1. 现在进行时 现在进行时表示正在发生的动作。 Keep quiet! The baby is sleeping. (安静!娃娃在睡觉。) 现在进行时也表示即将发生的动作。 I'm tired. I'm going home now. Goodnight! (我累了。我要睡觉了。晚安!) Look! The bus is coming! (看,车来了!) My boss is leaving for South Korea. (我老板马上要去韩国。)
  2. 一般现在时 一般现在时表示真理或规律性的动作。 Rice doesn't grow in cold climates. (寒冷的气候不适于水稻生长。) I always go to work by car. (我总是开车上班。) 比较现在进行时与一般现在时:前者表示正在发生的动作,后者表示经常存在的状态。 I can't understand why he is being so selfish. He isn't usually like that. (我不明白他此刻怎么这么自私。他平时不这样。)
  3. 一般过去时 一般过去时是简单陈述过去发生的事情。 We invited them to our party but they decided not to come. (我们请了他们参加聚会,但他们决定不来。) I was angry because they were late. (我生气,因为他们迟了。)
  4. 过去进行时 过去进行时表示过去某个具体时刻正发生的动作。 I was walking home when I met Dave. (我碰到大卫时,我正往家走。) Tom burnt his hand when he was cooking. (汤姆做饭时烫了手。)
  5. 现在完成时 现在完成时表示:刚刚完成的动作;曾经有过的经验;重复发生的过去动作;过去动作或状 态延续至今或者强调过去动作对现在的影响。 I have just finished my work. (我刚刚完成我的工作。) I have never been abroad. (我没迈出过国门半步。)
I love this movie. I have seen it ten times. (我太喜欢这片子了!看了十遍了,我!) I'm hungry. I haven't eaten anything since yesterday. (我很饿了,昨天到现在都没吃过东西。) What a boring movie/film! It's the most boring movie/film I have ever seen. (这电影真没劲!是我看过最糟糕的电影。)
  6. 现在完成进行时 现在完成进行时表示从过去开始延续到说话时一直发生的动作。 How long have you been learning English? (你学英语有多久了?) 比较现在完成时与现在完成进行时 Mary is still writing letters. She's been writing letters all day. (马力还在写信,她写了一整天的信。) Mary has written ten letters today. (马力今天写了十封信。)
  7. 过去完成时 过去完成时表示过去的过去发生的动作。 At first I thought I'd done the right thing, but I soon realized that I'd made a mistake. (开始我以为我做对了,但是很快就发现自己犯了个错误。) The house was dirty. They hadn't cleaned it for weeks. (房子很脏,他们好几个星期没打扫了。)
  8. 过去完成进行时 过去完成进行时表示过去某事发生之前的一段时间内一直发生的动作。 I was very tired when I arrived home. I'd been working hard all day, (我到家时非常累。我一整天都在玩命地干!) Ken gave up smoking two years ago. He'd been smoking for thirty years (两年前肯戒了烟,之前他抽了三十年烟。)
  9. 将来时 一般将来时表示未来将要发生的动作。 Look at those black clouds. It's going to rain. (看那成堆的乌云,要下雨啦!) I think the weather will be nice later. (我想天气一会儿会好。) 过去将来时一般用于主句为过去时的宾语从句中。 He told me that he would give up his job. (他告诉我他要辞职。)
  10. 情态动词 情态动词不能单独作谓语, 只能与实意动词一起构成谓语。 shall, should, will, would, 有: can, could, may, might, must, dare, need, ought to, be able to, used to, 等。 We can see the lake from our bedroom window.
(从卧室的窗口可以看见那湖。) I was so tired. I could have slept for a week. (我累死了!我能蒙头睡上一星期。) Will you shut the door, please? (请你把门关上,好吗?) Whenever Arthur was angry, he would walk out of the room. (阿瑟生气时,就会出去。) Liz, can you do me a favor? (李兹,帮个忙吧?) Could I use your mobile phone? (能借用一下您的手机吗?) Where shall we go this evening? (今晚咱们去哪?) Should we invite Susan to the party? (要请苏三参加舞会吗?) You must keep it a secret. You mustn't tell anybody else. (你必须保密,谁都不能讲。) I am not sure whether I can lend you any money. I may not have enough. (我也不清楚能否借钱给你。我自己可能都不够。) You might have left it in the shop. (可能你把它落在店里了。) We've got plenty of time. We needn't hurry. (我们有大把时间,不急。) They dare not tell the truth. (他们不敢说实话。) I really ought to go and have my eyes tested. (我确实该去检查一下我的眼睛了。) You used to smoke 40 cigarettes a day. (他以前每天狂抽四十根烟。) Jack was an excellent tennis player. He was able to beat anybody. (竭克是个网球健将。他天下无敌。)
被动语态用于说明动作的承受者。 The situation is serious. Something must be done before it's too late. (形势危急。得及时采取措施。) How is this word pronounced? (这词儿怎么读?) Have you ever been bitten by a dog? (被狗咬过吗,你?) I don't like being told what to do. (我不喜欢别人来告诉我该干啥。)

  12. 间接引语 间接引语是转述别人的话。 一般由引述动词 say, tell, ask, declare, remark, reply, think, write 等引出。 Tom said that he was feeling ill. (汤姆说他不舒服。) He told me that he loves me. (他说过他爱我。) He asked me if he could go steady with me? (他问,能不能继续和我约会。)
  13. 疑问句与助动词 疑问句中,助动词位于主语之前。助动词本无词汇意义,不能单独作谓语,在句中它与实义 动词构成各种时态,语态和语气以及否定和疑问结构。 Do you live near here? (你住的离这儿近吗?) What can I do? (我能怎么办?) Can you tell me where I can find Linda? (你能告诉我在哪可以找到林大吗?) Do you know what time the film begins? (你知道电影何时开始?) Does your husband do any cooking at home? (你老公在家做不做饭?) Have you had any breakfast yet? (你吃过早餐了吗?) Susan hasn't been married, neither has Liz. (苏三没结婚,李兹也是。) You don't know where Karen is, do you? (你不知道卡轮在哪,是吧?) Keep quite, will you? (安静点,好吗?) Is there anything I can do for you? (我能为你做点什么吗?) Who died and made you king? (你算哪根葱?) What else is there to do? (还有什么事好干?) Which person do you think is qualified for the job? (你认为哪一个人能胜任这份工作?) Where are you from? (你从哪儿来的?) When will the train leave? (火车什么时候开?) How do you go to work everyday?
(你每天怎么上班?) Why do you keep asking me the same question? (你怎么又问我同样的问题?) How long did it take you to accomplish this complicated job? (你花了多久才作完这复杂的活儿?) How soon will it be when your brother discovers you've been dating his girlfriend?
  14.动词的-ing 形式与不定式 After watching the red-dressed women walk by, I went to the rooftop and watched workers weave wastebaskets. (看那群红衣女郎走过,我爬上屋顶看工人们编垃圾筐。 ) Look, the falling leaves are all yellow. Lots of fallen leaves make the road yellow. (看那飘零的落叶,都是黄色的,黄色的落叶铺满的路面。) The secretary worked late into the night, preparing a long speech for the president. (秘书工作到深夜,为总统准备发言稿。) Given more attention, the trees could have grown better. (如果悉心照料,树会长的更好。) When he was decorating his house, he had gotten the bedroom painted first. (他装修房子时,先刷了卧室。) She doesn't approve gambling. (她反对赌博。) Please forgive me for not writing to you. (原谅我没有写信给你。) It's no good trying to persuade me. You won't succeed. (劝我没用。你不会成功的。) It's a waste of time reading that book. It's rubbish. (看那本书真是浪费时间。那简直是垃圾。) Why don't you come swimming with us? (你干嘛不和我们一起游泳呢?) To see is to believe. (百闻不如一见。) To finish so much work in a day is impossible. (一天之内干完这么多事是不可能的。) It is important for us to express our opinions. (对我们来说,表达我们的意愿很重要。) Not to grasp firmly is not to grasp at all. (抓而不紧等于不抓。) My wish is to be a first-class interpreter (我的愿望是作一流的口译。) We found it difficult to work with him. (我们发现和他共事很难。) He has no choice but to wait. (除了等待,他别无选择.) Mr. Huawei always has a lot of meetings to attend. (华威先生总有开不完的会。)
She has no money and no place to live. (她没钱,也没地方住。) To be or not to be, that's the question. (生存亦或死亡, 是问题所在。) To serve the people well, I study hard. (为了更好的服务于人民,我好好学习。) He was so angry as to be unable to speak. (他气的连话都说不出来了。) After that day they were separated, never to see each other again. (那日一别,他们再没重逢。) You are never too old to learn. (活到老,学到老。) He made up his mind to once again ask for her hand in marriage. (他下决心再一次向他求婚。)
  15. 冠词与名词 冠词是置于名词之前,说明名词所表示的人或事物的一种虚词。冠词也可以说是名词的一种 标志,它不能离开名词而单独存在。一般来讲,定冠词表示特指,不定冠词表示泛指。某些 情况用零冠词。 An apple a day keeps the doctor away. (一天一苹果,医生远离我。 ) Lake Baikal is the deepest of all the lakes in the world. (贝加儿湖是世界上最深的湖泊。) Members of the press weren't allowed into the meeting. (新闻记者不得进入会场。) The Macdonalds finished supper at Macdonald's, and then bowled at the bowling alley. (麦可糖那一家在麦当劳吃过晚饭后去球馆打保龄。) After you visit your mom in the hospital, call me so we can meet at the movies. (在医院看过你妈妈之后,给我打电话,我们在电影院碰面。) The Shaws naturally were a musical family. (肖氏一家天生爱好音乐。) He was a sleek, short man with a bright bald-head, pink face, and gold-rimmed glasses. (他身材矮小,穿着时髦,头光秃,面粉红,戴一副金丝边眼镜。) 名词是表示人,事物和抽象概念的词。 The beautiful are envied by the ugly. (美人总为丑陋者所嫉妒。) The are no batteries in the radio. (收音机里没电池。) There was no electricity in my dorm last night. (昨晚我宿舍没电。) There's a hair in my soup. (我的汤里有根头发。) You've got very long hair.
(你的头发很长。) He lives in a two-room apartment. (他住在一套两房公寓里。)
  16.代词与限定词。 代词是代替名词以及起名词作用的短语、分句和句子的词。一般词义很弱,必须从上下文确 定,同时有两种功用:取代名词或作修饰语。 I don't want to share a room with anybody. I want my own room. (我不想和任何同住,我想要自己住。) The film itself wasn't good but I liked the music. (电影本身不怎么样,但音乐还不错。) Nobody phoned me, did they? (没人来电话,对吧?) He speaks little Chinese, so it's difficult to communicate with him. (他只能讲一点汉语,所以和他交流很难。) How I wish all the money were mine! (我多希望这些钱都是我的。)
  17.关系从句 关系从句包括:主语从句,表语从句,宾语从句,定语从句,同位语从句以及状语从句。通 常由以下连词连接:Who, what, that, which, whose, whom, where, when, why, and how. What you have just said does hurt him. (你刚才说的话真伤他的心了。) This is just what I wanted. (这正是我想要的。) He suggested that we find a better job. (他建议我们找个好点的工作。) The woman who lives next door is a doctor. (隔壁住着的那个女人是医生。) I don't like stories that / which have unhappy endings. (我不喜欢结尾不是大团圆的故事。) Everything that happened was my fault. (所有的事都是我的错。)
The news that NATO bombed the China Embassy in Yugoslavia offended all Chinese people. (北约轰炸中国南斯拉夫大使馆的消息激怒了每一个中国人,) The news that the leader will come here is not true. (头儿要来的消息不可靠。) Whenever I visit him, he is not at home. (不管我什么时候去找他,他都不在家。) Where there is a will, there is a way. (有志者事竟成。) Wherever there is smoke, there is fire. (无风不起浪。)
I have had so many falls that I am black and blue all over. (我摔了好几跤,全身又青又紫。) Though he is young, he knows a lot. (尽管小,他懂得多。)
  18.形容词与副词 形容词修饰名词或代词,副词修饰动词或形容词。两种词都有原级,比较级和最高级。 She was not especially pretty. But she was extr



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