考 研 英 语 写 作 A部 分 书信

  1.信的类别 书信一般可分为商务信件或公函(Business Letter or Official Correspondence)和 私人信件(Private Letter)两大类。 私人信函形式较随意,属于半正式文体。 公务信函属于正式文体,是六级、考研、雅思等考试中的考查重点。包括邀请信、 感谢信、道歉信、祝贺信、介绍信、申请信、投诉信、咨询信等。
  2. 信的格式 缩进式
Dear Sir or Madam, I am senior from the Department of Chinese Language and Literature of Beijing University. As I am planning to, I have decided to . Would you be so kind as to furnish me with some related information? First of all, . Secondly, . Lastly,. I would like to express my sincere gratitude for your kind consideration of my requests. I look forward to hearing from you soon.

  3. 信的组成部分: 英语书信通常包括下面几个组成部分: 信头(Heading) 信内地址(Inside Address)
  1. 称呼(Salutation) 称呼后用逗号 正文第一行顶格写。 呼即写信人对收信人的称谓, 取决于写信人和收信人之 称 它 间的关系。公务信函中称呼的一般形式是Dear Mr./Mrs./Ms./Miss +收信人的姓氏。 当不知道收信人姓名时可称呼Dear Sir/Madam/Sirs/Mesdames,或To whom it may concern。写给关系密切的人时,用Dear或My dear加上称呼或对方名字。例如:My dear mother,Dear Mary等。
  2. 正文(Body) 写法一 首段 1-2句 自我介绍+写作目的 中间段 3句
  1. 改写提纲中要点一
  2. 改写要点二
  3. 改写要点三 尾段1-2句 表示感谢+ 期待回信
自我介绍 I am a staff member from your company/ corporation. I am a freshman/ Sophomore/ junior/ senior/ undergraduate/graduate from the
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Department of Chinese Language and Literature of Beijing University. 写作目的 I am writing the letter in purpose of placing an order of some books. I am writing to inform you that I wish to resign from my current post/position. 表示感谢 Words fail me when I want to express my sincere gratitude to you. I take this opportunity to show you my heartfelt appreciation to the kind assistance you render me. 期待回信 I am looking forward to your favorable reply at your earliest convenience. Your prompt attention to my inquiry would be highly appreciated. 大纲样题 Directions: You are preparing for an English test and are in need of some reference books. Write a letter to the sales department of a bookstore to ask for:
  1. detailed information about the books you want,
  2. methods of payment,
  3. time and way of delivery.
Dear Sir or Madam, As I'm planning to take the National Entrance Test of English for MA/MS Candidates (NETEM) , I have decided to place an order of some NETEM books with due consideration of the good reputation of your bookstore and the high quality of your books. Firstly, please give me particular accounts as regards names, authors, publishing houses and prices of these books. Secondly, I also need to know the terms of payment and after-sell service. Thirdly, I wonder if it is convenient for you to deliver these books by EMS to the headquarters of Beijing New Oriental School by September 1, 20
  07. I would like to express my gratitude for your kind consideration of my requests. I look forward to hearing from you soon. Yours sincerely, Li Ming
写法二 首段 1句 改写提纲中要点一,写作目的 中间段 3-4句
  1. 改写要点二 1句
  2. 两点原因或情况 2句
  3. 小结 1句(可不写) 尾段3-4句
  1. 改写要点三 1句
  2. 两点原因或情况 2句
  3. 小结 1句(可不写)
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2006年真题 Directions You want to contribute to Project Hope by offering financial aid to a child in a remote area. Write a letter to the department concerned, asking them to help find a candidate. You should specify what kind of child you want to help and how you will carry out your plan. White your letter no less than 100 word. Write it neatly on ANSWER SHEET2 Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter; use “Li Ming” instead Do not write the address (10 points)
Dear Sir or Madam, As a student who can support myself and have some money to spare, I am writing to ask if you can help me find a potential beneficiary of Project Hope. I wonder whether it is convenient for you if two things regarding the child are taken into account. First, the child should come from Sichuan Province because I intend to help a child from my hometown. Second, it will be better if he or she is a primary school student who was forced to drop school because of abject poverty. I would like to help the recipient of my assistance annually until he graduates from college. Firstly, the money will cover his tuition fee and other expenses at school. Besides, I will correspond with him frequently so that he can seek advice whenever he needs. Yours sincerely, Li Ming
③结尾语。信的正文写完以后,应当有表致敬的结束语。结束语是写信人对收信人 的一种客套称呼,它需要根据写信人与收信人之间的关系而定,最常见的有:Yours sincerely或Sincerely yours(适用于各种关系)。比较正式的结束语有: (Very )Respectfully yours, Yours (very) respectfully,用于地位高的人或长辈; (Very)Truly yours, Yours (very )truly,用于不大熟悉而彼此间又需要客气的人; (Very )Faithfully yours, Yours (very) faithfully,用于对机关的正式函件。非正式的结 束语有:Affectionately yours, Yours affectionately, Lovingly yours,用于最亲密的友 人之间;Yours lovingly, Yours loving father用于亲密的家人之间;Lovingly, Devotedly, Your own, All my love用于情人、夫妻之间。 结束语只占一行,低于正文一二行,从信纸的中间或偏右的地方开始写。第一个词 的首字母要大写,末尾用逗号。 ④签名。在结束语下一二行,从信纸中间偏右的地方开始写。考卷中不要出现自己 的真实姓名,一般用Li Ming代替。
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  2.语体 书信类应用文的写作中主要有正式与非正式的两种语体或者说是书面语体与口语语 体。考生可根据书信类型、收信人身份选择合适的语体。如果是私人朋友间的书信 就要用非正式体。 像写给上级的辞职信这样的公务信函就应该是正式的、 貌的。 而 礼 有时,同一类型的书信也可以采用正式与非正式两种语体表达,如:邀请客人参加 晚会的书信比较随便、简短;而邀请参加学术会议的书信则很正规。请看下列两封 书信: Dear Zhao Xiang, My brother and I are going to have a small dancing party to celebrate the New Year at home. We are going to invite some old friends and hope you can come. The time is next Saturday, February 7, at seven o’clock in the evening. I know you have been very busy recently, but I do hope you can manage it. We are looking forward to your coming with great pleasure. Yours affectionately, Li Ming Dear Professor Zhang: I am pleased to inform you that Beijing QQ Technology Company is organizing a three day seminar entitled “Cruising the Internet Securely” in September 2005 in Beijing, as part of its continuous efforts to provide a platform for experts to meet and exchange expertise. You are cordially invited to participate in this important academic event of the city as our guest. Your round trip air ticket, accommodation and meal expenses will be subsidized. Should you be interested, please let us know at your earliest convenience. Look forward to seeing you in this conference, and to having you as an important part of this event. Sincerely, Li Ming Manager QQ Technology Co. Ltd Encl. Seminar Announcement, Timetable, Member List 从以上示例可以看出,正式体和非正式体书信虽然在本质上并没有什么区别,但在 形式上是有差异的。正式体的书信不仅在语言文体上比非正式的要正规,而且其表 达方式也不一样,往往比较注意文采,更委婉,也更详细具体。
  3. 审题构思攻略 审题构思步骤可以概括为“三个确定,一个注意”。
  1)根据写作对象确定文章用正式还是非正式的文体;
  2)根据题目中的关键词,确定主体内容的逻辑顺序;
  3)根据话题明确需要表达的感情类型,结合交际目的,确定表达方式,可以选用 合适的套语。
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注意:要重点选用自己熟悉的表述方式。 第一步 寻找关键词(以大纲样题为例) Directions: You are preparing for an English test and are in need of some reference books. Write a letter to the sales department of a bookstore to ask for:
  1. detailed information about the books you want,
  2. methods of payment,
  3. time and way of delivery. 第二步 思考框架
  1. 判断语域
  2. 四个部分
  1. 称呼
  2. 正文
  3. 结束语
  4. 签名 第三步 首尾段套语 开头:
  1.开门见山,直接说目的 I am writing this letter to ask for…
  2. 背景+目的 I will take CET-6 next December and quality test preparation materials are essential to success in the test.
  3.结尾 I would appreciate it if you could give me a reply as soon as possible. I should be grateful if you could give me an early reply. 第四步 要点的表达 询问的一般表达:I want to know…/ I wonder if…/ I would like to know…/ would it be possible for you to… 1 询问书的详细信息 I would like to know if you have the following books: please give me particular accounts as regards names, authors, publishing houses and prices of these books
  2. 询问付款方式 Besides, how do I pay for these books? How should I pay for these books? By cash or by other means?
  3. 询问寄书时间和方式 Finally, if I order these books now, when is the earliest time I can get them and how will these books be sent to my house? Thirdly, I wonder if it is convenient for you to deliver these books by EMS to 英文写作强调连贯性, 此可用代词或连接词使得语意连贯。 外还可用关联词, 因 此 如in addition, additionally, moreover, furthermore
  4.写作素材准备攻略 信函是传达感情交流意见的载体,因此任何信件的都可大致分成以下方面:
  1) 表达感情
  2)描述事件
  3) 陈述意见 考研信函也不例外。要把信函写的流畅、达到交流的目的,首先需要了解情感的正 确表达方式。在书信中经常体现的情感有:感激、愤怒、高兴、哀伤等。平时要留
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意和积累情感的表达方式(比如:it’s my pleasure to…)。 二、常见信函的基本类型及内容要点
  1.各类信函的内容要点 (
  1)求职信(Letters of Applying for a Job) 通常包含三个部分:a)引言部分写明写信原因、具体谋求的职位、获得申请信息的 来源(如:报纸广告、熟人介绍)等。b)发展部分叙述自己能够胜任该职位所具备 的条件,包括教育背景、工作经历、社会实践等。这部分内容要具体,不要空洞游 说或者列举,用事实说服会更有力。C)结尾部分再次表达对职位的渴望,争取面试 机会。如请求及时回信、希望当面洽谈、提供进一步接触的联系方式或指出附件中 有相关的证明文件等。 求职信的语言应严谨、规范、得体。其常用套语有: 引言:I am writing to apply for the post of... advertised in... In answer to your advertisement in... for the post of... , I would like to apply for... I have learned from... (sb) of your opening/vacancy for... (job), and am therefore writing to apply for the post. 发 : am now a senior student in (Department) of (University), and I expect to graduate I in (date) with a degree in (discipline). I receive my (degree) in (subject) from (name of university) in (date). Since graduation, I have been working with (name of company/organization) as (job title) I was awarded the prize of (title) in (month/year) for (eg. good performance in etc.) I am confident that my academic training has prepared me to handle the job. 结 :Enclosed are testimonials from my university teacher and my present employer. If these meet your requirements, please grant me an interview. 范例: Directions: You come across a want advertisement in 21st Century Talent Report for a store manager of a Panda chain restaurant. Write a letter to apply for the job by providing the following information:
  1)your interest in the position,
  2)your qualifications,
  3)your hope for an interview opportunity.
Dear Sir or Madam: Your advertisement in 21st Century Talent Report appealed to me for two reasons. I seek the opportunity to manage a newly opened store and your plan to open up a new branch of Panda restaurants can realize my wish. I am also interested in building my career in the food industry which is just your main business. Therefore, I have decided to submit my resume in application for the position of Store Manager. My relevant experience includes being a chef in a Sichuan restaurant for three years and an assistant store manager of New China restaurant till
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now in Beijing. I look forward to discussing opportunities at Panda with you. I will call you next week to make sure you have received my resume and to set up a mutually agreeable time for us to speak.
Yours truly, Li Ming (
  2)辞职信(Letters of Resignation) 正式的辞职信应具备以下要素: a)受理者恰当
 

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