考研英语核心词汇速成胜经 Unit 21
一、 真题文章( 真题文章(2002年) 年
Almost all our major problems involve human behavior, and they cannot be solved by physical and biological technology alone. What is needed is a technology of behavior, but we have been slow to develop the science from which such a technology might be drawn. One difficulty is that almost all of what is called behavioral science continues to trace behavior to states of mind, feelings, traits of character, human nature, and so on. Physics and biology once followed similar practices and advanced only when they discarded them. The behavioral sciences have been slow to change partly because the explanatory items often seem to be directly observed and partly because other kinds of explanations have been hard to find. The environment is obviously important, but its role has remained obscure. It does not push or pull, it selects, and this function is difficult to discover and analyze. The role of natural selection in evolution was formulated only a little more than a hundred years ago, and the selective role of the environment in shaping and maintaining the behavior of the individual is only beginning to be recognized and studied. As the interaction between organism and environment has come to be understood, however, effects once assigned to states of mind, feelings, and traits are beginning to be traced to accessible conditions, and a technology of behavior may therefore become available. It will not solve our problems, however, until it replaces traditional prescientific views, and these are strongly entrenched. Freedom and dignity illustrate the difficulty. They are the possessions of the autonomous (self-governing) man of traditional theory, and they are essential to practices in which a person is held responsible for his conduct and given credit for his achievements. A scientific analysis shifts both the responsibility and the achievement to the environment. It also raises questions concerning “values." Who will use a technology and to what ends? Until these issues are resolved, a technology of behavior will continue to be rejected, and with it possibly the only way to solve our problems.
我们面临的所有重要问题几乎都涉及到人类行为,而这些问题又不能只 靠物理学和生物学来解决。目前我们所需要的正是行为技术,但是能够产生行为 技术的科学一直以来发展很缓慢。 一个难题就是我们所说的行为科学几乎全都依 旧从心态、情感、性格特征、人性等方面去寻找行为的根源。物理学和生物学都 有过相似的做法,在抛弃了这些做法之后,这两门科学才取得了进步。行为科学 之所以发展缓慢,部分原因是用来解释行为的依据似乎往往是直接能观察得到 的,部分原因是其他解释一直很难找到。虽然环境很重要,但其作用模糊不清。 环境并不具备推动或拉动的作用;它具有选择的作用,而这一作用很难发现也很 难对其进行分析。自然选择在进化中的作用仅在一百多年前才被阐明,而环境在 塑造和保持个体行为时的选择作用则刚刚开始被认识和研究。然而,随着人们开 始了解有机体和环境之间的相互作用,以前曾被认为是影响因素如心态、情感及 其特点开始从可利用的条件去追寻其来源,因此,有可能成为一种研究行为的技 术手段。但是这依然解决不了我们的问题,除非行为科学能够替代近代科学出现 前的根深蒂固的传统观念。 自由和尊严能够解释其难度之大。 (自由和尊严) 它们 是传统理论中的自治者所拥有的财富,要求一个人对自己的行为负责,对其成就 给予肯定,在这种实践中,自由和尊严是必不可少的。科学分析将责任和成就归 因于环境,并且提出了一些与价值观有关的问题:谁使用行为科学?为什麽使 用?如果这些问题得不到解决,研究行为的技术手段就会继续受到排斥,解决问 题的唯一方式可能也随之继续受到排斥。
三、 考研核心词汇
involve / in5vClv / 1包括,笼罩2潜心于,使陷于 /vt. [例] Don't involveother people in your trouble. 例 别把别人牵涉进你的麻烦中去。 [同义 absorb ,affect, complicate ,concern, confound ,encompass 同义] 同义 [派生 involved / in5vClvd / adj. 棘手的,有关的 派生] 派生
involvement / in5vClvmEnt / n. 连累,包含 in5vClvmEnt
trace / treis / n. 1痕迹,踪迹2微量3缰绳 vt. 1描绘,映描,画轮廓2追踪,回溯,探索 vi.上溯,沿路走 [例] They traced the criminal to a house in the city. 例 他们追踪罪犯到了城里的一座房子里。 [同义 copy, draw, duplicate, follow ,reproduce ,sketch, track 同义] 同义 [派生 traceable/ 5treisEbl /adj. 可追踪的,起源于 派生] / / 派生
trait / treit / n. 显著的特点,特性 [例] national traits 例 民族性
[同义 characteristic, earmark, feature, idiosyncrasy, pattern 同义] 同义
discard/ dis5kB:d / vt. 丢弃,抛弃 v. 放弃 / [例] discard the dross and select the essential 例 去粗取精
[同义 cast off, dispose of, get rid of, reject, scrap, throw away 同义] 同义
obscure / Eb5skjuE / /adj. 暗的,朦胧的,模糊的,晦涩的 vt. 使暗,使不明显 [例] His success obscured his failures. 例 他的成功使他的失败显得微不足道。 [同义 dark, dim ,faint, fuzzy, hazy ,indefinite, indistinct ,shadowy, unclear 同义] 同义 [反义 clear / kliE / adj. 清楚的,清晰的,清澈的,光亮的,空旷的,有条理的 adv. 反义] 反义 清楚地,完全地 v.扫除,清除,晴,跳过,净得 [派生 obscurity/ Eb5skjuEriti / 阴暗,朦胧,偏僻,含糊,晦涩, 派生] /n. 派生 / 身份低微
analyze / 5AnElaiz / vt. 分析,分解 [例] The scientist analyzed the milk and found it contained too much water. 例 科学家分析了一下牛奶,发现里面含水分过多。
[反义 synthesize / 5sinWisaiz / v. 综合,合成 反义] 反义 [派生] analysis / E5nAlisis / n. 分析,分解 派
evolution / 7i:vE5lu:FEn, 7evE- /n. 1进展,发展2演变,进化 7evE[例] the evolutionof the modern car 例 近代汽车的发展
[反义 devolution / 7di:vE5l(j)u:FEn / 1滚下,落下2依次3相传,转移,委付 反义] /n. 反义 [派生 evolutionary /9i:vE`lU:FEnErI / adj.进化的 派生] 派生
organism / 5C:^EnizEm / n.生物体;有机体社会组织;机关,细小的动植物 , [pl. ] 5C:^EnizEm 微生物群落[区系] [例] the social organism 例 社会
[派生 organic/ C:5^Anik / adj. 1器官的,有机的,组织的2建制的 派生] 派生 /
entrench / in5trentF/ vt. 1用壕沟防护,在...围以壕沟使盘踞2固守,牢固树立;使 处于有力地位 3挖壕,掘 [例] The troops were entrenched near the mountains. 例 部队在群山边筑起壕沟以防卫自己。 [派生 entrenchment / In`trentFmEnt/ n. 堑壕 派生] 派生 entrenched/ in5trentFd / adj. 确立的,不容易改的(风俗习惯) /
autonomous / C:5tCnEmEs / adj. 自治的 [例] an autonomous republic 例 自治共和国
[派生 autonomy / C:5tCnEmi / n. 自治 派生] 派生
四、 强化练习

  1. If fun and pleasure are equal to happiness then pain must be equal to unhappiness. But in fact, the opposite is true: more often than not things that lead to happiness some pain. A. revolve B. involve C. revere D. highlight

  2. The mammals quickly developed, and we can the evolution of many familiar animals such as the elephant and horse. A. liable B. truck C. linger D. trace

  3. This outbreak also highlights a of modern people, which is that we tend to overreact in a crisis situation, instead of remaining calm and act rationally. A. trait B. glitter C. glory D. distribution

  4. As well as being quite specialist in meaning, some of the words in idioms were used two or three hundred years ago, or longer, and can be a little . A. bright B. dizzy C. obscure D. dread

  5. This technique is used to ribosomes ([生化]核糖体), which translate the genetic information of the cell into proteins that enable cells to specialize and function properly . A. illusion B. analyze C. impose D. omit



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