M;l;l;;;;;;;ll;l;;;l;l;l;l;;ll;l;lll;ll;;;l考研英语历年真 ;l;l;;;;;;;ll;l;;;l;l;l;l;;ll;l;lll;ll;;;l考研英语历年真 题翻译部分(附带答案)1996??2010 题翻译部分( 带答案)1996??2010 ??
1996年英译汉试题 (
  1)Some of these causes are completely reasonable results of social needs. Others are reasonable consequences of particular advances in science being to some extent self-accelerating. 译文:在这些原因中,有些完全是社会需求的必然结果/自然而然地来自社会需求,而另一 些原因则是由于科学在一定程度上自我加速而产生某些特定发展的必然结果。 (
  2)This trend began during the Second World War, when several governments came to the conclusion that the specific demands that a government wants to make of its scientific establishment cannot generally be foreseen in detail. 译文:这种趋势始于第二次世界大战期间,当时一些国家的政府得出结论:政府向科研机构 提出的具体要求通常是无法详尽预见的。 (
  3)This seems mostly effectively done by supporting a certain amount of research not related to immediate goals but of possible consequence in the future. 译文: 通过支持与当前目标无关但对将来可能会产生影响的某些科学研究, 这一问题看来能 最有效地得到解决。 (
  4)However, the world is so made that elegant systems are in principle unable to deal with some of the world's more fascinating and delightful aspects. 译文:然而,世界就是如此创造的,以至于完美的体系一般而言都不能解决一些世界上更加 引人入胜的问题。 (
  5)New forms of thought as well as new subjects for thought must arise in the future as they have in the past, giving rise to new standards of elegance. 译文:就像过去那样,将来也必然会出现新的思维方式和新的思维对象,从而给完美以新的 标准。 1997年英译汉试题 (
  6)Actually, it isn't, because it assumes that there is an agreed account of human rights, which is something the world does not have. 译文:实际上,这一问法并不存在/事实并非如此,因为这种问法认为这儿存在一种对人权 的共同认识,而这种共同认识在世界上并不存在。 (
  7)Some philosophers argue that rights exist only within a social contract, as part of an exchange of duties and entitlements. 译文: 有些哲学家认为, 权利只是存在于社会契约之中, 并作为责任与权利相交换的一部分。
  8)It leads the discussion to extremes at the outset: it invites you to think that animals should be treated either with the consideration humans extend to other humans, or with no consideration at all. 译文:这种说法从一开始就将讨论引向两个极端,它使人们认为应该这样对待动物:要么像 对人类自身一样关切体谅,要么就是完全冷漠无情。 (
  9)Arguing from the view that humans are different from animals in every relevant respect, extremists of this kind think that animals lie outside the area of moral choice. 译文:这类极端主义者认为,人与动物在每一个相关的方面都不相同,因此动物不在道德考 虑的范围之内或对待动物无须考虑道德问题。 (
  10)When that happens, it is not a mistake: it is mankind's instinct for moral reasoning in action, an instinct that should be encouraged rather than laughed at. 译文: 看到动物痛苦产生这样的同情心并不错, 这是人类用道德观念进行推理的本能在起作 用,这种本能应该得到鼓励而不应遭到嘲弄。 1998年英译汉试题 (
  11)But even more important, it was the farthest that scientists had been able to look into the past, for what they were seeing were the patterns and structures that existed 15 billion years ago. 译文:但更为重要的是,这是科学家们所能观测到的最遥远的过去的景象,因为他们看到的 是150 亿年前宇宙云的形状和结构。 (
  12)The existence of the giant clouds was virtually required for the Big Bang, first put forward in the 1920s, to maintain its reign as the dominant explanation of the cosmos. 译文: 巨大宇宙云的存在, 实际上使二十年代首创的大爆炸论得以保持其宇宙起源论的主导 地位。 (
  13)Astrophysicists working with ground-based detectors at the South Pole and balloon-borne instruments are closing in on such structures, and may report their findings soon. 译文:天体物理学家使用南极陆基探测器及球载仪器,正越来越近地观测这些云系,也许不 久会报告他们的观测结果。 (
  14)If the small hot spots look as expected, that will be a triumph for yet another scientific idea, a refinement of the Big Bang called the inflationary universe theory. 译文:假如那些小热点看上去同预想的一致,那就意味着又一科学观点的胜利,这种观点即 一种完美的大爆炸论,也称宇宙膨胀理论。 (
  15)Odd though it sounds, cosmic inflation is a scientifically plausible consequence of some respected ideas in elementary-particle physics, and many astrophysicists
have been convinced for the better part of a decade that it is true. 译文: 虽然宇宙膨胀理论听起来古怪, 但它是基本粒子物理学中一些公认的观点在科学上看 来可信的结论。而且许多天体物理学家七八年来一直相信这一结论是正确的。 1999年英译汉试题 (
  16) While there are almost as many definitions of history as there are historians, modern practice most closely conforms to one that sees history as the attempt to recreate and explain the significant events of the past. 译文: 几乎每个历史学家对历史都有自己的界定, 但现代历史学家的实践最趋向于认同这样 一个定义,即把历史学看作是试图对过去重大事件的重现和解释。 (
  17) Interest in historical methods has arisen less through external challenge to the validity of history as an intellectual discipline and more from internal quarrels among historians themselves. 译文
  1:人们对历史研究方法产生兴趣,这与其说是因为外界对历史作为一门知识学科的有 效性提出了挑战,还不与说历史学家内部发生了争吵。 译文
  2:人们之所以对历史研究的方法产生兴趣,主要是因为史学界内部意见不一,其次是 因为外界并不认为历史是一门学问。 (
  18)During this transfer, traditional historical methods were augmented by additional methodologies designed to interpret the new forms of evidence in the historical study. 译文: 在这种转变中, 那些在历史研究中用来解释新史料的新方法充实了传统的历史研究方 法。 (
  19) There is no agreement whether methodology refers to the concepts peculiar to historical work in general or to the research techniques appropriate to the various branches of historical inquiry. 译文: 方法论是指一般的历史研究中的特有概念, 还是指历史探究中各个具体领域所使用的 研究手段,人们对此意见不一。 (
  20) It applies equally to traditional historians who view history as only the external and internal criticism of sources, and to social science historians who equate their activity with specific techniques. 译文: 这种谬论同样存在于历史传统派和历史社科派; 前者认为历史就是史学界内部和外部 人士对各种史料来源的评论,后者认为历史的研究是具体方法的研究。 2000 年英译汉试题 (
  21) Under modern conditions, this requires varying measures of centralized control and hence the help of specialized scientists such as economists and operational research experts. 译文:在现代条件下,这需要不同程度的中央控制,从而也需要获得诸如经济学家和运筹学 家等领域专家的协助。
  22)Furthermore, it is obvious that the strength of a country's economy is directly bound up with the efficiency of its agriculture and industry, and that this in turn rests upon the efforts of scientists and technologists of all kinds. 译文:再者/更进一步来说,显而易见的是,一个国家的经济实力与其工农业生产效率密切 相关,而反过来效率的提高又有赖于各种科技人员的努力。 (
  23)Owing to the remarkable development in mass communications, people everywhere are feeling new wants and are being exposed to new customs and ideas, while governments are often forced to introduce still further innovations for the reasons given above. 译文:由于大众通讯的显著发展,所有的人都不断感到有新的需求,并不断接触到新的习俗 和思想,由于上述原因,各国政府不得不经常采取更进一步的革新措施。 (
  24) in the early industrialized countries of Europe the process of industrialization?with all the far reaching changes in social patterns that followed?was spread over nearly a century, whereas nowadays a developing nation may undergo the same process in a decade or so. 译文: 在早期实现工业化的欧洲国家里, 其工业化进程以及随之而来的各种深刻的社会结构 变革持续了大约一个世纪,而如今一个发展中国家在 10 年左右的时间内就可以完成同样的 工业化进程。 (
  25)Additional social stresses may also occur because of the population explosion or problems arising from mass migration movements?themselves made relatively easy nowadays by modern means of transport. 译文:由于人口猛增或大量人口流动现代交通工具使这样的大量人口流动变得相对容易 所引起的各种问题也同样造成新的社会压力。 2001 年英译汉试题 (
  26) There will be television chat shows hosted by robots, and cars with pollution monitors that will disable them when they offend. 译文:届时,将会出现由机器人主持的电视谈话节目和装有污染监控器的汽车。一旦这些汽 车排污超标(违规) ,监控器就会使其停止行驶。 (
  27) Children will play with dolls equipped with personality chips, computers with in-built personalities will be regarded as workmates rather than tools, relaxation will be in front of smell-television, and digital age will have arrived. 译文: 儿童将与装有个性化芯片的玩具娃娃玩耍, 具有个性内置的计算机将被视为工业伙伴 而不是工具,人们将在气味电视机前休闲,届时数字化时代就来到了。 (
  28)Pearson has pieced together the work of hundreds of researchers around the world to produce a unique millennium technology calendar that gives the latest dates when we can expect hundreds of key breakthroughs and discoveries to take place. 译文:皮尔森汇集世界各地数百位研究人员的成果,编制了一个独特的新技术千年历,它列 出了人们有望看到数百项重大突破和发现的最迟日期。
  29) But that, Pearson points out, is only the start of man-machine integration:“It will be the beginning of the long process of integration that will ultimately lead to a fully electronic human before the end of the next century.” 译文:但皮尔森指出,这个突破仅仅是人机一体化的开始: “它是人机一体化漫长之路的第 一步,最终会使人们在下世纪之前就研制出完全电子化的仿真人。 ” (
  30)And home appliances will also become so smart that controlling and operating them will result in the breakout of a new psychological disorder?kitchen rage. 译文: 家用电器将会变得如此智能化, 以至于控制和操作它们会引发一种新的心理疾病?? 厨房狂躁症。 2002 年英译汉试题 (
  31) One difficulty is that almost all of what is called behavioral science continues to trace behavior to states of mind, feelings, traits of character, human nature, and so on. 译文:难题之一在于所谓的行为科学几乎全都依然从心态、情感、性格特征、人性等方面去 寻找行为的根源。 (
  32)The behavioral sciences have been slow to change partly because the explanatory items often seem to be directly observed and partly because other kinds of explanations have been hard to find. 译文: 行为科学之所以发展缓慢, 部分原因是用来解释行为的依据似乎往往是直接观察到的, 部分原因是其他的解释方式一直难以找到。 (
  33)The role of natural selection in evolution was formulated only a little more than a hundred years ago, and the selective role of the environment in shaping and maintaining the behavior of the individual is only beginning to be recognized and studied. 译文: 自然选择在进化中的作用仅在一百多年前才得以阐明, 而环境在塑造和保持个体行为 时的选择作用则刚刚开始被认识和研究。 (
  34)They are the possessions of the autonomous (self-governing) man of traditional theory, and they are essential to practices in which a person is held responsible for his conduct and given credit for his achievements. 译文:自由和尊严(它们)是传统理论定义的自主人拥有的,是要求一个人对自己的行为负 责并因其业绩而被给予肯定的必不可少的前提。 (
  35) Until these issues are resolved, a technology of behavior will continue to be rejected, and with it possibly the only way to solve our problems. 译



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