青岛-重庆-天津-杭州-南昌等地翻译笔记( 青岛-重庆-天津-杭州-南昌等地翻译笔记(
  1)(2009-07-29 01:10:
  16) 标签:杂谈
翻 译
结构紧凑?英语:印欧 形合 结构松散?汉语:藏汉 意合
逻辑 à 语境 Everything is good when new, but friends when old.
Although the sun shines, leave not your cloak at home.
糅合 à 分解 The last few days have found me very restless. This evening as I sat in the yard to enjoy the cool, it struck me how different the lotus pool I pass every day must look under a full moon.
抽象 à 具体 Weak things united become strong.
Nature is the true law.
There are many ladies who prefer to go on diet, because they are not satisfied with their figures.
A number of ladies’ preference for banting, or weight reducing, reflects their dissatisfactions with their figures.
被动 à 主动 Mary was kissed by John.
If playing truant can be viewed as normal behavior, being punctual may be treated as students’ virtue.
替换 à 重复 The monkey’s most extraordinary accomplishment was learning to operate a tractor. By the age of nine, it had learned to solo on the vehicle.
There will be television that plays shows hosted by robots, and cars with pollution monitors that will disable them when they offend.
一.
要求及评分原则
准确、完整、 准确、完整、通顺 信为本、达兼顾、 信为本、达兼顾、雅可与而不可求
直译还是意译? 直译还是意译? Man’s youth is a wonderful thing: it is so full of anguish and of magic and he never comes to know it as it is, until it has gone from him forever.
如何翻译? 如何翻译? 拆 à 解 à 拼 à 理 à 顺

  1. 结构“清晰化 清晰化” 清晰化
  2. 词义“明确化 明确化” 明确化
  3. 语序“通顺化 通顺化” 通顺化
  4. 书写“工整化 工整化” 工整化 如何评分? 如何评分? 分段计分 Children will play with dolls equipped with personality chips, computers with in-built personalities will be regarded as workmates rather than tools, relaxation will be in front of smell-television, an the digital age will have arrived. 儿童将与装有个性芯片的玩具娃娃玩耍, 具有个性内置的计算机将被视为工作伙伴而不是工 具,人们将在气味电视机前休闲,到那个时候数字化时代就带到了。
The role of natural selection in evolution was formulated only a little more than a hundred years ago, and the selective role of the environment in shaping and maintaining the behavior of the individual is only beginning to be recognized and studied.
在进化中自然选择所起的作用仅在一百多年前才得到阐述, 而环境在形成和保持个体行为过 程中所起到的选择作用则刚刚开始得到承认和研究(为人们所认可和研究)。
青岛-重庆-天津-杭州-南昌等地翻译笔记( 青岛-重庆-天津-杭州-南昌等地翻译笔记(
  2)(2009-07-29 01:13:
  55) 标签:杂谈
二. 难点与热点
Part A:微观难点 :
  1. 词汇释义: . 词汇释义:
辨清词形 mutual deplete deference mature delete difference
conspicuous suspicious apprehensive comprehensive
多义精选 discipline mushroom Echo: The implied meaning echoed by the drawing above can be summarized as a philosophic topic in our daily life. Anchor: Hot spots, anchored in the deeper layers of the earth, provide the measuring instruments needed to resolve the question. [1998, Text 5] Contract: … contract a serious illness … Red: … enterprise in the red …
Climate: When the work is well done, a 43 of accident-free operations is established where time lost due to injuries is kept at a minimum. [1999, Close]
  43. [A] regulation [B] climate [D] requirement
[C] circumstance Corner:
These seemingly brutal animals won’t attack unless they are cornered.
Discipline: Social science disciplines include geography, economics, political science, psychology, and sociology. [2003, Translation]
School: According to the new school of scientists, technology is an overlooked force in expanding the horizons of scientific knowledge.
Cover: The hill is covered by heavy snow. The parading procession covers 30 kms. This event has been covered by local media. Students from impoverished region endeavor to cover - Cover me!!! their tuition and fees.
- Negative!!!
词本无意, 词本无意,意由境生 ? 生僻的词
About 300 million years ago the amphibians, the animals able to live both on land and in water, appeared.
So it seems antithetical to talk about habits in the same context as creativity and innovation.
It is a wise father that knows his own child, but today a man can boost his paternal (fatherly) wisdom ? or at least confirm that he’s the kid’s dad. All he needs to do is shell out $30 for paternity testing kit (PTK) at his local drugstore ? and another $120 to get the results.
paternity and kinship testing
ancestry testing
genetic testing
DNA testing
?
多变的词
We reach for them mindlessly, setting our brains on auto-pilot and relaxing into the unconscious comfort of familiar routine. “Not choice, but habit rules the unreflecting herd,” William Wordsworth said in the 19th century.
?
多义的词
So it is a bit confusing when Vos Savant fields such queries from the average Joe (whose IQ is 1
  00) as, What’s the difference between love and fondness? Or what is the nature of luck and coincidence?
the most powerful mass medium was the church, which reminded worshippers that their souls were in danger and that they would someday be meat for worms
?
抽象名词
We were caught up in a discussion about the situation in Iraq when the professor walked into the classroom.
It would be wise to handle this delicate problem with calmness and patience.
Even an elementary knowledge of statistics is sufficient to enable the journalist to avoid misleading his readers.
There men wrote and published extensively, reaching both New World and Old World audiences, and giving New England an atmosphere of intellectual earnestness
青岛-重庆-天津-杭州-南昌等地翻译笔记( 青岛-重庆-天津-杭州-南昌等地翻译笔记(
  3)(2009-07-29 01:15:
  30) 标签:杂谈
Part B:宏观难点 :

  1.句子结构: .句子结构: a.被动结构 The discovery is highly appreciate in the circle of science.
The Apollo XII crew reported that their spaceship was being followed by two UFOs.
The area has been marked out for building more hotels.
What measures have been or are being adopted by the government to reduce air pollution?
My first forty years were spent in Southern Europe.
New sources of power must be found.
It should be realized that … It may be said without fear of exaggeration that ….
And it is imagined by many that the operations of the common mind can by no means be compared with scientists’ processes, and they have to be acquired by a sort of special training.
并且,许多人认为,普通人的思维活动无法和科学家的思维活动相比,并且这些思维活动必 须通过某种专门的训练才能掌握。
b.复杂从句 . 定语从句、同位语从句 The first place that I will show you around is Big Wild Goose Pagoda, on the top floor of which we can appreciate the beautiful scene of the city. To the north of the tower, locates a square full of historical topics where you can indulge in thousands of ancient poems.
The method of scientific investigation is nothing but the expression_r_r of the necessary mode of working of the human mind; it is simply the mode by which all phenomena are reasoned about and given precise and exact explanation. 科学研究的方法不过是人类思维活动的必要表达方式, 也就是对一切现象进行思索并且给以 精确而严谨解释的表达方式。
They would have had to live the rest of their lives under the stigma that he had recklessly precipitated an action which wrecked the Summit Conference and conceivably could have launched a nuclear war. 他们可能不得不背着一种臭名而终其余生,这个臭名就是:他曾贸然采取一项行动,这项行 动破坏了首脑会晤,并且可以设想,还可能已经触发一场核战争。
World War II was, however, more complex than World War I, which was a collision among the imperialist powers over the spoils of markets, resources and territories.
第一次世界大战是帝国主义列强之间争夺市场、 资源和领土的冲突, 而第二次世界大战却比 第一次复杂。
In such an experiment the insects can be taught to fly to the ultra-violet, which for us is just darkness.
在这样的实验中,能够训练昆虫飞向紫外线,而紫外线对我们来说只是一片黑暗。
There are many people who want to read the book. 许多人想读这本书。
Home workers are people who have made decisions regarding their careers and life-styles. 在家工作的人是按照自己的职业和生活方式做出这种决定的。
状语从句 While there are almost as many definitions of history as there are historians, modern practice most closely conforms to one that sees history as the attempt to recreate and explain the significant events of the past.
几乎每个历史学家对史学都有自己的界定, 但现代史学家的实践最趋向于认为历史学是试图 重现过去的重大史实并对其做出解释。
c.惯用结构 . ? 惯用比较结构
Science moves forward, they say, not so much through the insights of great men of genius as because of more ordinary things like improved techniques and tools. (注意结构) in line with… be parallel to ….
can be compared to …. be analogous to ….
You can get a sound score, but only if you do your utmost, and only if you are marching towards the right direction.
On the whole such a conclusion can be drawn with a certain degree of confidence, but only if the child can be assumed to have had the same attitude towards the test as the other with whom he is being compared, and only if he was not punished by lack of relevant information which they possessed. 总的来说,得出这样一个结论是有一定把握的,但是必须具备两个条件:一是能够假定这个 孩子对测试的态度和与他相比的另一个孩子的态度相同; 二是他并没有因缺乏别的孩子已掌 握的有关知识而被扣分。
My interest in the NETEM has arisen less through the attractiveness of the examination itself and more from the result I expect.
Interest in historical method had arisen less through external challenge to the validity of history as an intellectual discipline and more from internal quarrels among historians themselves.
人们对历史学研究方法产生了兴趣, 这与其说是因为外部对历史学作为一门知识学科的有效 性提出了挑战,还不如说是因为历史学家们内部发生了争执。
其他的比较结构:(
  1)(
  2)(
  3)(
  6)(
  7)(
  13)
?
惯用否定结构
形肯意否:(
  10)(
  11)(
  14) + anything but… 形否意肯:(
  4)(
  5)(
  8)(
  9)(
  12)(
  15) (
  16)
青岛-重庆-天津-杭州-南昌等地翻译笔记( 青岛-重庆-天津-杭州-南昌等地翻译笔记(
  4)(2009-07-29 01:18:
  57) 标签:杂谈
d. . 容易忽视的特殊语言现象: 容易忽视的特殊语言现象:
It has been noted that those who live, or have lived, in the shadow of death bring a mellow sweetness to everything they do. (注意时态) “At twenty years of age, the will reigns; at thirty, the wit; and at forty, the judgment” (Benjamin Franklin)
That our environment has little, if anything, to do with our abilities, characteristics and behavior is central to this theory.
这种理论的核心是,我们的环境同我们的才能、性格特征和行为即使有什么关系的话,也是 微不足道的。
Medical opinion suggested that training programs offered few, if any, healthy benefits.
医学观点认为:即使训练项目对我们的健康有益的话,那也是微不足道的。
(注意省略) Thus, the anthropological concept of “culture”, like the concept of “set” in mathematics, is an abstract concept which makes possible immense amount of concrete research and understanding.
Be there anything I can help, please don’t hesitate to tell me. (注意倒装) All would be well were reason the only judge in the creationism/evolution debate. (注意省略加倒装)
It therefore becomes more and more important that, if students are not to waste their opportunities, there will have to be much more detailed information about courses and more advice.
因此, 如果要学生好好利用他们上大学的机会, 就应该为他们提供大量关于课程方面更为详 尽的信息和更多的指点。这个问题显得越来越重要了。 (注意语序)
And the circle continues.
The United Nations has not, so far, justified the hopes which the people of the world set on it.
…live up to the public expectation….
动词:fail, miss, live up to, ignore, over-look, exclude 名词:absence, failure, refusal, ignorance 形容词:few, free from, short of, safe of, … 副词: less, otherwise, too …to…, vainly,…. 连词:m
 

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