第三讲) 应用文写作指导 (第三讲)
六 报告
(一) 书面报告(Written Report)
  1. 写作格式 To:
From: Date: Subject:

  2. 写作类型:调查报告,工作总结等
  3. 注意事项: 结构严谨 内容清晰
要求:
(
  1) 写好一份报告,撰写人首先要对所要 写的内容有充分的了解。写作时,应尽量 多用被动语态,少用第一人称,以免主观、 冒昧。 (
  2) 报告要有明确的中心思想、清楚的 段落层次和合理的结构安排。
To:Mr. Johnson From:Li Nan Subject:Ship Accident off West Coast of The Yangtze River,No Casualties(人员伤亡) Date:April.
  4,2005 Yesterday evening two boats collided in thick fog in The Yangtze River not far from Wu Han. One was a cargo ship(货轮) carrying lumber apparently lumber,apparently on its way to The Yangtze River. The other was a National ferry on its regular run from Jiu Jiang to Wu Han. However,because of the weather conditions,the captains did not realize the danger until a few seconds before the collision took place. Consequently,there was no time for them to prevent the accident. Fortunately,there were no casualties among the crews or passengers,but both ships suffered badly damages. A spokesman for the port authorities said that a committee would be set up to determine the cause of the collision.
(二) 读书报告(Book Report)
首段: 作者生平、简介 主体:故事梗概(参见摘要写法) 注意客观 尾段:评论作品风格、表现手法 评论优缺点
Around the World in Eighty Days by Jules Verne Jules Verne (1828-19
  05), the author of Around the World in Eighty Days, was born in Nantes, France. He devoted himself to literature and wrote several scientific romances, which gained him the name ?Father of Modern Science Fiction. This is a book which tells us an exciting story about an English gentleman, Mr Phileas Fogg, who makes a bet with his clubmates and manages to travel around the world in eighty days. It gives us a vivid description of the many difficulties and incidents which happen on his journey. From this story, we can see the author’s deep love for the sea, travel and adventure, which played a vital role in his life. We are also astonished and convinced by his fertile imagination and scientific and geographical knowledge.
模版句型
The report provides an introduction to... 本报告介绍了…… This report will summarize... 本报告将总结… The report is hereby made to ask for the approval of the board for the solution of the problem. 请董事会批准这件事的解决方案。
We will fulfill the task ahead of time. 我们将提前完成任务。 Upon the request of the committee, we have conducted the report. 应委员会的请求,我们完成了这份报告。
七 摘要
文章摘要是对所写文章主要内容的精 炼概括。美国人称摘要为“Abstract”,而英 国人则喜欢称其为“Summary”。 写摘要时,应用最为简练的语言来表达论 文之精华。论文摘要的重点应放在所研究 的成果和结论上。
注意事项
(论文摘要) ABSTRACT
This thesis attempts to apply general knowledge of linguistics,anthropology and translation to the research of cultural factors in translation and their transfer. The thesis concludes a brief introduction and four chapters.The introduction presents the specific topic and raises several related issues.Chapter One is devoted to the relationship between language,culture and translation.Chapter Two focus on the categorization of cultural factors in translation. Chapter Three talks about three topics:translatability,major translation methods of cultural factors,and the transfer of some important cultural subcategories. The last chapter,gives an analysis of some inappropriate translations and draws a general conclusion for the whole thesis.
常见的摘要句型有:

  1)This paper deals with...
  2)This article focuses on the topics of (that, having, etc)...
  3)This essay presents knowledge that...
  4)This thesis discusses...
  5)This thesis analyzes...

  6)This paper provides an overview of...
  7) This paper elaborates on ...
  8) This article gives an overview of...
  9) This article compares...and summarizes key findings.
  10) This paper includes discussions concerning...
开头
①The author of this article reviews (or: discusses,describes,summarizes,examines)something… … ②This article reviews (or:reports,tells of,is about,concerns)something……. ③This article has been prepared (or:designed,written)……. ④The purpose of this article is to determine something……. ⑤The problem of something is discussed …….
结论和建议,一般有以下几种写法: ①The author suggests (recommends,concludes)that……. ②This article shows that……. ③It is suggested that……. ④The author’s suggestion (or:conclusion )is that …… ⑤The author finds it necessary to …….
We must accept finite disappointment, but we must never lose infinite hope. -- Martin Luther King 我们必须接受失望,因为它是有限的,但 千万不可失去希望,因为它是无穷的。 -- 马丁 ? 路德 ? 金
 

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