考研英语补充资料(新题型) 考研英语补充资料(新题型)
2006年考研英语新增题型大纲样题 年考研英语新增题型大纲样题
大纲样题) 一、选择搭配题 (大纲样题 大纲样题 Directions: In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blanks. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the blanks. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET
  1. (10 points)
Long before Man lived on the Earth, there were fishes, reptiles, birds, insects, and some mammals. Although some of these animals were ancestors of kinds living today, others are now extinct, that is, they have no descendants alive now.
  41) Very occasionally the rocks show impression of skin, so that, apart from color, we can build up a reasonably accurate picture of an animal that died millions of years ago. The kind of rock in which the remains are found tells us much about the nature of the original land, often of the plants that grew on it, and even of its climate.
  42) . Nearly all of the fossils that we know were preserved in rocks formed by water action, and most of these are of animals that lived in or near water. Thus it follows that there must be many kinds of mammals, birds, and insects of which we know nothing.
  43) There were also crab-like creatures, whose bodies were covered with a horny substance. The body segments each had two pairs of legs, one pair for walking on the sandy bottom, the other for swimming. The head was a kind of shield with a pair of compound eyes, often with thousands of lenses. They were usually an inch or two long but some were 2 feet.
  44) . Of these, the ammonites are very interesting and important. They have a shell composed of many chambers, each representing a temporary home of the animal. As the young grew larger it grew a new chamber and sealed off the previous one. Thousands of these can be seen in the rocks on the Dorset Coast.
  45) . About 75 million years ago the Age of Reptiles was over and most of the groups died out. The mammals quickly developed, and we can trace the evolution of many familiar animals such as the elephant and horse. Many of the later mammals, though now extinct, were known to primitive man and were featured by him in cave paintings and on bone carvings. [A]The shellfish have a long history in the rock and many different kinds are known. [B]Nevertheless, we know a great deal about many of them because their bones and shells have been
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preserved in the rocks as fossils. From them we can tell their size and shape, how they walked, the kind of food they ate. [C]The first animals with true backbones were the fishes, first known in the rocks of 375 million years ago. About 300 million years ago the amphibians, the animals able to live both on land and in water, appeared. They were giant, sometimes 8 feet long, and many of them lived in the swampy pools in which our coal seam, or layer, formed. The amphibians gave rise to the reptiles and for nearly 150 million years these were the principal forms of life on land, in the sea, and in the air. [D]The best index fossils tend to be marine creatures. These animals evolved rapidly and spread over large areas of the world. [E]The earliest animals whose remains have been found were all very simple kinds and lived in the sea. Later forms are more complex, and among these are the sea-lilies, relations of the star-fishes, which had long arms and were attached by a long stalk to the sea bed, or to rocks. [F]When an animal dies, the body, its bones, or shell, may often be carried away by streams into lakes or the sea arid there get covered up by mud. If the animal lived in the sea its body would probably sink and be covered with mud. More and more mud would fall upon it until the bones or shell become embedded and preserved. [G]Many factors can influence how fossils are preserved in rocks. Remains of an organism may be replaced by minerals, dissolved by an acidic solution to leave only their impression, or simply reduced to a more stable form.
[答案 答案] 答案
  41. B

  42. F

  43. E

  44. A

  45. C
大纲样题) 二、排序题 (大纲样题 大纲样题 Directions: The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order for Questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent article by choosing from the list A-E to fill in each numbered box. The first and the last paragraphs have been placed for you in Boxes. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET
  1. (10 points) [A] "I just don't know how to motivate them to do a better job. We're in a budget crunch and I have absolutely no financial rewards at my disposal. In fact, we'll probably have to lay some people off in the near future. It's hard for me to make the job interesting and challenging because it isn't ? it's boring, routine paperwork, and there isn't much you can do about it. [B] "Finally, I can't say to them that their promotions will hinge on the excellence of their paperwork.
-1-
First of all, they know it's not true. If their performance is adequate, most are more likely to get promoted just by staying on the force a certain number of years than for some specific outstanding act. Second, they were trained to do the job they do out in the streets, not to fill out forms. All through their career it is the arrests and interventions that get noticed. [C] "I've got a real problem with my officers. They come on the force as young, inexperienced men, and we send them out on the street, either in cars or on a beat, They seem to like the contact they have with the public, the action involved in crime prevention, and the apprehension of criminals. They also like helping people out at fires,' accidents, and other emergencies. [D] "Some people have suggested a number of things like using conviction records as a performance criterion. However, we know that's not fair ? too many other things are involved. Bad paperwork increases the chance that you lose in court, but good paperwork doesn't necessarily mean you'll win. We tried setting up team competitions based on the excellence of the reports, but the guys caught on to that pretty quickly. No one was getting any type of reward for winning the competition, and they figured why should they labor when there was no payoff." [E]"The problem occurs when they get back to the station. They hate to do the paperwork, and because they dislike it, the job is frequently put off or done inadequately. This lack of attention hurts us later on when we get to court. We need clear, factual reports. They must be highly detailed and unambiguous. As soon as one part of a report is shown to be inadequate or incorrect, the rest of the report is suspect. Poor reporting probably causes us to lose more cases than any other factor. [F] "So I just don't know What to do. I've been groping in the dark in a number of years. And I hope that this seminar will shed some light on this problem of mine and help me out in my future work." [G ] A large metropolitan city government was putting on a number of seminars for administrators, managers and/or executives of various departments throughout the city. At one of these sessions the topic to be discussed was motivation ? how we can get public servants motivated to do a good job. The difficulty of a police captain became the central focus of the discussion.
Order:
[答案 答案] 答案
  41.C
  42.E

  43.A

  44.B

  45.D
大纲样题) 三、信息匹配题 (大纲样题 大纲样题 Directions: You are going to read a text about the tips on resume writing, followed by a list of examples. Choose the best example from the list A-F for each numbered subheading (41-
  45).There is one extra example which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET l.(10 points) The main purpose of a resume is to convince an employer to grant you an interview. There are
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two kinds. One is the familiar "tombstone" that lists where you went to school and where you've worked in chronological order. The other is what I call the "functional" resume ? descriptive, fun to read, unique to you and much more likely to land you an interview.
It's handy to have a "tombstone" for certain occasions. But prospective employers throw away most of those un-requested" tombstone "lists, preferring to interview the quick rather than the dead. What follows are tips on writing a functional resume that will get read ? a resume that makes you come alive and look interesting to employers.
  41.Put yourself first: In order to write a resume others will read with enthusiasm, you have to feel important about yourself.
  42.Sell what you can do, not who you are: Practice translating your personality traits, character, accomplishments and achievements into skill areas. There are at least five thousand skill areas in the world of work. Toot your own horn! Many people clutch when asked to think about their abilities. Some think they have none at all! But everyone does, and one of yours may just be the ticket an employer would be glad to punch ? if only you show it.
  43.Be specific, be concrete, and be brief! Remember that "brevity is the best policy."
  44.Turn bad news into good: Everybody has had disappointments in work. If you have to mention yours, look for the positive side.
  45.Never apologize: If you've returning to the work force after fifteen years as a parent, simply write a short paragraph (summary of background)in place of a chronology of experience. Don't apologize for working at being a mother; it's the hardest job of all. If you have no special training or higher education, just don't mention education. The secret is to think about the self before you start writing about yourself. Take four or five hours off, not necessarily consecutive, and simply write down every accomplishment in your life, on or off the job, that made you feel effective. Don't worry at first about what it all means. Study the list and try to spot patterns. As you study your list, you will come closer to the meaning: identifying your marketable skills. Once you discover patterns, give names to your cluster of accomplishments(leadership skills, budget management skills, child development skills etc.)Try to list at least three accomplishments under the same skills heading. Now start writing your resume as if you mattered. It may take four drafts or more, and several weeks, before you've ready to show it to a stranger(friends are usually too kind)for a reaction. When you've satisfied, send it to a printer; a printed resume is far superior to photocopies. It shows an employer that you regard job hunting as serious work, worth doing right. Isn't that the kind of person you'd want working for your? [A] A woman who lost her job as a teacher's aide due to a cutback in government funding wrote: "Principal of elementary school cited me as the only teacher's aide she would rehire if government funds became available."
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[B] One resume I received included the following: "Invited by my superior to straighten out our organization's accounts receivable. Set up orderly repayment schedule, reconciled accounts weekly, and improved cash flow 100 per cent. Rewarded with raise and promotion." Notice how this woman focuses on results, specifies how she accomplished them, and mentions her reward ? all in 34 words. [C] For example, if you have a flair for saving, managing and investing money, you have money management skills. [D] An acquaintance complained of being biased when losing an opportunity due to the statement "Ready to learn though not so well educated". [E] One of my former colleagues, for example, wrote resumes in three different styles in order to find out which was more preferred. The result is, of course, the one that highlights skills and education background. [F] A woman once told me about a cash-flow crisis her employer had faced. She'd agreed to work without pay for three months until business improved. Her reward was her back pay plus a 20 percent bonus. I asked why that marvelous story wasn't in her resume. She answered, "It wasn't important." What she was really saying of course was "I'm not important."
[答案 答案] 答案
  41.F
  42.C

  43.B

  44.A

  45.D
大纲样题) 四、概括大意题 (大纲样题 大纲样题 Directions: You are going to read a list of headings and a text about plagiarism in the academic community. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-F for each numbered paragraph (41-
  45).The first and last paragraphs of the text are not numbered. There is one extra heading which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET l. (10 points) [A] What to do as a student? [B] Various definitions of plagiarism [C] Ideas should always be sourced [D] Ignorance can be forgiven [E] Plagiarism is equivalent to theft [F] The consequences of plagiarism Scholars, writers and teachers in the modern academic community have strong feelings about acknowledging the use of another person's ideas. In the English-speaking world, the term plagiarism is used to label the practice of not giving credit for the source of one's ideas. Simply stated, plagiarism is "the wrongful appropriation or purloining, and publication as one's own of the ideas, or the expression of ideas of another."
  41. The penalties for plagiarism vary from situation to situation. In many universities, the punishment
-4-
may
 

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