考研英语阅读理解模拟试题及解析( 考研英语阅读理解模拟试题及解析(一)
The majority of successful senior managers do not closely follow the classical rational model of first clarifying goals, assessing the problem, formulating options, estimating likelihoods of success, making a decision, and only then taking action to implement the decision. Rather, in their day-by-day tactical maneuvers, these senior executives rely on what is vaguely termed intuition to manage a network of interrelated problems that require them to deal with ambiguity, inconsistency, novelty, and surprise; and to integrate action into the process of thinking. Generations of writers on management have recognized that some practicing managers rely heavily on intuition. In general, however, such writers display a poor grasp of what intuition is. Some see it as the opposite of rationality;others view it as an excuse for capriciousness. Isenberg's recent research on the cognitive processes of senior managers reveals that managers' intuition is neither of these. Rather, senior managers use intuition in at least five distinct ways. First, they intuitively sense when a problem exists. Second, managers rely on intuition to perform well-learned behavior patterns rapidly. This intuition is not arbitrary or irrational, but is based on years of painstaking practice and hands-on experience that build skills. A third function of intuition is to synthesize isolated bits of data and practice into an integrated picture, often in an Aha! experience. Fourth, some managers use intuition as a check on the results of more rational analysis. Most senior executives are familiar with the formal decision analysis models and tools, and those who use such systematic methods for reaching decisions are occasionally leery of solutions suggested by these methods which run counter to their sense of the correct course of action. Finally, managers can use intuition to bypass in-depth analysis and move rapidly to engender a plausible solution. Used in this way, intuition is an almost instantaneous cognitive process in which a manager recognizes familiar patterns. One of the implications of the intuitive style of executive management is that thinking is inseparable from acting. Since managers often know what is right before they can analyze and explain it, they frequently act first and explain later. Analysis is inextricably tied to action in thinking/acting cycles, in which managers develop thoughts about their companies and organizations not by analyzing a problematic situation and then acting, but by acting and analyzing in close concert.
1/5 跨考北京总部:北京市海淀区中关村南大街银海大厦北区 2 层(友谊宾馆东门对面) 邮编 100081 全国咨询热线:010-62152270 VIP 咨询:010-62152690 13671151938 客服售后电话:010-62162907
跨校考研全程辅导专家 Given the great uncertainty of many of the management issues that they face, senior managers often instigate a course of action simply to learn more about an issue. They then use the results of the action to develop a more complete understanding of the issue. One implication of thinking/acting cycles is that action is often part of defining the problem, not just of implementing the solution.
  1. According to the text, senior managers use intuition in all of the following ways EXCEPT to [A] speed up of the creation of a solution to a problem. [B] identify a problem. [C] bring together disparate facts. [D] stipulate clear goals.
  2. The text suggests which of the following about the writers on management mentioned in line 1, paragraph 2? [A] They have criticized managers for not following the classical rational model of decision analysis. [B] They have not based their analyses on a sufficiently large sample of actual managers. [C] They have relied in drawing their conclusions on what managers say rather than on what managers do. [D] They have misunderstood how managers use intuition in making business decisions.
  3. It can be inferred from the text that which of the following would most probably be one major difference in behavior between Manager X, who uses intuition to reach decisions, and Manager Y, who uses only formal decision analysis? [A] Manager X analyzes first and then acts; Manager Y does not. [B] Manager X checks possible solutions to a problem by systematic analysis; Manager Y does not. [C] Manager X takes action in order to arrive at the solution to a problem; Manager Y does not.
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跨校考研全程辅导专家 [D] Manager Y draws on years of hands-on experience in creating a solution to a problem; Manager X does not.
  4. The text provides support for which of the following statements? [A] Managers who rely on intuition are more successful than those who rely on formal decision analysis. [B] Managers cannot justify their intuitive decisions. [C] Managers'' intuition works contrary to their rational and analytical skills. [D] Intuition enables managers to employ their practical experience more efficiently.
  5. Which of the following best describes the organization of the first paragraph of the text? [A] An assertion is made and a specific supporting example is given. [B] A conventional model is dismissed and an alternative introduced. [C] The results of recent research are introduced and summarized. [D] Two opposing points of view are presented and evaluated.
3/5 跨考北京总部:北京市海淀区中关村南大街银海大厦北区 2 层(友谊宾馆东门对面) 邮编 100081 全国咨询热线:010-62152270 VIP 咨询:010-62152690 13671151938 客服售后电话:010-62162907
跨校考研全程辅导专家 [答案与考点解析]
  1. 「答案」D 「考点解析」这是一道归纳推导题.本题题干中的 senior managers 暗示本 题的答案信息在第三段,因为第三段首句包含题干中的 senior managers.通过 仔细阅读和理解本段中所谈到的五点,我们可推导出本题的正确选项是选项 D. 本题选项 A,B,C 所涉及的内容分别在本段的第五点,第一点和第三点提到.考 生在解题时一定要学会认真归纳和总结原文所表达的每一层含义.
  2. 「答案」D 「考点解析」 这是一道句间关系题. 题干已将本题的答案信息圈定在第二段. 本段中的第二句是本题答案信息的最主要来源,通过阅读和理解此句,我们可推 导出本题的正确选项是 D.考生在解题时一定要适当理解上下句之间的关系.
  3. 「答案」C 「考点解析」 本题是一道审题定位题. 题干中的 who uses intuition to reach decisions 暗示本题的答案信息在第四段,因为第四段首句含有和题干中 who uses intuition to reach decisions 大致相同的 the intuitive style of executive management.通过仔细阅读和理解第四段的每一句话,我们可发现第 四段的第一句话都在强调 act(行动),可见本题的正确选项应该是强调行动的 选项 C.本题的答案信息来源是第四段的第二句话.考生在解题时一定要首先准 确地审题定位,然后要善于归纳和理解原文中的中心主旨信息.
  4. 「答案」D 「考点解析」本题是一道审题定位题.题干中并没有明确指出本题答案信息 在原文的准确位置.在这种情况下,考生往往迷失解题思路.在考生迷失解题思 路时一定要牢记全文中心主旨,并且抓住各段的核心句.本文的中心主旨句在第 一段的尾句.如果考生能够抓住第一段的尾句,并结合第三段的第四,五句,就可 以推导出本题的正确选项应该是 D.考生在解题时,尤其是在迷失解题思路时,一 定要首先抓全文的中心主旨句,同时还要抓一些明确表示启承转合关系的句子结 构.
  5. 「答案」B 「考点解析」本题是一道段落结构题.第一句话中的 do not 和第二句句首 的 rather 是破解本题的关键.抓住这两个关键就可以推导出本题的正确选项应 该是 B.考生在解题时一定要注意表示否定的词语以及表示启承转合的词语,更 要注意句子之间的相互关系. [参考译文]
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跨校考研全程辅导专家 大部分成功的高层管理人员并不拘泥于传统的推理模式,即: 首先确定目标, 然后估定问题,摆出各种可能性,估计成功率,再做决定,最后才付诸行动去实施. 相反,在这些人的日常决策过程中,他们靠一种定义模糊的直觉应付大量相关问 题,这些问题使他们必须在一堆含糊不清,自相矛盾,奇特无比或者令人惊异的事 物中做抉择,而且在考虑过程中就要有相应的行动. 管理学作品的写作者早就注意到了实践当中一些管理者对直觉依赖很强. 不 过总的来说,这些写作者未曾表达出什么叫做直觉.有些人将其视作理性的对立 面,还有人认为它是反复无常的(做法,性格)的一个借口. Isenberg 最近对高层管理人员认知过程的研究揭示了管理者的直觉并不是 上述的任何一种情况.高层管理者是在五个不同的方面使用直觉.首先,他们直 觉地感到有问题存在.第二,依靠直觉,管理者们能很快表现出有教养的行为方 式.这种直觉并不是任意,非理性的,而是在多年实践磨练,和亲身体验培养出的 技能的基础上形成.第三,直觉把一些零散的数据和实际情况组合为一个完整画 面,这经常表现为一声 Aha 式的体验. 第四,有些管理者也应用直觉来检验更理性 化分析的结果.大部分高层管理人员熟知传统的决策分析模式和工具,那些使用 这些正式的系统化方法做出决定的人经常会对一种情况保持警惕,那就是有时此 方法得出的结论和他们对正确行为的感觉不符.最后,管理者可通过直觉绕开深 奥的分析而快速产生一个可能的解决办法.这么使用时,直觉几乎是一个瞬间的 思维过程,这一模式为管理者所熟悉. 这些管理者用直觉方式的一个特点是思考和行动不能分开.由于(在这种方 式中)管理者在分析和解释问题之前就已经明白应该怎么去做,他们经常是先行 动,后解释.在思考?行动的循环中,分析是必不可少的.在这其中管理者们不是 靠分析他们面对的形势来思考其公司,组织的情况,而是行动和分析在高度一致 地进行. 由于管理者们经常面对许多不确定的情况,他们鼓励采取各种行动来对问题 作一番深入了解.他们藉此对问题做出更深的体会.这种思考行为循环的一个特 点即:行动是确定问题的一部分,而不只是解决问题的步骤.
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