2005 Text 1
Everybody loves a fat pay rise. Yet pleasure at your own can vanish if you learn that a colleague has been given a bigger one. Indeed, if he has a reputation for slacking, you might even be outraged. Such behaviour is regarded as "all too human", with the underlying assumption that other animals would not be capable of this finely developed sense of grievance. But a study by Sarah Brosnan and Frans de Waal of Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, which has just been published in Nature, suggests that it is all too monkey, as well.
The researchers studied the behaviour of female brown capuchin monkeys. They look cute. They are good-natured, co-operative creatures, and they share their food tardily. Above all, like their female human counterparts, they tend to pay much closer attention to the value of "goods and services" than males.
Such characteristics make them perfect candidates for Dr. Brosnan's and Dr. de waal's study. The researchers spent two years teaching their monkeys to exchange tokens for food. Normally, the monkeys were happy enough to exchange pieces of rock for slices of cucumber. However, when two monkeys were placed in separate but adjoining chambers, so that each could observe what the other was getting in return for its rock, their behaviour became markedly different.
In the world of capuchins grapes are luxury goods (and much preferable to cucumbers) So when one monkey was handed a grape in exchange for her token, the second was reluctant to hand hers over for a mere piece of cucumber. And if one received a grape without having to provide her token in exchange at all, the other either tossed her own token at the researcher or out of the chamber, or refused to accept the slice of cucumber .Indeed, the mere presence of a grape in the other chamber (without an actual monkey to eat it) was enough to induce resentment in a female capuchin.
The researches suggest that capuchin monkeys, like humans, are guided by social emotions. In the wild, they are a co-operative, group-living species, Such co-operation is likely to be stable only when each animal feels it is not being cheated. Feelings of righteous indignation, 1
it seems, are not the preserve of people alone, Refusing a lesser reward completely makes these feelings abundantly clear to other members of the group. However, whether such a sense of fairness evolved independently in capuchins and humans, or whether it stems from the common ancestor that the species had 35 million years ago, is, as yet, an unanswered question.

  21. In the opening paragraph, the author introduces his topic by
[A]. posing a contrast.
[B]. justifying an assumption.
[C]. making a comparison.
[D]. explaining a phenomenon.

  22. The statement "it is all too monkey" (Last line, paragraph l) implies that
[A]. monkeys are also outraged by slack rivals.
[B]. resenting unfairness is also monkeys' nature.
[C]. monkeys, like humans, tend to be jealous of each other.
[D]. no animals other than monkeys can develop such emotions.

  23. Female capuchin monkeys were chosen for the research most probably because they are
[A]. more inclined to weigh what they get.
[B]. attentive to researchers' instructions.
2
[C]. nice in both appearance and temperament.
[D]. more generous than their male companions

  24. Dr. Brosnan and Dr. de Waal have eventually found in their study that the monkeys
[A]. prefer grapes to cucumbers.
[B]. can be taught to exchange things.
[C]. will not be co-operative if feeling cheated. [D]. are unhappy when separated from others.

  25. What can we infer from the last paragraph?
[A]. Monkeys can be trained to develop social emotions.
[B]. Human indignation evolved from an uncertain source.
[C]. Animals usually show their feelings openly as humans do.
[D]. Cooperation among monkeys remains stable only in the wild. 重点词汇: 重点词汇:
a fat pay rise 涨得很高的工资
vanish / 5vAniF/ (消失, 不复存在) The wonderful vanished into thin air.美梦化作泡影 I thought it would rain, but the clouds have vanished and it's a fine day.我原以为天要下雨的,可是云消失 了,是个好天。[巧记]van=empty 空+ish 形容词后缀:倾向于。
colleague / 5kRli:g/ (同事,同僚)David is a colleague of mine.戴维是我的同事[巧记]col=con 共同+leag=leg 选+ue→共同被选出的。[辨] companion (同伴,共事者)即 com 一起+pan 面包 3
+ion→一起吃面包→谋生的人。 A dog is a faithfull companyion. 狗是忠实的伙伴
reputation / 5repju(:)5teiFEn/ (名气,名声,名望)a man of good reputation 名誉很好的人 Live up to one's reputation.不负盛名[巧记]re 再一,重新+put 思考+ation。
slack / slAk/ (懈怠,懒散)slack work 马虎的工作 slack laws 不完善的法律 Bussiness is slack at this season.这一季节生意萧条 The tennis net hung slack.网球的网松悬着[记:谐音]怪物"史莱克 "是"懒散"的。
outrage / 5autreidV/ (暴行,伤害,激怒)。 An outrage against justice.对正义的严重损害 Members of Parliament were outraged by the news of bomb outrages in the country.国内发 生了炸弹暴力事件的消息引起了国会议员的义愤 [巧记]out 过度+rage 动怒→"出离愤怒了"
all to human 人所特有的→人性
underling (潜在的,含蓄的) There are underlying similarities between all human beings. 人与人之间有内在相似之处 The underlying theme of the novel is very serious.小说内在的主题很 严肃[巧记]under(下面)+ling
assumption /E5sQmpFEn/ (假定;承担;呈现) The theory is based on a series of wrong assumptions.这一理论是以一系列错误的设想为根据的。Their assumption that their project under way was something entirely new proved to be untrue.他们以为他们正在进行的课题是崭新的,事实 证明不是那样。 [记]assume(假设)
grievance /5^ri:vEns/ (抱怨,不平,怨愤) to have a grievance against sb.抱怨某人 He extravagantce give him a sense of grievance.他的挥霍使他感到不满 [巧记]griev=heavy 沉重 +ance。
capuchin monkey 僧帽猴 一种原产于美洲的卷尾猴(sapajou),头上有类似风帽的一镞头发
good-natured (和蔼的,和善的) 又如:mean-natured 情绪性的 sweet-natured 性格温和的
4
creature(人, 动物, 傀儡, 创造物) She was a poor creature.她曾是个可怜的女人。 [巧记]creat (创造)+ure(尾缀)
tardily /`tB:dIlI/ (缓慢) 形容词:tardy /5tB:di/ 拖拉的。[记:谐音]邋" 遢地" 是由于"拖拉" 造成的。
counterpart /5kauntEpB:t/ (对应的人或物) 即 counter 相反+part 部分="对应的部分"→对音的 人或物。The Red Cross Society of China and its Icelandic counterpart. 中国红十字会和冰岛红十 字会 Canada's Prime Minister is the counterpart of the U.S. president. 加拿大总理相当于美国总 统。参见 2000 年 Passage 4 。
candidate / 5kAndidit/ (候选人,求职者)Masteral candidate 考研人 [巧记]cand 白,发光 +id+ate→白色的人→候选人。
in exchange for (作为[对...的]交换[或替代])[巧记]exchange=ex 出+change 换→换出
token /5tEukEn/ (象征的东西,代币) Tears are queer tokens of happiness. 眼泪是快乐的一 种奇特的表示 We shook hands as a token of our friendship.我们握手,以表示我们的友谊。
slice / slais/ (薄片,切片;一份,部分)a slice of bread 一片面包 a slice of good luck.一份好运 a book to amuse you, not to give you a slice of life. 一本供你消遣的书,并不是告诉你一段实际生 活 He sliced his fingers.他用刀切伤了手指。
adjoining (毗连的)The twins have adjoining rooms. 双胞胎的房间是挨着的 [巧记]ad 向+join 加入,结合+ing 行为结果。
chamber(房间, 议院)chamber of the heart 心室 In Britain the upper chamber or parliament is the House of Lords, the lower the House of Commons.英国的上议院或国会是贵族议院,下议院 是众议院。
in return for (作为[对...的]交换[报答,回报]) He give her some roses in return for her kindnesss.他送她一些玫瑰以报答她的好意 5
markedly (显著的,明显的) a woman of marked intelligence 聪明过人的女子 Tuition at American universities varies markedly depending on the type of instituation and its endowment. 美国各大学的学费有显著差别, 这取决于学校的类别和所得到的捐赠基金 [巧记] marked (有记号的, 显著的)
luxury / 5lQkFEri/ (奢侈品, 华贵) 即 lux 光亮→豪华+ury。 Luxurious adj.豪华舒适的 luxuryiate v.纵情享受 to luxuryiate in the warm,spring sunshine.尽情享受春日温暖的阳光 Cream cakes are no long a luxury.奶油蛋糕再也不是奢侈品了。
reluctant /ri5lQktEnt/ (不愿的,勉强的)Suggestion systems can work - don't be reluctant to use them.建议制度是有效的--不要不愿使用它们 She was very reluctant to admit the truth. 她很 不情愿地承认了这事实。[巧记]re 反复+luct=lect 拾,捡+ant 形容词后缀→应为觉得"不称心",所以 "反复拾捡"→但最后还是"不情愿的,勉强的"。参见 1994 Passage 5 。
toss / tRs/ ([常与 to, away, aside, out 连用]扔,抛) He tossed off a few verses of poetry. 他 轻而易举地写出了几行诗 They tossed the ball to each other.他们把球互相扔来扔去。
induce / in5dju:s/ (劝诱,促使)What induced you to do such a stupid thing? 是什么促使你 作出这等蠢事来的人 One of these pills is guaranteed to induce sleep. 这些药丸只要一粒就能使人 安眠 Too much food induces sleepiness.吃得过饱会产生睡意。[巧记]in 往内+duce=duct 引导→ "步步为营,诱敌深入"。 Presence
resentment /ri5zentmEnt/ (愤恨,怨恨)He was filled with resentment at the way one has been treated. 他因受到如此对待而满腔怨恨 Resentment edged his reply.岔恨使他的回答非常尖锐。 [巧记]re 去掉,相反+sent 感觉+ment→负面的感觉→怨恨。
emotions / i5mEuFEnz/ (激情,情绪,情感) The speaker appealed to our emotions rather to our minds. 演讲者激发了我们的情感而不是启发我们的思考 Love, hatred, and grief are emotion. 爱、恨、悲伤都是感情。
righteous / raitjEs/ (正当的,正直的,公正的) righteous indignation 义愤 Don't adopt that 6
righteous tone of voice! 别用那种一本正经的腔调说话。(贬)[巧记]right 正确的+eous 。
indignation /7indi^5neiFEn/ (愤慨, 义愤)indignation against a handful of terrorists. 对一 小撮恐怖分子的义愤 [巧记] 往里+dig 挖+nation 民族→挖民族→比挖祖坟还难受→能不愤慨吗? in [记] 形容词:indignant
preserve / pri5zE:v/ (保存,保护,保护区) preserve one's eyesight 保护视力 God preserve us! 上帝保佑我们吧 The fishing in this stretch of river is strictly preserved. 此河段严禁外人捕鱼 The Town Council spent a lot of money to preserve the old castle and other places of historic interest.市政委员会花了不少钱来维修那座古城堡和其它古迹。
reward / ri5wR:d/ (报酬,奖金;值得) One reward of my job is meeting people. 我在工作 中的收获是能认识许多人 As well as the stained glass,the carring on the roof also reward attention.屋顶上的雕刻和彩色玻璃一样值得注意 It's a reward for virtue.那是对美德的回报。
abundantly / E5bQndEntli/ (丰富地,充裕地) He's made his views abundantly clear.他已经 充分表明自己的观点 [记]名词:abundance 形容词:abundant
evolve / i5vRlv/ ( 逐 渐 形 成 , 进 化 ) The American constitution was planed;the British constitution evolved.美国宪法是精心制订的,英国宪法是约定俗成的 The developmental history of the society tells us that man has evolved from the ape.
社会发展史告诉我们人是从类人猿进化来的。
as yet 至今为止
stem from (源于... 有...造成) a talented art critic stemming from a painter. 出生画家,富 有才干的评论家
ancestor / 5AnsistE/ (祖先,祖宗) His ancestors had come to England as refugess.他的祖 先来到英国的时候是难民[巧记]an=ante 前+cest=cess 行走,前进+or→走在前面的人→祖先。 [比 较记忆] descendant 作"后裔,子孙"解,而作"下降(的)"解,一般拼成 descendent 7
incline([常与 to, towards 连用]倾向于,趋于)I incline to fatness.我有些发胖。 难句分析: 难句分析: ①Such behaviour is regarded as "all too human", with the underlying assumption that other animals would not be capable of this finely developed sense of grievance. 前一分句是句子的主句,其中使用了短语 regard...as...的被动形式;with 加名词作状语,即"带有潜在 的假定",其中 assumption 后接有 that 引导的同位语从句解释说明假定的内容。 翻译:这种行为被看作是"人之长情",他潜在的假定就是其他动物不可能有这种高度发达的不公平意识。 ②But a study by Sarah Brosnan and Frans de Waal of Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, whic
 

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