Section I Use of English Directions: Read the following text.Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank.and mark[A], [B], [C]or[D]on ANSWER SHEET
  1. (10 points) In 1924 American National Research Council sent to engineer to supervise a series of experiments at a telephone-parts factory called the Hawthorne Plant near Chicago. It hoped they would learn how stop-floor lighting __1__ workers productivity. Instead,the studies ended__2__ giving their name to the “Hawthorne effect” the extremely influential idea the very__3__to being experimented upon changed subjects’ behavior The idea arose because of the__4__behavior of the women in the plant.According to __5__of the experiments their hourly output rose when lighting was increased, but also when it was dimmed. It did not __6__what was done in the experiment. __7__something was changed productivity rose . A(n) __8__ that they were being experimented upon seemed to be __9__to alter workers' behavior __10__ itself After several decades,the same data were __11__to econometric the analysis Hawthorne experiments has another surprise store 12 the descriptions on record, systematic __13__was no found that levels of productivity were related to changes in lighting It turns out that peculiar way of conducting the experiments may be have let to __14__interpretation of what happened.__15__,lighting was always changed on a Sunday When work started again on Monday, output __16__ rose compared with the previous Saturday and __17__ to rise for the next couple of days __18__ ,a comparison with data for weeks when there was no experimentation showed that output always went up on Monday, workers __19__to be diligent for the first few days of the week in any case, before __20__a plateau and then slackening off. This suggests that the alleged “Hawthorne effect” is hard to pin down
  1.[A] affected
  2. [A]at
  3. [A]truth
  4. [A]controversial
  5. [A]requirements
  6. [A]conclude
  7. [A]as far as [B]achieved [B]up [B]sight [B]perplexing [B]explanations [B]matter [B]for fear that [C]in case that [C]extracted [C]with [C]act [C]mischievous [C]accounts [D]restored [D]off [D]proof [D]ambiguous [D]assessments [D]work
[C]indicate [D]so long as

  8. [A]awareness [B]expectation
  9. [A]suitable
  10. [A]about [B]excessive [B]for
[C]sentiment [C]enough [C]on
[D]illusion [D]abundant [D]by [D]conveyed [D]peculiar to

  11. [A]compared [B]shown
  12. [A]contrary to
  13.[A]evidence
  14.[A]disputable
  15.[A]In contrast
  16. [A]duly
  17. [A]failed
  20.[A]breaking [B]consistent with [B]guidance [B]enlightening
[C]subjected [C]parallel with
[C]implication [C]reliable
[D]source [D]misleading [D]As usual [D]suddenly [D]continued
[B]For example [B]accidentally [B]ceased [B]climbing
[C]In consequence [C]unpredictably [C]started
[C]surpassing
[D]hitting
Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension Part A Directions: Read the following four texts.Answer the questions below each text by choosing[A],[B], [C]or[D].Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET
  1.(40 points) Text 2 Over the past decade, thousands of patents have seen granted for what are called business methods.Amazon com received one for its“one-click”online payment system Merrill Lynch got legal protection for an asset allocation strategy.One inventor patented a technique for lying a box。 Now the nation’s top patent court appears completely ready to scale hack on business-method patents, which have been controversial ever since they were first authorized 10 years ago. In a move that has intellectual-property lawyers abuzz the U.S court of Appeals for the federal circuit said it would use particular case to conduct a broad review of business-method patents. In re Bilski, as the case is known, is “a very big deal”, says Dermis'D, Crouch of the University of Missouri School of law.It “has the potential to eliminate an entire class of patents”
Curbs on business-method claims would be a dramatic about-face because it was the federal circuit itself that introduced such patents with is 1998 decision in the so-called state Street Bank case, approving a patent on a way of pooling mutual-fund assets. That ruling produced an explosion in business-method patent filings, initially by emerging internet companies trying to stake out exclusive pints to specific types of online transactions. Later, move established companies raced to add such patents to their files, if only as a defensive move against rivals that might bent them to the punch. In 2005, IBM noted in a court filing that it had been issued more than 300 business-method patents despite the fact that it questioned the legal basis for granting them. Similarly, some Wall Street investment films armed themselves with patents for financial products, even as they took positions in court cases opposing the practice。 The Bilski case involves a claimed patent on a method for hedging risk in the energy market. The Federal circuit issued an unusual order stating that the case would be heard by all 12 of the court’s judges, rather than a typical panel of three, and that one issue it wants to evaluate is whether it should “reconsider” its state street Bank ruling。 The Federal Circuit’s action comes in the wake of a series of recent decisions by the supreme. Count that has narrowed the scope of protections for patent holders. Last April, for example the justices signaled that too many patents were being upheld for “inventions” that are obvious. The judges on the Federal circuit are “reaction to the anti-patent trend at the supreme court” says Harole C Wegner, a par tend attorney and professor at Washington University Law School。
  26. Business-method patents have recently aroused concern because of [A] their limited value to business asset allocation [C] the possible restriction on their granting authorization
  27. Which of the following is true of the Bilski case? [A] Its ruling complies with the court decisions transaction [C] It has been dismissed by the Federal Circuit the U.S。
  28. The word “about-face”(Line 1, Paro
  3)most probably means [A] loss of good will [C]change of attitude [B]increase of hostility [D] enhancement of disunity [D] It may change the legal practices in [B] It involves a very big business [D] the controversy over [B] their connection with

  29.We learn from the last two paragraphs that business-method patents [A] are immune to legal challenges issued [C] lower the esteem for patent holders risks
  30.Which of the following would be the subject of the text? [A]A looming threat to business-method patents [B]Protection for business-method patent holders [C]A legal case regarding business-method patents [D] A prevailing tread against business-method patents Text 3 In his book The Tipping Point Malcolm Aladuell argues that social epidemics are driven in large part by the acting of a tiny minority of special individuals, often called influentials who are unusual informed, persuasive, or we connect. The idea is intuitively compelling but it doesn't explain how ideas actually spread。 The supposed importance of influentials derives from a plausible sounding but largely untested theory called the "tow-step flow of communication". Information flows from the media to the influentials and from them to everyone else. Marketers have embraced the two-step flow became it suggests that if they can just find and influence the influentials, those select people will do most of the work for them. The theory also seems to explain the sudden and unexpected popularity of people was wearing, promoting or developing whatever it is before anyone else paid attention. Anecdotal evidence of this kind fits nicely with the idea that only certain special people call drive trends。 In their recent work, however, some researchers have come up with the finding that influentials have far less impact on social epidemics than is generally supposed. In fact , they don’t seem to be required of all. The researchers' argument stems from a simple observation about social influence, with the exception of a few celebrities like Oprah Winfrey-whose outsize presence is primarily a function of media, not interpersonal influence-even the most influential members of a population simply don't interact with that many others. Yet it is precisely these non-celebrating influentials who according to the two-step-flow theory are supposed to drive social epidemics by influencing their friends and colleagues directly. For a social epidemic to occur however each person so affected must then influence his or her own acquaintances, who must in turn influence theirs and so on and just how many others pay attention to each of these [D] increase the incidence of [B] are of ten unnecessarily
people has little to do with the initial influential. If people in the network just two degrees removed from the initial influential prove resistant, for example from the initial influential, prove resistant, for example the cascade of change won't propagate very far or affect many people。 Building on the basic truth about interpersonal influence, the researchers studied the dynamics of populations manipulating a number of variables relating of populations, manipulating a number of variables relating to people’s ability to influence others and their tendency to be。
  31. By citing the book The Tipping Point the author intends to [A] analyze the consequences of social epidemics [B] discuss influentials’ function in spreading ideas [C] exemplify people’s intuitive response to social epidemics [D] describe the essential characteristics of influentials
  32. The author suggests that the “two-step-flow theory” [A] serves as a solution to marketing problems [B] has helped explain certain prevalent trends [C] has won support from influentials [D] requires solid evidence for its validity
  33. What the researchers have observed recently shows that [A] the power of influence goes with social interactions [B] interpersonal links can be enhanced through the media [C] influentials have more channels to reach the public [D]most celebritiea enjoy wide media attention
  34. The underlined phrase “these people” in paragraph 4 refers to the ones who [A]stay outside the network of social influence [B]have little contact with the source of influence [C]are influenced and then influence others [D] are influenced by the initial influential

  35. What is the essential element in the dynamics of social influence? [A]The eagerness to be accepted [C]The readiness to be influenced Text 4 Bankers have been blaming themselves for their troubles in public. Behind the scenes, they have been taking aim at someone else the accounting standard-setters. Their rules, moan the banks, have forced them to report enormous losses, and it’s just not fair. These rules say they must value some assets at the price a third party would pay, not the price managers and regulators would like them to fetch。 Unfortunately, banks’ lobbying now seems to be working. The details may be unknowable, but the independence of standard-setters, essential to the proper functioning of capital markets, is being compromised. And, unless banks carry toxic assets at prices that attract buyers, reviving the banking system will be difficult. After a bruising encounter with Congress, America’s Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) rushed through rule changes. These gave banks more freedom to use models to value illiquid assets and more flexibility in recognizing losses on long0term assets in their income statement. Bob Herz, the FASB’s chairman, cried out against those who “question our motives。” Yet bank shares rose and the changes enhance what one lobby group politely calls “the use of judgment by management。” European ministers instantly demanded that the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) do likewise. The IASB says it does not want to act without overall planning, but the pressure to fold when it completes it reconstruction of rules later this year is strong Charlie McCreevy, a European commissioner, warned the IASB that it did ”not live in a political vacuum” but” in the real word” and the Europe could yet develop different rules。 It was banks that were on the wrong planet, with accounts that vastly overvalued assets. Today they argue that market prices overstate losses, because they Largely reflect the temporary illiquidity of markets, not the likely extent of bad debts. The truth will not be known for years. But bank’s shares trade below their book value, suggesting that investors are skeptical. And dead markets partly reflect the paralysis of banks which will not sell assets for fear of booking losses, yet are reluctant to buy all those supposed bargains。 To get the system working again, losses must be recognized and dealt with. America’s new plan to buy up toxic assets will not work unless banks mark assets to levels which buyers find attractive. Successful markets require independent and even combative standard-setters. The FASB and IASB have been exactly that, cleaning up rules on stock options and pensions, for example, against hostility interests. But by giving in to critics now they are inviting pressure to make more concessions。 [B]The impulse to influence others [D]The inclination to rely on others

  36. Bankers complained that they were forced to [A]follow unfavorable asset evaluation rules third parties [C]cooperate with the price ma
 

相关内容

考研英语翻译

   新东方考研英语翻译强化班 新东方考研英语翻译强化班 英语学习的三个层次: interpretation 解释,理解 intereg. international 国际的 transcription 改写;听抄 tran改变 translation 翻译 注意:1、考研翻译主要是考理解 2、把题目忠实、通顺的写成中文 翻译的实质: 对语言进行编码和重新再编码; 涉及 到两种语言之间意群的编码和重新再编码。 考研翻译和考研阅读的区别: 1、阅读是被动技能;翻译是主动技能 2、翻译的词汇深度远大于 ...

考研英语作文

   考研作文范文 (1) ) Directions: Write an essay of 160 - 200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay, you should: 1) describe the drawing briefly, 2) explain its intended meaning, and then 3) give your comments You should write neatly on ANSWER ...

考研英语作文

   1. superior to others 高人一等 2. The large scale development of West China is of profound significance 西部大开发具有深远意 义 3. revitalize our nation 实现我们民族的伟大复兴 4. lag behind(发展)滞后 5. the opening-up policies 开放政策 6. lure more foreign capital 吸引更多的外资 7. leave… ...

英语学习__2011年考研英语高频词汇下载1030词_必备

   免费英语网 www.mfyyw.com 精品资料 弃我去者, 弃我去者,昨日之日不可留 乱我心者, 乱我心者,今日之日多烦忧 免费英语网整理发布: 1. abandon 抛弃,放弃 2. abnormal 不正常的 3. absurd 荒谬的 4. abundance 丰富,充裕 5. abundant 丰富的 6. access (to) 入口,通路,接触 7. accessory 附件,附属品 8. accommodate 供给住宿,答应; 适应 9. accommodation 膳宿; ...

考研英语

   名师辅导: 2012 考研英语复习规划四大 名师辅导: 阶段 http://www.sina.com.cn 2011 年 04 月 27 日 11:47 万学海文 对于 2012 年想要考研的同学们来说,英语考研辅导老师们根据多年的辅导经验为大家 提供以下四个合理的复习阶段:第一阶段:基础训练阶段(3 月到 5 月);第二阶段:全面强 化阶段(6 月到 9 月);第三阶段:提高强化阶段(10 月到 11 月);第四阶段:最后冲刺阶段 (12 月到 1 月)。 第一阶段: 第一阶段:基础训练阶 ...

考研英语

   考研英语暑期强化班 暑期强化班 考研英语 (阅读理解部分 文都徐绽 阅读理解部分文都徐绽 阅读理解部分 文都徐绽) ***考研阅读理解解题思路 三步走 考研阅读理解解题思路(三步走 考研阅读理解解题思路 三步走): 1. 通篇细读,把握全文中心及各段的核心内容. 2. 仔细审题,返回原文定位,再次阅读文章. 3. 分析选项,对比原文信息,得出答案. ***三大定位原则 三大定位原则: 三大定位原则 1. 2. 3. 关键词定位: 大写字母,数字,人名,地名及表示时间的词. 自然段定位: 可以 ...

考研英语

   我的考研经验(英语篇) ,政治英语想考 140 分以上的进来!复习时间篇:关于英语的复习 时间,我想大家都应该明白了,作为一门语言类考试科目,从你决定考研的时候起,英语的 复习就应该风雨无阻。英语的水平大家差异很大,有的人轻松通过 6 级,有的人 4 级考了好 几次,但是在你决定考研的时候,把你的担心和苦恼都放下吧,掌握方法,认真复习才是王 道! 复习方法篇:考研英语的复习是历来考研复习的难点,每年 20%到 30%的通过率不知道把 多少同学挡在研究生的大门外, 由此, 大量的英语辅导班应运 ...

考研英语必备

   定+ 主 + 的 谁 同主语 adj 1 名词类 2 V-Ing 3 To V。 4 句子 谓+ 干 一个 V 宾 事 adv 同主语 +状 地 What 是名词性从句 只能做主语和宾语 I don’t know what his name 定语 等是一个句子时是从句 谓语没有从句 只是一个词 谓语是解题的关键 一句话里只能有一个动词 To v .不是动词 V +ing 不是动词 V+ed 一个句子一个动词 不是原型就是过去式 这句 话的其他动词必须消灭 消灭动词三招 进行时 ing ed ...

考研英语翻译

   新东方在线考研翻译基础班讲义 主讲: 主讲:唐静 课程简介 以讲解翻译基础知识为主,基本不涉及考研翻译的真题。 但是,真题很重要,有必要在强化训练中完全掌握真题。 课程大纲 第一章 考研翻译基础知识 一翻译的定义 二翻译的标准和翻译的方法 三翻译的基本过程 四考研翻译的核心解题策略 第二章翻译技巧:词法翻译法 一词义选择和词义引申 二词性转换 三增词法 四省略法 第三章翻译技巧:句法翻译法 一名词性从句的翻译 二定语从句的翻译 三状语从句的翻译 四被动结构的翻译 第一讲翻译的定义 翻译是一门 ...

考研英语复试

   " 评分标准: 评分标准: 1. 语言准确性:语法和用词的准确性、 语言准确性: 语法结构的复杂性、词汇的丰富程度、 发音的准确性 2. 话语的长短和连贯性 话语的长短和连贯性:连贯表达思想 的语言长短、内容的逻辑性、以及为 寻找合适的词语而造成的停顿频率及 长短 3. 语言的灵活性和适合性:语言表达是 语言的灵活性和适合性: 否灵活、是否自然地参与讨论及对话; 话语是否得体,语言的使用总体上是 否与语境、功能和目的相适应 " 一般形式: 一般形式: 1. 自我介绍: 自我介绍: " 姓 ...

热门内容

【强烈推荐】出国英语翻译机

   出国英语翻译机 问学堂句典翻译机 [1] 是世界翻译大会指定翻译产品。 问学堂句典翻译机 [1] 是世界翻译大会指定翻译产品 。 问学堂句典翻译机的最大亮 点就是, 不用记语法、 点就是 ,不用背单词 、不用记语法 、不用练口语 、掌上翻译的巅峰之作 ,真正实现沟 并支持手写输入, 通无国界 。 该产品厚度约为 10 毫米 , 设置了 26 个字母的全键盘 , 并支持手写输入 , 实现手写和键盘双输入功能 。 ★北京大学★英语系学生专用口语学习机:更适合出国、工作、旅游使用。 官方网站:ht ...

初二英语语法真题讲义

   胡老师家教 手机:15970479886 QQ:450201089 要记住:①掌握一个解题方法比做一百道题更重要②坚持就是胜利 初二英语语法真题讲义 主讲:王川 欢迎使用新东方在线电子教材 第二部分 历届试题精选 Unit 1 1. jack, good boy! Please pass the glasses. I want to read the newspaper. A. you B. me C. him D. her 2.This morning I had egg and a bo ...

英语语法

   一、反意疑问句的意义及其构成 反意疑问句又叫附加疑问句, 是指当提问的人对前面所叙述的事实不敢肯定, 而需要向对方 加以证实时所提出的问句。 其结构为: 前一部分是一个陈述句, 后一部分是一个简单的问句。 完成后一部分简单问句时, 要根据前面陈述句的动词时态和人称来选择适当的助动词进行提 问,前后两部分的人称和动词时态要保持一致。如果前一部分用肯定式,后一部分一般用否 定式;反之,前一部分为否定式,后一部分要用肯定式,即“前肯定后否定,前否定后肯定”。 例 You have been to ...

外贸业务员常用英语缩略语

   a accepted 承兑 AA Auditing Administration (中国)审计署 AAA 最佳等级 abs. abstract 摘要 a/c, A/C account 帐户、帐目 a/c, A/C account current 往来帐户、活期存款帐户 A&C addenda and corrigenda 补遗和勘误 Acc. acceptance or accepted 承兑 Accrd. Int accrued interest 应计利息 Acct. accoun ...

大学英语四六级考试作文通用句型

   一)比较 1.The advantage far outweigh the disadvantages. 2.The advantages of A are much greater than those of B. 3.A may be preferable to B, but A suffers from the disadvantages that... 4.It is reasonable to maintain that ..but it would be foolish to c ...