科技英语翻译方法? 科技英语翻译方法?增译 省译 I am looking forward to the holidays.我在等待假日的到来. Indeed, the reverse is true 实际情况恰好相反. (增译名词) This is "good" zone because it protects us from the sun's UV rays. 这是良性臭氧,因为这部分臭氧保护我们免遭太阳紫外线的伤害. The engine drives the wheels of the car. 发动机带动汽车的轮子. The temperature in the combustion chamber was in excess of 2000℃ degrees. 燃烧室中的温度超过了 2000℃. 从上面例子可以看出,英语和汉语在表达上存有很大的差异.在翻译过程中,如 果按原文一对一的翻译,译文很难符合汉语的表达习惯,会显得生搬硬套,牵强 附会.译者在翻译过程中,应根据两种语言的特点,在忠实原文的基础上,适当 地进行增译或省译. 增译 所谓增译,就是在译文中增加原文省略或原文中无其词而有其义的词语,使译文 既能准确地表达原文的含义,又更符合目的语的表达习惯和修辞需要.例如: A new kind of computer?small, cheap, fine?is attracting increasing attention. 一种新型的计算机越来越引起人们的注意?这种计算机体积小, 价钱低, 优. 性能 (增译名词) The next stage of space travel is a space station. 宇宙飞行的下一步是建立航天站.(增译动词) Speed and reliability are the chief advantages of the electronic computer. 速度快,可靠性高师电子计算机的主要优点.(增译形容词) Scientists believe that a way to improve the power of the brain may soon be possible. 科学家们深信,不久便有可能找到一种方法来改善大脑的功能.(增译副词) With the popularity of USB peripherals, it is believed USB interfaces would become a standard feature for monitors. 随着 USB 外部设备的普及,人们相信 USB 接口会成为显示器的标准部件.(增 译代词) Simple in principle, the experiment led to a scientific revolution with far-reaching consequences. 这个实验虽然原理简单,却导致了一场影响深远的科学革命.(增译量词) For reasons the alternating current is more widely used than the direct current. 由于种种原因,交流电比直流电用得更为广泛.(增译表示复数的名词) The advantages of the recently developed composite materials are energy saving, performance efficient, corrosion resistant, long service time, and without environmental pollution. 最新开发的复合材料具有节能,性能好,抗腐蚀,寿命长和无污染等五大优点. (增译概括性的词) Ice and water consist of the same substance in different forms. 冰和水由相同的物质构成,但形态不同.(增译连接词) Practice Mater can be changed into energy, and energy into mater.
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译:物质可以转化为能,能也可以转化为物质.(增补英语中省略的词) The best conductor has the least resistance and the poorest has the greatest. 译:最好的导体电阻最小,最差的导体电阻最大.(增补英语中省略的词) If A is equal to D, A plus B equals D plus B. 译:若 A=D,则 A+B=D+B(增加关联词) The first electronic computers used vacuum tubes and other components, and this made the equipment very large and bulky. 译:第一代电子计算机使用真空管和其他元件,这使得设备又大又笨.(增加表 示复数的词) Oxidation will make iron and steel rusty. 译:氧化作用会使钢铁生锈.(增加具有动作意义的抽象名词) The cost of such a power plant is a relatively small portion of the total cost of the development. 译:这样一个发电站的修建费用仅占该开发工程总费用的一小部分. (增加具有 动作意义的抽象名词) The resistance of the pipe to the flow of water through it depends upon the length of the pipe, the diameter of the pipe, and the feature of the inside walls (rough or smooth). 译:水管对通过的水流的阻力取决于下列三个因素:管道长度,管道直径,管道 内壁的特性(粗糙或光滑).(补充概括性的词) Heat from the sun stirs up the atmosphere, generating winds. 译:太阳发出的热能搅动大气,于是产生了风.(修辞加词,语气连贯) In general, all the metals are good conductors, with silver the best and copper the second. 译:一般来说,金属都是良导体,其中以银为最好,铜次之.(修辞加词,语气 连贯) High technology is providing visually and hearing impaired people with increased self-sufficiency. 译:高科技设备在不断增强视力和听力损伤者的自理能力. (增译了名词"设备 ",副词"不断") A computer is a device that takes in a series of electrical impulses representing information, combines them, sorts them, analyses and compares the information with that stored in the computer. 译:计算机是一种装置,该装置接受一系列含有信息的电脉冲,对这些脉冲进行 合并,整理,分析,并将它们与储存在机内的信息进行比较. This action externally appears like the discharge of a capacitor. 译:这一作用从外表上看来像电容器的放电现象. Once out of the earth's gravity, an astronaut is affected by still another problem?weightlessness. 译:一旦离开了地球的引力范围,宇航员又遇到了另一个问题?失重. Atomic cells are small and very light, as compared to ordinary dry ones. 译:和普通电池相比,原子电池体积小,重量轻. The largest and most expensive products cannot, because of their size, be testable in the factory.
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译:最大最贵的产品,因为体积大,在该厂里是不能检验的. It was estimated that the power of an average horse is equal to 500 feet-pounds per second. 译:据估计,一匹普通马的功率等于 500 英尺磅力每秒. Studies have shown that information can be communicated to people many times faster in a graphic form than in a written form. 译:众多研究表明,以图形表示的信息被人们接受的速度比以文字表示的快许多 倍. Radiant, electrical and chemical energies can all be turned into heat. 译:辐射能,电能和化学能这三种能均可转变为热能. There are a number of devices that give an electric current when light falls on them, without any chemical changes taking place. 译:有许多器件在受光照射时能产生电流,但不发生任何化学变化. Breeding of hummingbirds takes place in May and June. 译:蜂鸟生育繁殖的时间是每年的五月和六月. Scientists have discovered that the brain can make its own drugs. 科学家们业已发现,大脑能够制造它自己需要的药物. 减译 严格地说,翻译时不允许对原文的内容有任何删略,但由于英汉两种语言表达方 式的不同,按部就班地翻译反而会使译文晦涩难懂,为使译文通顺,准确地表达 原文的思想内容,有时需将一些词语省略不译. Much of the sunlight is absorbed by the oceans. 译:大部分阳光被海洋吸收.(省译了冠词) Non-linear computer-based video editing is now feasible for most home computer users. 译:大多数家用电脑用户均可进行非线性的视频编辑.(省译了介词) The melting point of a substance is the temperature at which the change of state from solid to liquid occurs. 译:物质的熔点就是从固态变为液态的温度.(省译了动词) Practice The world of work injury insurance is complex. 译:工伤保险是复杂的. (名词省译) A wire lengthens while it is heated. 译:金属丝受热则伸长. (代词省译) Stainless steels possess good hardness and high strength. 译:不锈钢硬度大,强度高. (动词省译) Practically all substances expand when heated and contract when cooled. 译:几乎所有的物质都是热胀冷缩的. (连词省译) Any substance is made of atoms whether it is a solid, a liquid, or a gas. 译:任何物质,不论是固体,液体或气体,都是由原子组成的. (冠词省译) In the absence of force, a body will either remain at rest, or continue to move with constant speed in a straight line.
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译:无外力作用,物体则保持静止状态,或作匀速直线运动. (介词省译) For the purpose of our discussion, let us neglect the friction. 译:为了便于讨论,我们将摩擦力忽略不计.(省译了名词 purpose) Little information is given about the origin of life. 译:关于生命起源方面的资料极少.(省译了动词 is given) They expressed their determination that they would try to repair the generator. 译:他们表示决心要尽全力修好这台发电机. The temperature in the combustion chamber was in excess of 2000℃ degrees. 译:燃烧室中的温度超过了 2000℃. 挥霍者和掠夺者们在慢慢地践踏着我们的土地, 破坏着我们的环境, 糟蹋着我们 的美丽的景色. Slowly the wasters and despoilers are impoverishing our land, our nature, and our beauty. 除了带着食物和毯子之外,他们还牵着骡子,扛着铁锹,带着淘金盘. Besides food and blanket, they had mules, picks and pans. 日益完善的由计算机控制的机器人正在进入工业领域,用来降低生产成本,缩短 生产时间,并且减少对劳动力的需求. Increasingly sophisticated computer-controlled robots are entering industry to cut down production costs, time and labor requirements. The rainbow as observed from a plane high up in the sky may assume the form of a complete circle. 在高空的飞机所观察到得彩虹,可能呈现出一个完整的圆圈形.
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