How to Become A Good Speaker
KaiKai-Fu Lee Corporate Vice President Microsoft Corporation
Why Be a Good Speaker?
"The man who can think and does not know how to express
what he thinks is at the level of him who cannot think." Pericles
Not just "presentation", but also "persuasion" Get people's "mindshare" Influence a friend, colleague, or boss Tell people what you did, and why it matters
What You'll Learn Today:
Q&A Delivery Practice Talk Design Graphics Organize Story Develop Key Point Learn Speaking Skills
First Topic: Learn Speaking Skills
Q&A Delivery Practice Talk Design Graphics Organize Story Develop Key Point Learn Speaking Skills
Speaking Skills Are Important
"Without effective delivery,
a speech of the highest mental capacity can be held in no esteem. With effective delivery, even one with moderate abilities may surpass those of the highest talent." Cicero
What Are Speaking Skills?
7% 38% 55% Verbal Vocal Visual
(words spoken) (tone, range, appeal, credibility of voice) (physical appearance, gestures, eye contact)
Delivery Skills Can be learned
Most Important: Enthusiasm
"There is just one sure cure for bad speeches ? Get truly
excited on the subject, and 99 percent of the faults of your speaking will disappear." Robert Montgomery
Don't accept a talk without enthusiasm Could be from interest, experience, environment Example: Martin Luther King
I have a dream… that one day this nation will rise up; live out the true meaning to its creed. We hold these truths to be self-evident selfthat all men are created equal.
Not how loud, but how sincere
Verbal Skills ? Be Simple & Clear
Be simple and clear!
Don't ramble Stop to think if you need to Example one: Dan Quayle celebrates democracy Example two: Dan Quayle trying to say "A mind is a terrible thing to waste"
Verbal Skills ? Use simple words
Speaking is not like writing!!!
Use simple words Don't use complex sentences Can you understand this:
Text:
The development of this frightful means of destruction was ardently demanded by the perils of the time and situation. Simultaneously, however, a new paradoxical situation has been…. is upon us continually. One cannot defend oneself effectively any more. -- Albert Einstein
Vocal Skills : Play your voice
Project & resonate your voice No "UM"s and "ER"s. (Pause instead) Tools: silence, loudness, intonation, speed
"You are right. I am wrong." ? Stalin to Trotsky "Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country." -- John F. Kennedy "I welcome this kind of examination, because people have to know whether their president is a crook. crook. Well, I'm not a crook." -- Richard M. Nixon
Don't overdo it!!!
Vocal+Verbal : Words+Intonation
John Kennedy:
"You need to contribute to your country" "Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country".
Quayle vs. Benson Debate:
Quayle: "I have as much experience in the Congress as Jack Kennedy did when he sought the presidency." Answer 1: "Jack Kennedy is better than you." Answer 2: "Senator, I served with Jack Kennedy. I knew Jack Kennedy. Jack Kennedy was a friend of mine. Senator, you're no Jack Kennedy."
Visual Skills
US Election 1960 was won on visual skills
Components of Visual Skills:
Eyes Body Hands Face
Visual Skills ? Eyes
Look forward at audience (trust)
Don't shift eyeballs; don't look in corner
Don't look too much at computer screen or notes
Look at people's faces (not eyes)
3-6 seconds per person Shift randomly Nod, smile, use facial expression
Visual Skills ? Body
Stand up when talking Walk around = informal Don't:
Rock, shake Lean too much
Visual Skills ? Hands
Gesture complements talk
Should come naturally, without thinking Make sure they match!
Need to exaggerate a little
Especially with large audience
Don't fidget or put in pocket Videotape whole talk & watch
Can improve hand gesturing!
Visual Skills ? Face
Show emotion! Most of the time:
"I care a lot about this." "I really believe in this." "I love my work."
Sometimes (in response to questions).
"This is the most outrageous thing I've ever heard." "I will have nothing to do with this."
Next Topic: Develop the talk
Q&A Delivery Practice Talk Design Graphics Organize Story Develop Key Point Learn Speaking Skills
The Key Point: the Goal of the Talk
The ONE clear walk-away message. walkThe answer to the question: "How was the talk?" The one thing people remember in 3 months
The Origin Point
Persuasion
The Key Point
(Where you took them)
(Where the audience was)
Must Have Audience Benefit
Put audience needs at heart
"What's in it for you?"
Has to be their reason, not yours Must consider feeling, not just reaction Must have right "you"
Good phrases to know:
"This is important to you because…" "Why am I telling you this? Because…" "What does this mean for you? Let me tell you…"
Know your audience
Experience, knowledge, attitude
Next Topic:
Q&A Delivery Practice Talk Design Graphics Organize Story Develop Key Point Learn Speaking Skills
Organizing the Story
You're the salesman First lesson for salesmen:
Tell them what you're going to say
Opening
Say it
Body
Tell them what you said
Ending
The Opening
You never get a second chance to make a first impression Jerry Weissman
The opening
A question Factoid Anecdote Quotation Analogy Joke (make it relevant!)
Customize the opening Lead to the Key Point Give a (very short) outline/overview
The Body
Ready to write the slides? DON'T!!!
Brainstorming into data dump Connect the ideas into "main themes" Connect the teams using one logic flow
Data Dump & Main Themes
Remember in 3 months Key point "How was the talk? 3-step salesman Data dump Opening Joke Relevant Transitions Ending Opportunity / Leverage Feature Benefit Analogy Quote Repeat KP Audience feeling What's in it for you? Good phrases to use Audience benefit Right you
Everything a good idea brainstorming Research background Connect to main themes Clusters main themes Issue / Action Problem / Solution Flow Form / Function Chronological
The Flow
Possible flows:
Compare / Contrast Problem / Solution Feature / Benefit Spatial Numerical Chronological
(See "Presenting to Win" by Jerry Weissman for more examples)
Convincing logic & order Smooth transitions Keep repeating the Key Point!
The Ending
End with a BANG!
"Tonight, we are a country awakened to danger and called to defend freedom. Our grief has turned to anger, and anger to resolution. Whether we bring our enemies to justice or bring justice to our enemies, justice will be served." George W. Bush
Repeat the Key Point
"If you remember only one thing from this talk, then you should remember XXX"
Say thank you
Review of Organizing Your Story
Opening Key Point
Tell them what you're going to say
Body (Repeat Key Point)
Say it
Data Dump Main Themes
Flow Main Themes
Theme 1
Issue Action
Theme 2
Issue Action
Closing
Key Point
Tell them what you said
Next Topic:
Q&A Delivery Practice Talk Design Graphics Organize Story Develop Key Point Learn Speaking Skills
Design Graphics
PowerPoint only supports your talk
Spend more time on organization & delivery!
Design principles
Keep it simple Apply psychology Make it easy to follow Make it attractive Your titles should tell your story
Why "Keep It Simple"?
Aim to develop a consistent style, using the standard stylesheet whenever possible. One concept per slide. The font that is being used should be very large
to read small fonts.
24 point or larger. I will now use smaller fonts to prove to you that it is a major strain to your eyes The color of the font and the background should be in sharp contrast. If one is light, then the other should be dark. Otherwise it will be very hard to read.
The use of bullets should be simple. Too many bullets distracts the user from listening to you.
3 big sub-ideas (or bullets) is the most you should have. subThe entire slide should have fewer than 8 bullets and sub-bullets. subI will add a few more bullets to show this is not a good idea And one more And one more
Keep the language used simple, so that the user doesn't have to "think" to understand your point.
Each bullet should fit in one line, because the idea of a bullet is to line, convey idea, headline, and server as a reminder (or cue) for you to describe and amplify. Parallel wording means the bullets are roughly parallel, and contain similar grammatical constructs. This can save the user a lot of time trying to "understand" what you said.
Keep It Simple
Consistent look One concept per slide Readable
>20 point Avoid abbreviation Use shadow outline fonts Contrast font & background
Don't leave too much blank space
Keep It Simple : Bullets
Headline, not sentence
Reminder for you
Concise
<4 top-level bullets top<10 total bullets & sub-bullets sub-
Simple language
One line per bullet Parallel wording
What's wrong with this?
A good speech
Clear point Understands what audience wants Organization based on logic Powerful opening Ending that people remember
Instead, do this….
A good speech
Clear point Appealing audience benefit Logical flow Powerful opening Strong close
Apply Psychology to Design
Don't fight natural eye movements
Move left to right Return to upper left corner Sweep to lower right corner
Subliminal hints
Graphics to match your key point Anticipation
Requirement Fast speed Low cost Easy to use Our Solution
Apply Psychology to Design
Don't fight natural eye movements
Move left to right Return to upper left corner Sweep to lower right corner
Subliminal hints
Graphics to match your key point Anticipation Avoid bad signs
What's Wrong With This?
Great financial results -- Revenue reached $1,000,000 -- Growth passed 20% -- Profit exceeded $200,000
Instead, do this
Great financial results
Revenue reached $1,000,000 Growth passed 20% Profit exceeded $200,000
What's Wrong With This?
90 80 70 60
Revenue
50 40 30 20 10 0 Acme IBM Dell HP Acer
Instead, do this
90 80 70 60
Revenue
50 40 30 20 10 0 Acer HP Dell IBM Acme
Make it Easy to Follow
Use outline
Highlight upcoming section
Use builds
Remind where you are
General goal:
Don't make the audience think (Other than what you're saying)
Make It Attractive
20 hours on preparation 10 hours on practice Why not spend 1 hour on attractive design?
Instead of doing this…
Cost Satisfaction Productivity Revenue
Why not do this…
Instead of doing this…
Bill Gates
Brilliant Technologist
Steve Ballmer
Powerful Salesman
Steve Jobs
Passionate Evangelist
Lou Gerstner
Logical Businessman
Why not do this…
Bill Gates Steve Ballmer Steve Jobs Lou Gerstner Brilliant technologist Powerful salesman Passionate evangelist Logical Businessman
Your Titles Should Tell the Story
Conclusion Body & hands Apply psychology to design Giving a good answer Eyes Keep it simple Visual skills PowerPoint only supports talk Opportunity to amplify Words + intonation Design graphics Q&A Play your voice Enthusiasm Vocal skills: Simple & Clear Use simple words Verbal skills What are speaking skills?
Review of organizing story
Be yourself
Audience participation The flow Humor Data dump & main themes Overcoming nervousness The body The opening Organizing the story
Overcoming language barrier
The ending
Confidence & passion Delivery
Speaking skills are important Must have audience benefit
Rehearsing your delivery
Learn speaking skills Key point = Goal of the talk What you'll learn today
Why be a good speaker?
"The man who can think and does not
know how to express what he thinks is at the level of him who cannot think." Pericles Not just "presentation", but "persuasion" Influence a friend, colleague, or boss. Tell people what you did, and why it matters. Get people's "mindshare".
Practice your talk Make it attractive Make it easy to follow
Use outline Highlight upcoming section Use builds Remind where you are General goal: Don't make the audience think (Other than what you're saying)
Develop Key Point Face
Show emotion! Most of the time: "I care a lot about this." "I really believe in this." "I love my work." Sometimes (in response to questions). "This is the most outrageous thing I've ever heard." "I will have nothing to do with this."
Next Topic:
Q&A Delivery Practice Talk Design Graphics Organize Story Develop Key Point Learn Speaking Skills
Rehearsing Your Content
Prepare, prepare, prepare Customize the talk WithinWithin-talk references
Repeat key point Repeat main themes Repeat your company (university) name
Practice to use same word(s) per concept Practice transitions between slides
Rehearsing Your Delivery
Record & listen to every talk at least twice!
Best : PowerPoint features OK : Tape recorder
Get the timing right
Running out of time is a disaster
Practice to an audience or record video
Ask experienced speaker to critique Record video for critique
Next Topic:
Q&A Delivery Practice Talk Design Graphics Organize Story Develop Key Point Learn Speaking Skills
Delivering the Talk
Confidence & passion Overcoming language barrier Overcoming nervousness Humor Audience participation Be yourself
Confidence & Passion
Make sure you're not too tired:
Get enough sleep the previous night
Drink (up to) 3 cups of coffee!
No milk
Stand on left side of screen
Confidence & Passion
Make sure you're not too tired:
Get enough sleep the previous night
Drink (up to) 3 cups of coffee!
No milk
Stand on left side of screen During your ta
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