考研英语真题阅读理解试题及名师解析(十一) 考研英语真题阅读理解试题及名师解析(十一)
2009-11-07 海天教育
Since the dawn of human ingenuity, people have devised ever more cunning tools to cope with work that is dangerous, boring, burdensome, or just plain nasty. That compulsion has resulted in robotics?the science of conferring various human capabilities on machines. And if scientists have yet to create the mechanical version of science fiction, they have begun to come close.
As a result, the modern world is increasingly populated by intelligent gizmos whose presence we barely notice but whose universal existence has removed much human labor. Our factories hum to the rhythm of robot assembly arms. Our banking is done at automated teller terminals that thank us with mechanical politeness for the transaction. Our subway trains are controlled by tireless robot-drivers. And thanks to the continual miniaturization of electronics and micro-mechanics, there are already robot systems that can perform some kinds of brain and bone surgery with submillimeter accuracy?far greater precision than highly skilled physicians can achieve with their hands alone.
But if robots are to reach the next stage of laborsaving utility, they will have to operate with less human supervision and be able to make at least a few decisions for themselves?goals that pose a real challenge. "While we know how to tell a robot to handle a specific error," says Dave Lavery, manager of a robotics program at NASA, "we can't yet give a robot enough 'common sense' to reliably interact with a dynamic world."
Indeed the quest for true artificial intelligence has produced very mixed results. Despite a spell of initial optimism in the 1960s and 1970s when it appeared that transistor circuits and microprocessors might be able to copy the action of the human brain by the year 2010, researchers lately have begun to extend that forecast by decades if not centuries.
What they found, in attempting to model thought, is that the human brain's roughly one hundred billion nerve cells are much more talented?and human perception far more complicated?than previously imagined. They have built robots that can recognize the error of a machine panel by a fraction of a millimeter in a controlled factory environment. But the human mind can glimpse a rapidly changing scene and immediately disregard the 98 percent that is irrelevant, instantaneously focusing on the monkey at the side of a winding forest road or the single suspicious face in a big crowd. The most advanced computer systems on Earth can't approach that kind of ability, and neuroscientists still don't know quite how we do it.

  26. Human ingenuity was initially demonstrated in
[A]the use of machines to produce science fiction.
[B]the wide use of machines in manufacturing industry.
[C]the invention of tools for difficult and dangerous work.
[D]the elite's cunning tackling of dangerous and boring work.

  27. The word "gizmos" (line 1, paragraph
  2) most probably means
[A]programs. [B]experts. [C]devices.
[D]creatures.

  28. According to the text, what is beyond man's ability now is to design a robot that can
[A]fulfill delicate tasks like performing brain surgery.
[B]interact with human beings verbally.
[C]have a little common sense.
[D]respond independently to a changing world.

  29. Besides reducing human labor, robots can also
[A]make a few decisions for themselves.
[B]deal with some errors with human intervention.
[C]improve factory environments.
[D]cultivate human creativity.

  30. The author uses the example of a monkey to argue that robots are
[A]expected to copy human brain in internal structure.
[B]able to perceive abnormalities immediately.
[C]far less able than human brain in focusing on relevant information.
[D]best used in a controlled environment.
名师解析

  26. Human ingenuity was initially demonstrated in 人类的创造性最初表现在
[A]the use of machines to produce science fiction. 用机器来创作科幻小说.
[B]the wide use of machines in manufacturing industry. 制造业对机器的广泛使 用.
[C]the invention of tools for difficult and dangerous work.
发明工具以处理困难和危险的工作.
[D]the elite's cunning tackling of dangerous and boring work.
精英人士对危险和枯燥的工作的巧妙的处理.
【答案】 C
【考点】 事实细节题.
【分析】 通过"Human ingenuity"和"initially"可以定位到第一段开始."从人类产生 智慧初期至今,人们一直在设计越来越巧妙的工具来应付那些危险的,枯燥的,繁重的 或者直接就是肮脏的工作. "由于讲的是人类最初的创造力, 因此可以排除[A], [B], [D].

  27. The word "gizmos" (Line 1, Paragraph
  2) most probably means
单词"gizmos"(第二段第一行)最有可能的意思是
[A]programs. 程序.
[B]experts. 专家.
[C]devices.
设备. [D]creatures. 生物.
【答案】 C
【考点】 词义题.
【分析】 本题虽然考查的是词义,但是显然不是希望考生通过储备更大的词汇来 回答,而是希望考生能够利用文中出现的细节来推断这个单词的意思.第二段第一句的 意思说"由此引起的结果是,现代世界已经充斥着越来越多的智能,尽管我们几乎 都注意不到它们,但它们的普遍存在却节省了许多人类劳力."然后作者提及到了"工厂 机械手","自动柜员机"以及"机器人驾驶员"等等.由此我们可以认定这些设施都是对 "gizmo"的例举和解释.而这几样东西具有一个共同的特征,即它们都是"工具".相比四 个选项,只有[C]最合适.

  28. According to the text, what is beyond man's ability now is to design a robot that can
根据本文,现在超越人类能力范围的是设计一种能的机器人.
[A] fulfill delicate tasks like performing brain surgery.
完成诸如脑手术这样的精细的工作.
[B] interact with human beings verbally.
与人类进行口头交流.
[C] have a little common sense.
有一些常识.
[D] respond independently to a changing world.
对一个变化的世界独立应付.
【答案】 D
【考点】 事实细节题.
【分析】 根据"超越人类能力"这个关键信息,我们可以定位到第三段中"Dave Lavery"的第二句话,即"we can't yet give a robot enough'common sense'to reliably interact with a dynamic world".因为该句中的"dynamic"就是"动态的,变化的"意思, 因此我们可以判定答案[D]是正确的.[A]文中已经提及.[B]的例子就是"自动柜员机". [C]可以在第三段最后一句"我们不能给他足够的常识"中找到被排除的依据.

  29. Besides reducing human labor, robots can also
除了减少人类劳动,机器人还能够
[A]make a few decisions for themselves.为自己做几个决策.
[B]deal with some errors with human intervention.通过人类干预处理一些错误.
[C]improve factory environments. 改善工厂环境.
[D]cultivate human creativity.培养人的创造性.
【答案】 B
【考点】 事实细节题.
【分析】 本题要求考生寻找机器人还能够从事什么工作,这就需要对四个选项进 行比较.寻找答案.[A]提到机器人能够为自己做几个决策,通过"decision"这个单词可 以定位到第三段第一句话"但是如果机器人要进入节省劳力的下一个阶段,他们必须能 够在更少的人工监控下运行,并且至少能够独立地做一些决定",这句话表明,目前机
器人还不能独立做一些决定.[B]的意思符合第三段第三句,"虽然我们知道如何让机器 人去纠正一个特定的错误".至于[C],文中提到机器人是受环境控制的,而不是反之. [D]的说法也反了.

  30. The author uses the example of a monkey to argue that robots are
作者使用猴子的例子,为的是说机器人
[A] expected to copy human brain in internal structure.
被期望复制人脑内部结构.
[B] able to perceive abnormalities immediately.
能够立即觉察到不正常情况.
[C] far less able than human brain in focusing on relevant information.
在聚焦相关信息方面远远不如人类.
[D] best used in a controlled environment.
最适合在受控环境下使用.
【答案】 C
【考点】 作者意图题.
【分析】 作者最后一段提到"猴子"这个例子,是考查文章最后一段的理解.由于文 章举这个例子就是为了说明计算机虽然功能强大,但是仍然无法和人脑的复杂性相比,
因为人脑看一眼迅速变化的场景就能够迅速的排除不相干的信息, 立即把注意力集中到 蜿蜒的森林小路边的一只猴子,这一点计算机是做不到的.因此,可以判断[C]正确.
难句解析: 难句解析:

  1. Since the dawn of human ingenuity, people have devised ever more cunning tools to cope with work that is dangerous, boring, burdensome, or just plain nasty.
【结构分析】 本句前面是"since"引导的一个时间状语,后面主句中有一个"that" 引导的定语从句"that is dangerous, boring, burdensome, or just plain nasty"用来修饰 "work".

  2. As a result, the modern world is increasingly populated by intelligent gizmos whose presence we barely notice but whose universal existence has removed much human labor.
【结构分析】 本句的主句是"the modern world is increasingly populated by intelligent gizmos", 后面是两个"whose"引导的定语从句, "but"连接了这两个定语从句.

  3. There are already robot systems that can perform some kinds of brain and bone surgery with submillimeter accuracy?far greater precision than highly skilled physicians can achieve with their hands alone.
【结构分析】 本句是一个"there be"结构,"robot systems"后面有一个"that"引导 的定语从句,而破折号引出一个补充说明部分来修饰"submillimeter accuracy",其中包 含一个比较级.

  4. But the human mind can glimpse a rapidly changing scene and immediately disregard the 98 percent that is irrelevant, instantaneously focusing on the monkey at the side of a winding forest road or the single suspicious face in a big crowd.
【结构分析】 本句的主语是"the human mind",并列谓语"can glimpse"和 "disregard", 逗号后面"instantaneously focusing on the monkey at the side of a winding forest road or the single suspicious face in a big crowd"是现在分词做状语.
全文翻译: 全文翻译:
从人类产生智慧初期至今,人们一直在设计越来越巧妙的工具来应付那些危险的, 枯燥的,繁重的或者直接就是肮脏的工作.这种动力产生了机器人科学??一门将人类 的能力赋予机器的科学.如果科学家们还没有创造出科幻小说的机械版本,他们也已经 很接近这个目标了.
由此引起的结果是,现代世界已经充斥着越来越多的智能装置,尽管我们几乎都注 意不到他们,但他们的普遍存在却节省了许多人类劳力.我们的工厂里轰鸣着机器人生 产线的节奏;我们的金融服务在自动柜员机上完成,它们还会机械地,礼貌地感谢我们 使用业务;我们的地铁车辆由不知疲倦的机器人司机驾驶.多亏了电子和微观机械仪器 的不断缩小, 现在已有一些机器人系统能够进行脑部和骨髓手术, 准确性精确到亚毫米, 远远超过熟练的医生用他们的双手所能达到的水平.
但是如果机器人要进入节省劳力的下一个阶段,他们必须能够在更少的人工监控下 运行,并且至少能够独立地做一些决定.这些目标提出了一个真正的挑战."虽然我们 知道如何让机器人去纠正一个特定的错误,"NASA 的一个机器人项目经理戴维拉维里 说,"我们仍然不能赋予机器人以足够的'常识',使它们能够与动态的世界进行可靠的交 流."
实际上对真正的人工智能的探索已经产生了各种各样的结果.虽然刚开始在 20 世 纪 60 和 70 年代有过一段乐观的时期, 那时候看起来晶体管电路和微处理器的发展将使 它们在 2010 年能够模仿人类大脑的活动??但是最近研究人员已经开始将这个预测延 后了不是数百年至少也有数十年.
在试图建造思维模型的过程中,研究人员发现,人类大脑中的近 1,000 亿个神经细 胞要比以前想象得更聪明,人类的感知也比以前想象得更复杂.他们建造出来的机器人 在严格控制的工厂环境里,能够在仪表盘上识别一毫米以下的误差.但是人的大脑能够 扫描一个快速变化的场景,迅速排除 98%的不相干的物体,立即聚焦于森林中婉蜒道 路旁的一只猴子,或者人群中的一张可疑的脸.地球上最先进的计算机系统也不能达到 这种能力,并且神经学科学家仍然不知道我们是怎样做到这一点的.
 

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