考研英语新题型浅析
前言: 之所以将选择搭配题(新题型)置于网上,原因在于,鉴于该项目的不确定性和不可 预测性, 在该项目上无需投入过长的时间和过多的精力, 并且鉴于该部分提供了三种备选题 型,复习中也难于有的放矢。从 20
  05,2006 两年真题来看,试题仍选择的是 7 选
  5。因此 基于历年真题,对应对新题型的思路和技巧做一下分析,希望能对大家备考 2007 年考研英 语起到抛砖引玉的效用,不足之处,还望见谅。 大纲要求: 主要考查考生对诸如连贯性、一致性等语段特征以及文章结构的理解。 从大纲要求来看,介绍非常简略,因此可以认为选择搭配题是对考生阅读能力考查的 一种补充,旨在从语篇衔接角度考查考生衔接文章的能力(题型
  1、
  2),或是从语篇理解 角度考查考生概括段落大意或是理解段落内容的能力(题型
  3)。 应试分析: 解决选择搭配题,技巧可长篇大论,也可言简意赅。与其我们追求纷繁的技巧,不如 静心分析一下究竟该题型侧重考查的方面。 基于对语段特征和文章结构的理解的题型, 不要 求我们像在其他项目中对词汇语法等细节处进行分析, 而在于如何迅速而准确地把握语段的 主体概念。因此,选择搭配题的解题中心思路就在于明确文中语段和选项语段的主体概念, 继而通过寻找文中语段和选项语段主体概念的搭配, 从备选项中筛选可能选项, 进一步排除 从而得出正确答案。 另一方面,和确定主体概念具有等同效果的是确定特殊细节,诸如时间、人名、专有 名词等,也可以确定选项出现的可能位置和顺序。 操作步骤:
下面以 2006 年真题为例,说明以上内容在具体应试过程中的操作。
On the north bank of the Ohio River sits Evansville, Ind., home of David Williams, 52, and of a riverboat casino where gambling games are played. During several years of gambling in that casino, Williams, a state auditor
earning $35,000 a year, lost approximately $175,0
  00. He had never gambled before the casino sent him a coupon for $20 worth of gambling. He visited the casino, lost the $20 and left. On his second visit he lost $8
  00. The casino issued to him, as a good customer, a Fun Card, which when used in the casino earns points for meals and drinks, and enables the casino to track the user's gambling activities. For Williams, these activities become what he calls “electronic heroin”. (
  41). In 1997 he lost $21,000 to one slot machine in two days. In March 1997 he lost $72,1
  86. He sometimes played two slot machines at a time, all night, until the boat docked at 5 a.m., then went back aboard when the casino opened at 9 a.m. Now he is suing the casino, charging that it should have refused his patronage because it knew he was addicted. It did know he had a problem. In March 1998, a friend of Williams's got him involuntarily confined to a treatment center for addictions, and wrote to inform the casino of Williams's gambling problem. The casino included a photo of Williams among those of banned gamblers, and wrote to him a “cease admissions” letter. Noting the “medical/psychological” nature of problem gambling behaviors, the letter said that before being readmitted to the casino he would have to present medical/psychological information demonstrating that patronizing the casino would pose no threat to his safety or well-being. (
  42) . The Wall Street Journal reports that the casino has 24 signs warning: “Enjoy the fun ... and always bet with your head, not over it”. Every entrance ticket lists a toll-free number for counseling from the Indiana Department of Mental Health. Nevertheless, Williams's suit charges that the casino, knowing he was “helplessly addicted to gambling,” intentionally worked to “lure” him to “engage in conduct against his will.” Well. (
  43) .
The fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) says “pathological gambling” involves persistent, recurring and uncontrollable pursuit less of money than of the thrill of taking risks in quest of a windfall. (
  44) . Pushed by science, or what claims to be science, society is reclassifying what once were considered character flaws or moral failings as personality disorders akin to physical disabilities. (
  45) . Forty-four states have lotteries, 29 have casinos, and most of these states are to varying degrees dependent on??you might say addicted to??revenues from wagering. And since the first Internet gambling site was created in 1995, competition for gamblers' dollars has become intense. The Oct. 28 issue of Newsweek reported that 2 million gamblers patronize 1,800 virtual casinos every week. With $
  3.5 billion being lost on Internet wagers this year, gambling has passed pornography as the Web's most profitable business.
(A) Although no such evidence was presented, the casino's marketing department continued to pepper him with mailings. And he entered the casino and used his Fun Card without being detected. (B) It is unclear what luring was required, given his compulsive behavior. And in what sense was his will operative? (C) By the time he had lost $5,000 he said to himself that if he could get back to even, he would quit. One night he won $5,500, but he did not quit. (D) Gambling has been a common feature of American life forever, but for a long time it was broadly considered a sin, or a social disease. Now it is a social policy: the most important and aggressive promoter of gambling in America is the government. (E) David Williams’s suit should trouble this gambling nation. But don’t bet on it.
(F) It is worrisome that society is medicalizing more and more behavioral problems, often defining as addictions what earlier, sterner generations explained as weakness of will. (G) The anonymous, lonely, undistracted nature of online gambling is especially conducive to compulsive behavior. But even if the government knew how to move against Internet gambling, what would be its grounds for doing so?
相对来讲,确定句子中的主体概念一般是明确主语,(
  1)当句子的主语是 从句或是过长短语的话即是明确从句或是短语中中心词,(
  2)当句子是主系表 结构且主语过长时即是表语,(
  3)当句子主语为代词或出现特殊代词(such, that 等)时则说明存在衔接,需留心。 确定特殊特殊细节包括:(
  1)大写字母??人名、地名、专有名词等(
  2) 数字??时间、金钱等(
  3)特殊符号,如冒号,引号等。 通常选项较短的情况下确定选项的主体概念要更为容易,可以在选项中标 注出一部分主体概念再在整篇阅读中带着确定的概念在文章中确定主体概念。 通过如上分析,我们不难发现, (
  41)中备选项有 A,C (
  41)出现在段首,必然和后文主体概念对应,因此选项的主体概念应为 he(Williams),因此 A 和 C 候选。

  42)中备选项有 A,E (
  42) 较为困难, 因为该位置的上下内容不明显, 上文的结尾出说“the letter said that...”,因此下文内容可能与信的内容衔接,而信的内容中主体概念仍为 he;下文中出现“The Wall Street Journal reports that...”,衔接内容也应为报导 内容中的主体概念,而其中的主体概念为 casino(赌场),而同时出现两个主 体概念的只有 A,因此正确选项确定为 A。由此进一步确定(
  41)的正确选项为 C。

  43)中备选项仅有 B,E (
  43)较为困难在于其上下内容同样缺乏明确主体概念,不过鉴于已经在 之前确定的和在下面排除的选项, 备选项只有 B 和 E, E 的第二句“But don't bet 而 on it.”和下文无法衔接, B 中的主体概念“lure”和“will”均出现在上文的特殊细节 而 中,词汇的重复出现说明 B 为正确选项。

  44)中备选项仅有 F (
  44)出现在该段首,因此要与后文构成衔接必然在主体概念上对应,而 后句的主体概念为 society(社会),符合的选项仅有 F。

  45)中备选项有 D,G 最后一段首句的主体概念是 states(州),而在选项中能与 states 对应的 概念只有 government,因此 D,G 选项为备选,而 G 选项中出现了 online gambling(在线赌博),而该概念仅在最后一段中出现过,并且不是中心概念, 仅是句中的细节内容,不构成语篇衔接,因此正确选项为 D。 因此正确的答案顺序为:C A B F D
新题型归纳分析
临考在即,赘述过多的方法和技巧只会使得思路更加混乱,希望每位即将踏上考场的 考生都能做到冷静审慎仔细认真, 观察分析考场上所遇到的问题而非是一味地依赖于方法或 是技巧。 新题型的三类题型中: (
  1)选择搭配题 以 2005 和 2006 考题来看,2007 年的当家花旦很可能依然是选择搭配题,也就是俗称 的 7 选
  5,从整体试题难度来看,2005 年难于 2006 年,而 2007 的难度估计变化不会太大。 2005 年的难度递增数量是典型的
  1:
  2:
  2,而 2006 年则比较均衡,是
  0:
  5:
  0,因而很可 能 2007 的分布会趋向于
  1:
  3:
  1。 希望考生抓住新题型的脉门,就是不求全,但求对,换句话说,就是尽可能筛出简单 题目的正确选项,而不是盲目的进行通篇筛选。
20
  05,2006 均出现如下现象:
  1.选项中出现“”、人名、大写字母、数字、时间、可以迅速归类筛选选项。
  2.选项开始出现关联词,如 and,or,but 等,可以迅速归类筛选。 在无从确定选项的特点时,标出每个选项中句子的主语或是中心词(主要是名词), 再通过通读文章寻找吻合特征的若干选项,既可以稳定情绪,也能够提高正确率。 最后记住,7 选 5 不求全,但求对,如果时间有限的话,明确简单选项后,在可能项中 猜也不失为可行之计。 (
  2)段落排序题 我的原话:考排序不如考选择搭配。因为排序的选项均是正确选项。确定线索的思路 和选择搭配题是一致的, 只是在于理清选项间的顺序, 因此首先确定第一题和最后一题的范 围是有凭据的,就在于题目给出的文章的首尾段。 提醒一句,还是不要都填相同选项,不到万不得已。 (
  3)主旨/举例题 如果真的考了,那在考场上一定会听到很多人按捺不住的窃喜声的。细心,不要冲动, 记住,冲动是魔鬼,考研也就是利用了你这一点。 最后,睡一个好觉吧,祝福每个人的明天都会迎来明亮的曙光。
 

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