新东方在线 2006 年考研英语强化班翻译电子版教材
第一课时
考研翻译:
  1. 课程安排(5 次课) a. 弄清什么是翻译 b. 怎么做翻译
  1. 考研翻译中英汉语语言特点
  1) 形合与意合
  2) 繁复与简短
  3)被动与主动
  4)抽象与具体
  2. 考研翻译的题型、题型特点、考试内容和评分标准
  1)考研翻译的题型
  2)考研翻译的题型特点
  3)考研翻译的考试内容
  4)考研翻译的评分标准
  3. 考研翻译解题中的常见问题和应对策略
  4. 考研翻译的步骤、标准和方法 Passage 9 Almost all our major problems involve human behavior, and they cannot be solved by physical and biological technology alone. What is needed is a technology of behavior, but we have been slow to develop the science from which such a technology might be drawn.
  61) One difficulty is that almost all of what is called behavioral science continues to trace behavior to states of mind, feelings, traits of character, human nature, and so on. Physics and biology once followed similar practices and advanced only when they discarded them.
  62) The behavioral sciences have been slow to change partly because the explanatory items often seem to be directly observed and partly because other kinds of explanations have been hard to find. The environment is obviously important, but its role has remained obscure. It does not push or pull, it selects, and this function is difficult to discover and analyze.
  63) The role of natural selection in evolution was formulated only a little more than a hundred years ago, and the selective role of the environment in shaping and maintaining the behavior of the individual is only beginning to be recongnized and studied. As the interaction between organism and environment has come to be understood, however, effects once assigned to states of mind, feelings, and traits are beginning to be traced to accessible conditions, and a technology of behavior may therefore become available. It will not solve our problems, however, until it replaces traditional prescientific views, and these are strongly entrenched. Freedom and dignity illustrate the difficulty.
  64) They are the possessions of the autonomous (self-governing) man of traditional theory, and they are essential to practices in which a person is held responsible for his conduct and given credit for his achievements. A scientific analysis shifts both the responsibility and the achievement to the environment. It also raises questions concerning "values". Who use a technology and to what ends?
  65) Until these issues are resolved, a technology of behavior will continue to be rejected, and with it possibly the only way to solve our problems. Passage 2 The standardized educational or psychological tests that are widely used to aid in selecting, classifying, assigning, or promoting students, employees, and military personnel have been the target of recent attacks in books, magazines, the daily press, and even in congress.
  71) The target is wrong, for in attacking the tests, critics divert attention from the fault that lies with ill-informed or incompetent users. The tests themselves are merely tools, with characteristics that can be measured with reasonable precision under specified conditions. Whether the results will be valuable, meaningless, or even misleading depends partly upon the tool itself but largely upon the user. All informed predictions of future performance are based upon some knowledge of relevant past performance: school grades research productive, sales records, or whatever is appropriate.
  72) How well the predictions
will be validated by later performance depends upon the amount, reliability, and appropriateness of the information used and on the skill and wisdom with which it is interpreted. Anyone who keeps careful score knows that the information available is always incomplete and that the predictions are always subject to error. Standardized tests should be considered in this context. They provide a quick, objective method of getting some kids of information about what a person learned, the skills he has developed, or the kinds of person he is. The information so obtained has, qualitatively, the same advantages and shortcomings as other kinds of information.
  73) Whether to use tests, other kinds of information, or both in a particular situation depends, therefore, upon the evidence from experience concerning comparative validity and upon such factors as cost and availability.
  74) In general, the tests work most effectively when the qualities to be measured can be most precisely defined and least effectively when what is to be measured or predicted can not be well defined. Properly used, they provide a rapid means of getting comparable information about many people. Sometimes they identify students whose high potential has not been previously recognized, but there are many things, they do not do.
  75) For example, they do not compensate for gross social inequality, and thus do not tell how able an underprivileged youngster might have been had he grown up under more favorable circumstances.
第二课时
Passage 3 The differences in relative growth of various areas of scientific research have several causes.
  71) Some of these causes are completely reasonable results of social needs. Others are reasonable consequences of particular advances in science being to some extent self-accelerating. Some, however, are less reasonable processes of different growth in which preconceptions of the form scientific theory ought to take, by persons in authority, act to alter the growth pattern of different areas. This is a new problem probably not yet unavoidable; but it is a frightening trend.
  72) This trend began during the Second World War, when several governments came to the conclusion that the specific demands that a government wants to make of its scientific establishment cannot generally be foreseen in detail. It can be predicted, however, that from time to time questions will arise which will require specific scientific answers. It is therefore generally valuable to treat the scientific establishment as a resource or machine to be kept in functional order.
  73) This seems mostly effectively done by supporting a certain amount of research not related to immediate goals but of possible consequence in the future. This kind of support, like all government support, requires decisions about the appropriate recipients of funds. Decisions based on utility as opposed to lack of utility are straightforward. But a decision among projects none of which has immediate utility is more difficult. The goal of the supporting agencies is the praisable one of supporting "good" as opposed to "bad" science, but a valid determination is difficult to make. Generally, the idea of good science tends to become confused with the capacity of the field in question to generate an elegant theory.
  74) However, the world is so made that elegant systems are in principle unable to deal with some of the world's more fascinating and delightful aspects.
  75) New forms of thought as well as new subjects for thought must arise in the future as they have in the past, giving rise to new standards of elegance. Passage 10 Human beings in all times and places think about their world and wonder at their place in it. Humans are thoughtful and creative, possessed of insatiable curiosity. (
  61) Furthermore, humans have the ability to modify the environment in which they live, thus subjecting all other life forms to their own peculiar ideas and fancies. Therefore, it is important to study humans in all their richness and diversity in a calm and systematic manner, with the hope that the knowledge resulting from such studies can lead humans to a more harmonious way of living with themselves and with all other life forms on this planet Earth. "Anthropology" derives from the Greek words anthropos "human" and logos "the study of." By its very name, anthropology encompasses the study of all humankind. Anthropology is one of social sciences. (
  62) Social science is that branch of intellectual enquiry which seeks to study humans and their endeavors in the same reasoned, orderly, systematic, and dispassioned manner
that natural scientists use for the study of natural phenomena. Social science disciplines include geography, economics, political science, psychology, and sociology. Each of these social sciences has a subfield or specialization which lies particularly close to anthropology. All the social sciences focus upon the study of humanity. Anthropology is a field-study oriented discipline which makes extensive use of the comparative method in analysis. (
  63) The emphasis on data gathered first-hand, combined with a cross-cultural perspective brought to the analysis of cultures past and present, makes this study a unique and distinctly important social science. Anthropological analyses rest heavily upon the concept of culture. Sir Edward Tylor's formulation of the concept of culture was one of the great intellectual achievements of 19th century science. (
  64) Tylor defined culture as "... that complex whole which includes belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society." This insight, so profound in its simplicity, opened up an entirely new way of perceiving and understanding human life. Implicit within Tylor's definition is the concept that culture is learned. shared, and patterned behavior. (
  65) Thus, the anthropological concept of "culture," like the concept of "set" in mathematics, is an abstract concept which makes possible immense amounts of concrete research and understanding.
第三课时
Passage 9 Almost all our major problems involve human behavior, and they cannot be solved by physical and biological technology alone. What is needed is a technology of behavior, but we have been slow to develop the science from which such a technology might be drawn.
  61) One difficulty is that almost all of what is called behavioral science continues to trace behavior to states of mind, feelings, traits of character, human nature, and so on. Physics and biology once followed similar practices and advanced only when they discarded them.
  62) The behavioral sciences have been slow to change partly because the explanatory items often seem to be directly observed and partly because other kinds of explanations have been hard to find. The environment is obviously important, but its role has remained obscure. It does not push or pull, it selects, and this function is difficult to discover and analyze.
  63) The role of natural selection in evolution was formulated only a little more than a hundred years ago, and the selective role of the environment in shaping and maintaining the behavior of the individual is only beginning to be recongnized and studied. As the interaction between organism and environment has come to be understood, however, effects once assigned to states of mind, feelings, and traits are beginning to be traced to accessible conditions, and a technology of behavior may therefore become available. It will not solve our problems, however, until it replaces traditional prescientific views, and these are strongly entrenched. Freedom and dignity illustrate the difficulty.
  64) They are the possessions of the autonomous (self-governing) man of traditional theory, and they are essential to practices in which a person is held responsible for his conduct and given credit for his achievements. A scientific analysis shifts both the responsibility and the achievement to the environment. It also raises questions concerning "values". Who use a technology and to what ends?
  65) Until these issues are resolved, a technology of behavior will continue to be rejected, and with it possibly the only way to solve our problems.
第四课时
两个问题需注意:
  1.笔记问题,做记录不要把汉字直接批注在英语旁边
  2.答案问题,上课翻译的句子不会给答案,需要你自己来说答案 Passage 9 Almost all our major problems involve human behavior, and they cannot be solved by physical and biological technology alone. What is needed is a technology of behavior, but we have been slow to develop the science from which such a technology might be drawn.
  61) One difficulty is that almost all of what is called behavioral science continues to trace behavior to states of mind, feelings, traits of character, human nature, and so on. Physics and biology once followed similar practices and advanced only when they discarded them.
  62) The behavioral sciences have been slow to change partly because the explanatory items often seem to be directly observed and partly because other kinds of explanations have been hard to find. The environment is obviously important, but its role has remained obscure. It does not push or pull, it selects, and this function is
difficult to discover and analyze.
  63) The role of natural selection in evolution was formulated only a little more than a hundred years ago, and the selective role of the environment in shaping and maintaining the behavior of the individual is only beginning to be recongnized and studied. As the interaction between organism and environment has come to be understood, however, effects once assigned to states of mind, feelings, and traits are beginning to be traced to accessible conditions, and a technology of behavior may therefore become avai
 

相关内容

新东方在线 2006年考研英语强化班翻译电子版教材(完整版)

   新东方 2006 考研英语强化翻译讲义 第一课时 第一课时 考研翻译: a. 弄清什么是翻译 b. 怎么做翻译 1. 考研翻译中英汉语语言特点 1)形合与意合 2)繁复与简短 Passage 9 Passage Almost all our major problems involve human behavior, and they cannot be solved by physical and biological technology alone. What is needed is ...

新东方在线考研英语强化班词汇电子版教材(完整版)

   新东方在线考研英语强化班词汇电子版教材 第一课时 概述 学习词汇常见错误: 1. 单词的英文解释 1)阅读 汉语只能大概的描述英文,不能百分之百的精准的解释英文 2)翻译 翻译中某些单词在正确答案中对应的汉语释义是任何字典中没有的释义 3)完形填空 考察单词的深度而不是广度,考察单词细微的差异 The oppressed freedom. A. demand B. require C. request oppress→op+press 压迫 press 挤,压→pressure 压力 op= ...

新东方在线 考研英语强化班词汇电子版教材(完整版)

   新东方在线 2006 年考研英语强化班词汇电子版教材 第一课时 概述 学习词汇常见错误: 1. 单词的英文解释 1)阅读 汉语只能大概的描述英文,不能百分之百的精准的解释英文 2)翻译 翻译中某些单词在正确答案中对应的汉语释义是任何字典中没有的释义 3)完形填空 考察单词的深度而不是广度,考察单词细微的差异 The oppressed freedom. A. demand B. require C. request oppress→op+press 压迫 press 挤,压→pressure ...

考研英语强化班新题型电子教材

   填空式阅读 大纲样题 Long before Man lived on the Earth, there were fishes, reptiles, birds, insects, and some mammals. Although some of these animals were ancestors of kinds living today, others are now extinct, that is, they have no descendants alive now. ...

新东方在线 2006年考研英语强化班词汇电子版教材

   新东方在线 2006 年强化班词汇电子版教材 第一课时 概述 学习词汇常见错误: 1. 单词的英文解释 1)阅读 汉语只能大概的描述英文,不能百分之百的精准的解释英文 2)翻译 翻译中某些单词在正确答案中对应的汉语释义是任何字典中没有的释义 3)完形填空 考察单词的深度而不是广度,考察单词细微的差异 The oppressed freedom. A. demand B. require C. request oppress→op+press 压迫 press 挤,压→pressure 压力 ...

新东方在线 2006年考研英语强化班词汇电子版教材

   新东方在线 2006 年考研英语强化班词汇电子版教材 第一课时 概述 学习词汇常见错误: 1. 单词的英文解释 1)阅读 汉语只能大概的描述英文,不能百分之百的精准的解释英文 2)翻译 翻译中某些单词在正确答案中对应的汉语释义是任何字典中没有的释义 3)完形填空 考察单词的深度而不是广度,考察单词细微的差异 The oppressed freedom. A. demand B. require C. request oppress→op+press 压迫 press 挤,压→pressure ...

2011考研英语强化翻译电子讲义

   爱考机构北京地区考研专业课辅导班 考研政治 英语 数学保过班 考研政治英语数学一对一 VIP 辅导 报 名电话 010-51283340 考研英语强化翻译 翻译电子讲义 2011 考研英语强化翻译电子讲义 主讲: 主讲:唐 静 欢迎使用新东方在线电子教材 教材说明: 教材说明: 本电子教材讲义为唐静老师主讲的考研强化翻译课程讲义 word 文档下面 1 至 38 页的 讲义为唐静老师主讲的考研强化翻译课程讲义, 本电子教材讲义为唐静老师主讲的考研强化翻译课程讲义, 页码跟教材一致 学员只需根 ...

考研英语强化班翻译解讲义(1-3课时)

   新东方在线 [www.koolearn.com / www.TOL24.com] 网络课堂电子教材系列 年考研英语强化班翻译 翻译电子版教材 新东方在线 2006 年考研英语强化班翻译电子版教材 第一课时 第一课时 概述 考研翻译: 1. 课程安排(5 次课) a. 弄清什么是翻译 b. 怎么做翻译 1. 考研翻译中英汉语语言特点 1) 形合与意合 2)繁复与简短 Passage 9 Almost all our major problems involve human behavior, ...

考研英语强化班翻译讲义(完全打印版)

   新东方在线 [www.TOL24.com] 网络课堂电子教材系列 新东方在线 2006 年考研英语强化班翻译电子版教材 第一课时 概述 考研翻译: 1. 课程安排(5 次课) a. 弄清什么是翻译 b. 怎么做翻译 1. 考研翻译中英汉语语言特点 1) 形合与意合 2)繁复与简短 Passage 9 Almost all our major problems involve human behavior, and they cannot be solved by physical and b ...

考研英语强化班翻译讲义(完全打印版)

   新东方在线 [www.TOL24.com] 网络课堂电子教材系列 新东方在线 2006 年考研英语强化班翻译电子版教材 第一课时 概述 考研翻译: 1. 课程安排(5 次课) a. 弄清什么是翻译 b. 怎么做翻译 1. 考研翻译中英汉语语言特点 1) 形合与意合 2)繁复与简短 Passage 9 Almost all our major problems involve human behavior, and they cannot be solved by physical and b ...

热门内容

励志英语

   1.使我们痛苦的东西在真正锻造我们。 What pains us trains us. 2.成功没有电梯,只有一步一个脚印的楼梯。 There is no elevator to success?only stairs. 3.成功的秘密在于始终如一地忠于目标。 The secret of success is constancy to purpose. 4.成功来自于克服困难的斗争。 Success grows out of struggles to overcome difficulti ...

pep小学六年级英语Unit1课件 How do you go to shcool

   人教PEP六年级上册英语 六年级上册英语 人教 刘 晓龙 09 . 9 . 9 bike bus plane on foot ship train subway ● 如何询问并回答人们日常出行 乘坐某种交通工具去某地? 乘坐某种交通工具去某地? E g : How do you go to Canada? I go by …. Unit 1 How do you go there? Part B Let’ s learn traffic lights red light yellow lig ...

英语课堂中的小组合作活动

   英语课堂中的小组合作活动 江苏小学牛津英语 6A Unit 2 Ben’s Birthday 第一课时 教学第四个环节自 编对话的一段课堂教学实录 实录: 实录: …… 教师在新授了本课的句型和单词后,就开始进入自编对话这个环节。 T: Excuse me, when’s your birthday? S: It’s on the tenth of October. T: What would you like as your birthday present? S: I’d like a ...

英语字母组合发音规律

   英语字母组合发音规律 读 音 例 词 ai/ay air al al在f m 前 au/aw [ei] [ ] [:l] [:l] [α:] [:] afraid rain wait day play air hair chair pair repair small ball talk wall all always also salt almost half calm autumn daughter draw [i:] teach easy cheap please ea [e] heav ...

外研版英语山东地区专用必修三M1-6revision

   " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " 1.面临困难,他没有失去信心。 面临困难,他没有失去信心。 面临困难 Faced with difficulty, he didn’t lose heart. 2.坐落在沿海,这座城市很美丽。 坐落在沿海, 坐落在沿海 这座城市很美丽。 Situated\ located on the coast of the sea, the city is very beautiful. 3.离开海岸的地方有很多岛屿。 离开海岸的地方有很 ...