Section I Use of English Directions: Read the following text.Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank.and mark[A], [B], [C]or[D]on ANSWER SHEET
  1. (10 points) In 1924 American National Research Council sent to engineer to supervise a series of experiments at a telephone-parts factory called the Hawthorne Plant near Chicago. It hoped they would learn how stop-floor lighting __1__ workers productivity. Instead,the studies ended__2__ giving their name to the “Hawthorne effect” the extremely influential idea the very__3__to being experimented upon changed subjects’ behavior The idea arose because of the__4__behavior of the women in the plant.According to __5__of the experiments their hourly output rose when lighting was increased, but also when it was dimmed. It did not __6__what was done in the experiment. __7__something was changed productivity rose . A(n) __8__ that they were being experimented upon seemed to be __9__to alter workers' behavior __10__ itself After several decades,the same data were __11__to econometric the analysis Hawthorne experiments has another surprise store 12 the descriptions on record, systematic __13__was no found that levels of productivity were related to changes in lighting It turns out that peculiar way of conducting the experiments may be have let to __14__interpretation of what happened.__15__,lighting was always changed on a Sunday When work started again on Monday, output __16__ rose compared with the previous Saturday and __17__ to rise for the next couple of days __18__ ,a comparison with data for weeks when there was no experimentation showed that output always went up on Monday, workers __19__to be diligent for the first few days of the week in any case, before __20__a plateau and then slackening off. This suggests that the alleged “Hawthorne effect” is hard to pin down
  1.[A] affected
  2. [A]at
  3. [A]truth
  4. [A]controversial
  5. [A]requirements
  6. [A]conclude
  7. [A]as far as [B]achieved [B]up [B]sight [B]perplexing [B]explanations [B]matter [B]for fear that [C]in case that [C]extracted [C]with [C]act [C]mischievous [C]accounts [D]restored [D]off [D]proof [D]ambiguous [D]assessments [D]work
[C]indicate [D]so long as

  8. [A]awareness [B]expectation
  9. [A]suitable
  10. [A]about [B]excessive [B]for
[C]sentiment [C]enough [C]on
[D]illusion [D]abundant [D]by [D]conveyed [D]peculiar to

  11. [A]compared [B]shown
  12. [A]contrary to
  13.[A]evidence
  14.[A]disputable
  15.[A]In contrast
  16. [A]duly
  17. [A]failed
  20.[A]breaking [B]consistent with [B]guidance [B]enlightening
[C]subjected [C]parallel with
[C]implication [C]reliable
[D]source [D]misleading [D]As usual [D]suddenly [D]continued
[B]For example [B]accidentally [B]ceased [B]climbing
[C]In consequence [C]unpredictably [C]started
[C]surpassing
[D]hitting
Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension Part A Directions: Read the following four texts.Answer the questions below each text by choosing[A],[B], [C]or[D].Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET
  1.(40 points) Text 2 Over the past decade, thousands of patents have seen granted for what are called business methods.Amazon com received one for its“one-click”online payment system Merrill Lynch got legal protection for an asset allocation strategy.One inventor patented a technique for lying a box。 Now the nation’s top patent court appears completely ready to scale hack on business-method patents, which have been controversial ever since they were first authorized 10 years ago. In a move that has intellectual-property lawyers abuzz the U.S court of Appeals for the federal circuit said it would use particular case to conduct a broad review of business-method patents. In re Bilski, as the case is known, is “a very big deal”, says Dermis'D, Crouch of the University of Missouri School of law.It “has the potential to eliminate an entire class of patents”
Curbs on business-method claims would be a dramatic about-face because it was the federal circuit itself that introduced such patents with is 1998 decision in the so-called state Street Bank case, approving a patent on a way of pooling mutual-fund assets. That ruling produced an explosion in business-method patent filings, initially by emerging internet companies trying to stake out exclusive pints to specific types of online transactions. Later, move established companies raced to add such patents to their files, if only as a defensive move against rivals that might bent them to the punch. In 2005, IBM noted in a court filing that it had been issued more than 300 business-method patents despite the fact that it questioned the legal basis for granting them. Similarly, some Wall Street investment films armed themselves with patents for financial products, even as they took positions in court cases opposing the practice。 The Bilski case involves a claimed patent on a method for hedging risk in the energy market. The Federal circuit issued an unusual order stating that the case would be heard by all 12 of the court’s judges, rather than a typical panel of three, and that one issue it wants to evaluate is whether it should “reconsider” its state street Bank ruling。 The Federal Circuit’s action comes in the wake of a series of recent decisions by the supreme. Count that has narrowed the scope of protections for patent holders. Last April, for example the justices signaled that too many patents were being upheld for “inventions” that are obvious. The judges on the Federal circuit are “reaction to the anti-patent trend at the supreme court” says Harole C Wegner, a par tend attorney and professor at Washington University Law School。
  26. Business-method patents have recently aroused concern because of [A] their limited value to business asset allocation [C] the possible restriction on their granting authorization
  27. Which of the following is true of the Bilski case? [A] Its ruling complies with the court decisions transaction [C] It has been dismissed by the Federal Circuit the U.S。
  28. The word “about-face”(Line 1, Paro
  3)most probably means [A] loss of good will [C]change of attitude [B]increase of hostility [D] enhancement of disunity [D] It may change the legal practices in [B] It involves a very big business [D] the controversy over [B] their connection with

  29.We learn from the last two paragraphs that business-method patents [A] are immune to legal challenges issued [C] lower the esteem for patent holders risks
  30.Which of the following would be the subject of the text? [A]A looming threat to business-method patents [B]Protection for business-method patent holders [C]A legal case regarding business-method patents [D] A prevailing tread against business-method patents Text 3 In his book The Tipping Point Malcolm Aladuell argues that social epidemics are driven in large part by the acting of a tiny minority of special individuals, often called influentials who are unusual informed, persuasive, or we connect. The idea is intuitively compelling but it doesn't explain how ideas actually spread。 The supposed importance of influentials derives from a plausible sounding but largely untested theory called the "tow-step flow of communication". Information flows from the media to the influentials and from them to everyone else. Marketers have embraced the two-step flow became it suggests that if they can just find and influence the influentials, those select people will do most of the work for them. The theory also seems to explain the sudden and unexpected popularity of people was wearing, promoting or developing whatever it is before anyone else paid attention. Anecdotal evidence of this kind fits nicely with the idea that only certain special people call drive trends。 In their recent work, however, some researchers have come up with the finding that influentials have far less impact on social epidemics than is generally supposed. In fact , they don’t seem to be required of all. The researchers' argument stems from a simple observation about social influence, with the exception of a few celebrities like Oprah Winfrey-whose outsize presence is primarily a function of media, not interpersonal influence-even the most influential members of a population simply don't interact with that many others. Yet it is precisely these non-celebrating influentials who according to the two-step-flow theory are supposed to drive social epidemics by influencing their friends and colleagues directly. For a social epidemic to occur however each person so affected must then influence his or her own acquaintances, who must in turn influence theirs and so on and just how many others pay attention to each of these [D] increase the incidence of [B] are of ten unnecessarily
people has little to do with the initial influential. If people in the network just two degrees removed from the initial influential prove resistant, for example from the initial influential, prove resistant, for example the cascade of change won't propagate very far or affect many people。 Building on the basic truth about interpersonal influence, the researchers studied the dynamics of populations manipulating a number of variables relating of populations, manipulating a number of variables relating to people’s ability to influence others and their tendency to be。
  31. By citing the book The Tipping Point the author intends to [A] analyze the consequences of social epidemics [B] discuss influentials’ function in spreading ideas [C] exemplify people’s intuitive response to social epidemics [D] describe the essential characteristics of influentials
  32. The author suggests that the “two-step-flow theory” [A] serves as a solution to marketing problems [B] has helped explain certain prevalent trends [C] has won support from influentials [D] requires solid evidence for its validity
  33. What the researchers have observed recently shows that [A] the power of influence goes with social interactions [B] interpersonal links can be enhanced through the media [C] influentials have more channels to reach the public [D]most celebritiea enjoy wide media attention
  34. The underlined phrase “these people” in paragraph 4 refers to the ones who [A]stay outside the network of social influence [B]have little contact with the source of influence [C]are influenced and then influence others [D] are influenced by the initial influential

  35. What is the essential element in the dynamics of social influence? [A]The eagerness to be accepted [C]The readiness to be influenced Text 4 Bankers have been blaming themselves for their troubles in public. Behind the scenes, they have been taking aim at someone else the accounting standard-setters. Their rules, moan the banks, have forced them to report enormous losses, and it’s just not fair. These rules say they must value some assets at the price a third party would pay, not the price managers and regulators would like them to fetch。 Unfortunately, banks’ lobbying now seems to be working. The details may be unknowable, but the independence of standard-setters, essential to the proper functioning of capital markets, is being compromised. And, unless banks carry toxic assets at prices that attract buyers, reviving the banking system will be difficult. After a bruising encounter with Congress, America’s Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) rushed through rule changes. These gave banks more freedom to use models to value illiquid assets and more flexibility in recognizing losses on long0term assets in their income statement. Bob Herz, the FASB’s chairman, cried out against those who “question our motives。” Yet bank shares rose and the changes enhance what one lobby group politely calls “the use of judgment by management。” European ministers instantly demanded that the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) do likewise. The IASB says it does not want to act without overall planning, but the pressure to fold when it completes it reconstruction of rules later this year is strong Charlie McCreevy, a European commissioner, warned the IASB that it did ”not live in a political vacuum” but” in the real word” and the Europe could yet develop different rules。 It was banks that were on the wrong planet, with accounts that vastly overvalued assets. Today they argue that market prices overstate losses, because they Largely reflect the temporary illiquidity of markets, not the likely extent of bad debts. The truth will not be known for years. But bank’s shares trade below their book value, suggesting that investors are skeptical. And dead markets partly reflect the paralysis of banks which will not sell assets for fear of booking losses, yet are reluctant to buy all those supposed bargains。 To get the system working again, losses must be recognized and dealt with. America’s new plan to buy up toxic assets will not work unless banks mark assets to levels which buyers find attractive. Successful markets require independent and even combative standard-setters. The FASB and IASB have been exactly that, cleaning up rules on stock options and pensions, for example, against hostility interests. But by giving in to critics now they are inviting pressure to make more concessions。 [B]The impulse to influence others [D]The inclination to rely on others

  36. Bankers complained that they were forced to [A]follow unfavorable asset evaluation rules third parties [C]cooperate with the price ma
 

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