  10)。
  6.状语:
  6.状语: eg: (
  11)I’m sorry to trouble you.(表原因) you. (
  12)I went there to study English.(表目的) English. 不定式作状语,其逻辑主语要和句子的主语一致。 (三)常见的一些与不带to的不定式连用的词组、句型: (三)常见的一些与不带to的不定式连用的词组、句型:
  1. Why not + do …?
  2. had better (not) do…
  3. would rather do…
  4. Could/Would/Will you please (not to) do…? (四)特殊疑问词+ (四)特殊疑问词+不定式 不定式可以和疑问代词(who, 不定式可以和疑问代词(who, whom, whose what, which,) 、 疑问副词(when, 疑问副词(when, where, how, why)连用构成不定式短语,在句 why)连用构成不定式短语,在句 中作主语、宾语、表语等成分。
eg: (
  13)Please tell me what to do next. (
  14)I didn’t know where to go. go. 二、动名词 (一)构成:v+(一)构成:v+-ing (二)句法功能:
  1.主语:
  1.主语: eg: (
  15) Feeding animals is my job. =My job is feeding animals. animals. (
  16) Eating too much is bad for your health.
  2.宾语:
  2.宾语: (
  1)动词的宾语:(
  17)He likes dancing/singing. )动词的宾语:(
  17) dancing/singing. (
  2) 介词的宾语: (
  18) Cookers are used for cooking. cooking. (
  19) Jim is good at painting. painting. 常见的带动名词作宾语的动词:finish, 常见的带动名词作宾语的动词:finish, enjoy, mind, practice, have fun, have trouble/problem, spend, feel like, have a hard time, be used to, can’t stand/help

  3.表语:
  3.表语: eg: (
  20)His hobby is collecting stamps. stamps. =Collecting stamps is his hobby. 多数情况下,动名词作表语可转换成作主语。
  4.定语:
  4.定语: eg: (
  21)She is in the reading room. (
  22)We should improve our teaching methods. 动名词作定语只表明它所修饰的词的用途、所属关系等。 三、分词 (一)构成:
  1.现在分词:v+(一)构成:
  1.现在分词:v+-ing
  2.过去分词:v+
  2.过去分词:v+-ed (二)句法功能:
  1.定语:
  1.定语: eg: (
  23)Do you know the girl standing under the tree? (
  24)Please hand in your written exercises. 分词作定语,其逻辑主语就是它所修饰的词。

  2.状语:
  2.状语: eg: (
  25)The students went out of the classroom, talking and laughing. laughing. 分词的逻辑主语就是句子的主语。
  3.表语:
  3.表语: eg: (
  26)The boy is too frightened to move. 现在分词表示主语的性质、特征;过去分词表示某种状态。
  4.补足语:
  4.补足语: eg: (
  27)Don’t keep us waiting for a long time. (
  28)I heard her singing in the classroom. (
  29)He’ll have his hair cut after school. 现在分词作补足语,被补足的宾语或主语是它的逻辑主语 (即主动关系); 过去分词作补足语,被补足的宾语或主语是它的逻辑宾语 (即被动关系)。
(三)现在分词与过去分词的区别
  1.在语态上,现在分词表示主动,过去分词表示被动。
  1.在语态上,现在分词表示主动,过去分词表示被动。 eg: the surprising news 令人惊讶的电影 a surprised man 一个受惊吓的人 a moving film 一场感人的电影 the moved people 被感动的人们
  2.在时间上,现在分词表示动作正在进行,过去分词表示动作
  2.在时间上,现在分词表示动作正在进行,过去分词表示动作 已经结束。 eg: the developing country 发展中国家 the developed country 发达国家 the rising sun 正在升起的太阳 the risen sun 升起来的太阳 (四)have (四)have sb. do sth./have sb. doing sth./have sth. done
  1. have sb. do sth.“让某人做某事”have可用let, make代替. sth.“让某人做某事”have可用let, make代替. 不定式往往表示一次性的具体动作,且强调动作已经完成或 尚未发生。
eg: (
  30)The soldiers had the boy stand with his back to his father. 士兵们让这个男孩背对着他的父亲站着。
  2.have sb. doing sth.“让某人/某物做某事”,可用keep代 sth.“让某人/某物做某事”,可用keep代 替,现在分词(doing)表示的这个动作往往具有持续、进行的 替,现在分词(doing)表示的这个动作往往具有持续、进行的 意思。 eg: (
  31)The two men had their lights burning all night long. 那两个人让灯通宵亮着。
  3.have sth. done “让某人做某事”,即 ask sb. else to do “让某人做某事”,即 sth. 过去分词(done)表示的这个动作由他人(即非主语本身) 过去分词(done)表示的这个动作由他人(即非主语本身) 来完成,含有被动意义且强调动作已经完成。 eg: (
  32)The driver had his car washed once a week. 那位司机每周叫人洗一次车。 (
  33)I had my bike repaired yesterday. 昨天我叫人把自行车修了。
四、某些动词或词组后接动名词或不定式的区别 stop to do sth.停下来去做某事 sth.停下来去做某事 stop doing sth.停止做某事 sth.停止做某事 eg: (
  34)Stop talking, please. (
  35)Stop to think about it for a moment. remember/forget to do sth.记住/忘了要做某事 sth.记住/ remember/forget doing sth.记得/忘了做过某事 sth.记得/ eg: (
  36)I remember posting your letter. (
  37)Please remember to post my letter. (
  38)I forgot to bring my homework. (
  39)I forgot bringing my homework. try to do sth.努力去做某事 sth.努力去做某事 try doing sth.试着去做某事 sth.试着去做某事 eg: (
  40)He tried speaking English to us. (
  41)Please try to do better next time.
go on to do sth. 做完一件事,接着去做另一件事 go on doing sth. 继续不停地做某事 eg: (
  42)Go on to do the other exercise after you finish this one. (
  43)Go on doing the exercise after a short rest. allow doing sth. 允许做某事 allow sb. to do sth.允许某人做某事 sth.允许某人做某事 eg: (
  44)We don’t allow smoking here. (
  45)We don’t allow students to go out on weekdays. Exercises B
  1.If you feel tired, you may stop . A. have a rest B. to have a rest C. having a rest A
  2.We’re in class. You’d better not . A. talk B. talking C. talked D. to talk

  3.We are going for a picnic tomorrow. I’ll call Wendy B to make sure . A. why to start B. when to start C. what to start D. which to start C
  4.Some children are arguing what TV programs. A. watching B. for watching C. to watch D. will watch D
  5.I often see my teacher, Mr Zhao, books in his office. A. reads B. to read C. is read D. read
  6.?
  6.?Shopping with me? A --Sorry, --Sorry, I have a lot of clothes . A. to wash B. washed C. wash D. washing B
  7.Who was the first one ? A.to reach B.to arrive C.to get to D.to arrive at
 

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